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Full text of "Wiltshire archaeological and natural history magazine"

5. a'. 



THE 



WILTSHIRE 

itrjitwlngirnl nnit Untal listnrg 



MAGAZINE 



FORMED IN THAT COUNTY, A.D. 1853. 

Edited by Rev. E. H. Goddard, Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 
VOL. XXXVIII. 

1913—1914. 




DEVIZES : 
C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 



December, 1914. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. XXXVIII. 



No. CXIX. JUNE, 1913. 

The Re-Erection of Two Fallen Stones, and Discovery of an Interment 

with Drinking Cup, at Avebury : By Mes. M. E. Cunnington 1 

A Buried Stone in the Kennet Avenue : By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington 12 

Wiltshire Pardons or Indulgences : By Canon Che. Wordsworth 15 
Notes as to Names and Landmarks in Marlborough : By E. Ll. 

Gwillim . . 34 

Prehistoric and Roman Swindon : By A. D. Passmore 41 

Tropenell Memoranda — Cottels 48 

Casterley Camp Excavations; By Mr. & Mrs. B. H. Cunnington 53 

Notes 106 

Wilts Obituary 116 

Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c 1 24 

Books and Articles by Wiltshire Authors 140 

Wiltshire Portraits 142 

Wiltshire Illustrations 144 

Additions to Museum and Library 148 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1912 150 



No. CXX December, 1913. 

A List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities in the 
County of Wilts Arranged under Parishes : By The Rev. E. H. 

GODDARD 153 



No. CXXI. June, 1914. 

List of the Long Barrows of Wiltshire : By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington 379 
The Church of S. John the Baptist and S. Helen, Wroughton : By 

C. E. Ponting, F.S.A 415 

Sir William Sharington's Work at Lacock, Sudeley, and Dudley ; 

By the Rev. W. G. Clark-Maxwell, F.S.A 426 

The Sixtieth General Meeting at Devizes 435 

Malmesbury Abbey : By Harold Brakspear, F.S.A ,. 458 

Wilts Obituary 498 

Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c 511 

Book and Articles by Wiltshire Authors 532 

Wiltshire Portraits '. 535 

Wiltshire Illustrations 537 

Additions to Museum and Library 540 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1913 543 



IV. CONTENTS OF VOL. XXXVIII. 

No. CXXII. December, 1914. 

The Sixty-First General Meeting at Devizes 545 

List of Altars in Salisbury Cathedral and Names of Kings of whom 

there were representations there about the Year 1398 : By Chr. 

Wordsworth, M.A., Sub-Dean 557 

List of Wiltshiremen Extracted from the Minute Books of the 

Company of Weavers of London. 1653—1674 : By F. R. Y. 

Radoliffe, K.C 572 

Liddington Castle Camp : By A. D. Passmore 576 

On some Bronze Age Pottery of " Food Vessel " Type : By A. D. 

Passmore 585 

Copy of a MS. in the Possession of Sir Walter Grove, Baronet, to 

which is prefixed a copy of a Lay Subsidy, preserved in Public 

Record Office 589 

Notes < 631 

Wilts Obituary .* 647 

Additions to Museum and Library 649 

Index to Vol. XXXVIII 651 



Illustrations. 

Raising the fallen stone at Longstone Cove, Beckhampton, 1913, 1. Section 
across the middle of the hole in which the stone stood, showing the 
relative position of the burial, 3. " Drinking Cup," or " Beaker," found 
with skeleton at foot of stone, 5. Drinking Cups found at Swindon, 42. 
Objects from Casterley Camp, and Plans of the Camp, Plates I.— XV, 96. 
Section through Dwelling-Pit on Winterbourne Monkton Down, 108. 
Vessels found in Dwelling-Pit on Winterbourne Monkton Down, 108. 
Section through Terrace below the Eeservoir on Winterbourne Monkton 
Down, 109. Objects recently found, 111. Boman Sculpture recently 
found at Nettleton Scrub, 113. 

Wroughton Church, Figs. 1—6, 418. Lacock Abbey, Sudeley and Dudley 
Castles, Figs. 1— 10, 426. Folding Plan of Malmesbury Abbey and 
Precincts, 458. Malmesbury Abbey, Figs. 1 — 26, 458. 

Axe Head of Sarsen, 579. Pottery and Objects from Liddington Castle 
Camp, Plates I. — IV, 584. Vessel from the West Woods, Overton, 585. 
Pottery from the interment at Smeeth Ridge, Ogbourne St. Andrew, 588. 



y ■ 



No. CXIX. JUNE, 1913 Vol, XXXVIII. 



THE 

WILTSHIRE 

Irrjjrcologiral anit Hiitunil iistnrn 

MAGAZINE, 

Publtgljeti u'ntter tt)e SHrrrtiou 

OF THE 

SOCIETY FORMED IN THAT COUNTY, 
A.D. 185 3. 



EDITED BT 

REV. E. H. GODDARD, Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 




DEVIZES : 

Printed and sold foe the Society by C. H. Woodward, 

Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 

Price 5s. 6d. Members, Gratis. 



NOTICE TO MEMBERS. 

TAKE NOTICE, that a copious Index for the preceding eight 
volumes of the Magazine will he found at the end of Vols, 
viii., xvi., xxiv., and xxxii. The subsequent Volumes are 
each indexed separately. 

Members who have not paid their Subscriptions to the Society for 
the current year, are requested to remit the same forthwith to 
the Financial Secretary, Mr. David Owen, Bank Chambers, 
Devizes, to whom also all communications as to the supply 
of Magazines should be addressed. 

The Numbers of this Magazine will be delivered gratis, as issued, 
to Members who are not in arrear of their Annual Subscrip- 
tions, but in accordance witli Byelaw No. 8 " The Financial 
Secretary shall give notice to Members in arrear, and the 
Society's publications will not be forwarded to Members whose 
Subscriptions shall remain unpaid after such notice/' 

All other communications to be addressed to the Honorary Secre- 
tary : the Rev. E. H. Goddakd, Clyl'fe Vicarage, Swindon. 



THE SOCIETY'S PUBLICATIONS. 

To be obtained of Mr. D. OWEN, Bank Chambers, Devizes. 

THE BRITISH AND ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF THE NORTH 
WILTSHIRE DOWNS, by the Rev. A. C. Smith, M.A. One Volume, Atlas 
4to., 248 pp., 17 large Maps, and 110 Woodcuts, Extra Cloth. Price £2 2s. 
One copy offered to each Member of the Society at £1 1 Is. fid. 

THE FLOWERING PLANTS OF WILTSHIRE. One Volume, 8vo, 
504 pp., with Map, Cloth. By the Rev. T. A. Preston, M.A. Price to the 
Public, 16s. ; but one copy offered to every Member of the Society at half-price. 

CATALOGUE of the STOURHEAD COLLECTION of ANTIQUITIES 
in the SOCIETY'S MUSEUM, with 175 Illustrations. Part I. Price Is. 6d. 

CATALOGUE of ANTIQUITIES in the SOCIETY'S MUSEUM. 
Part II. 1911. Fully illustrated. Price 2s. 

CATALOGUE of the SOCIETY'S LIBRARY at the MUSEUM, 
Price Is. APPENDIX No. I., II., and III., 3d. each. 

CATALOGUE of DRAWINGS, PRINTS, and Maps, in the SOCIETY'S 
LIBRARY at the MUSEUM. Price Is. 6d. 

CATALOGUE of WILTSHIRE TRADE TOKENS in the SOCIETY'S 
COLLECTION. Price 6d. 

BACK NUMBERS of the MAGAZINE. Price to the Public, 5s. 6d. and 
3s. 6d. (except in the case of a few numbers, the price of which is raised). 
Members are allowed a reduction of 25 per cent, from these prices. 



WILTSHIRE 

3rrl)tiHihigiritl anil luteal iistoitj 

MAGAZINE. 



No. CXIX. JUNE, 1913. Vol. XXXVIII. 



Contents. page 

The Re-Erection of Two Fallen Stones, and Discovery of 

an Interment with Drinking Cup, at Avebury : By Mrs. 

M. E. Cunnington 1 

A Buried Stone in the Kennet Avenue : By Mrs. M. E. 

Cunnington 12 

Wiltshire Pardons or Indulgences : By Canon Chr. Wordsworth 15 
Notes as to Names and Landmarks in Marlborough : By 

E. Ll. Gwillim 34 

Prehistoric and Roman Swindon: By A. D. Passmore 41 

Tropenell Memoranda — Cottels 48 

Casterley Camp Excavations : By Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington 53 

Notes 106 

Wilts Obituary ... 116 

Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, kc 124 

Books and Articles by Wiltshire Authors 140 

Wiltshire Portraits 142 

Wiltshire Illustrations 144 

Additions to Museum and Library 148 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1912 140 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Raising the fallen stone at Longstone Cove, Beck- 
hampton, 1913 1 

Section across the middle of the hole in which the 

stone stood, showing the relative position of the 

burial 3 

" Drinking Cup," or " Beaker," found with skeleton 

at foot of stone .'. 5 

Drinking Cups found at Swindon 42 

Plates I. — XV. — Objects from Casterley Camp, and 

Plans of the Camp 96 

Section through Dwelling- Pit on Winterbourne 

Monkton Down 108 

Vessels found in Dwelling Pit on Winterbourne 

Monkton Down ; 108 

Section through Terrace below the Reservoir on 

Winterbourne Moukton Down 109 

Objects recently found Ill 

Roman Sculpture recently found at Nettleton Scrub 113 

DEVIZES : C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 





• ■ 



Raising the fallen stone at Longstone Cove, Beckham pton, 1913. 

(From fhotografhs by My. Passmoie and Captain Oakeley.) 



THE 



WILTSHIRE MAGAZINE. 



" MULTOEDM MANIBUS GRANDE LEVATUE ONUS." — Ollid. 

June, 1915. 

THE RE-ERECTION OF TWO FALLEN STONES, AND 
AND DISCOVERY OF AN INTERMENT WITH 
DRINKING CUP, AT AVE BURY. 1 
By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 
Between 8 and 9 o'clock on the morning of December 2nd, 1911, 
one of the standing stones at Avebury fell. The stone is one of 
the two remaining stones of the three which are believed to have 
once formed a kind of cell, or cove, on the northern side of the 
Beckhampton, or western avenue, that issued from the great circle 
of Avebury. The third stone fell and was broken up many years 
ago. The group was known as "Longstone Cove," or the "Long- 
stones," but the two remaining stones are now sometimes spoken 
of locally as " Adam and Eve." The cove is described by Stukeley 2 

1 These notes, so far as they relate to the discovery of the skeleton and 
drinking cup, were printed in Man, Vol. xii., No. 12, Dec, 1912, pp. 200 — 
203, and the Society is indebted to the Council of the Royal Anthropological 
Institute for the loan of the two blocks ■which illustrate the paper. 

2 The Rev. W. C. Lukis, in a report on Stonehenge and Abury, printed 
in Proc. Soc. Ant., IX., 131, says (p. 155) of the Longtones Cove, "Stukeley 
says this cove is ' composed of three stones like that most magnificent one 
we described in the centre of the northern temple at Abury. They are set 
upon the arc of a circle regarding each other, with an obtuse angle,' and are 
placed on the north side of the avenue, one of the stones of that side making 
the back of the Cove. . . . Twining saw two stones only in 1723, 
therefore Stukeley saw no more ; and his knowledge of a third stone must be 
derived from Aubrey, whose sketch given in his ' Monumenta Britannica ' 
shows how unfaithful his drawings are as to the form and position of the 
stones. It is altogether an assumption on Stukeley's part that one of the 
stones of the Cove was one of the supposed avenue. . . . My own opinion 
is that these stones are the remains of a large circle— a monument entirely 
distinct from Avebury." 

VOL. XXXVIII. — NO. CXIX. B 



2 The Re-erection of Two Fallen Stones at Avebury. 

as consisting of two stones set at an angle to each other outside the 
avenue, the other stone that Stukeley regarded as the third member 
of the cove group, being at the same time one of the stones of the 
avenue. This latter stone is the smaller of the two now remaining, 
known as "Eve"; the larger one, "Adam," which fell in 1911, 
being one of the two original outstanding stones of the cove. 

The stones are visible from the road leading from Avebury to 
Beckhampton, and stand just beyond the end of the private road 
leading out of that road on the right hand, to Mr. Darling's stables, 
just as the road dips down into Beckhampton. 

At a committee meeting of the Society held in January, 1912, 
it was decided that an effort should be made to raise funds to re- 
erect this stone, this being considered advisable largely on the 
ground that a standing stone is more likely to be respected and 
safeguarded than one fallen. 

Before anything else could be done it was necessary to clear out 
the hole in which the stone had stood, as it was encumbered with 
sarsen boulders, which had been originally used as packing to 
support the great stone, and loose soil which had found its way 
into the cavity when the stone fell. In case anything of archae- 
ological interest might be found in this digging, Mr. and Mrs. B. H. 
Cunnington were entrusted with the supervision of the work, which 
was done with the aid of two labourers on May 24th and 26th, 
1912. 

When cleared the hole was found to measure 13^ ft. in length, 
in a direction from East-South-East to West-North-West. The 
hole widened out somewhat at its East end, its greatest width 
being 6£ft., while it was 6ft. wide in the middle, and only 4|ft. 
wide at the West end : it was 3ft. Sin. deep, measured to the surface 
level, and as the soil at this spot was 15in. deep, the stone had 
stood only 2ft. Sin. in the solid chalk. The stone had been packed 
round with about one hundred and fifty sarsen boulders of various 
sizes, some of them weighing by computation more than a hundred- 
weight. It is remarkable that some of the flatter boulders had 
been laid purposely on the floor of the hole prepared to receive the 
stone. A large piece had split off the bottom of the stone and was 



By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 3 

found resting against the southern wall of the hole with packing 
boulders behind it ; this piece of stone was itself broken across, and 
fell into two pieces on being moved. It is difficult to see why the 
stone should have cracked after its burial in the ground, and it is 
perhaps possible that it was actually cracked before ; if, on the 
other hand it could have broken in the ground comparatively 
recently, this may have caused the final collapse of the stone. 
Most of the packing boulders were found at the easterly and wider 
end of the hole, the natural irregularity in the shape of the stone 
requiring a greater amount of packing on that side to give it a 
firm support, 

A discovery that has an important bearing on the date of the 
erection of the stone, and therefore presumably on the date of the 
monument of Avebury as a whole, was made in removing the soil 
in front of the hole preparatory to clearing it out. The discovery 
was that of the remains of a human skeleton and fragments of a 
" drinking cup," or " beaker," close to and immediately in front of 
the hole in which the stone had stood. The section here given 




/-:-------:<£-'.c 

' F . '' '■ ( - ' < \ ( 

I I. I J < /• f ' 

■ —____-_—- '■ f ■■'■ I !• '• i. v f ( ' 

* f i ( i- f < »■ i ( , < ,. y ( <■ t- i — > 

Section across the middle of the hole in which the stone stood, 

showing the relative position of the burial. A A the area 

of the -burial; B top of chalk; C soil. 

shows how very near the burial must have been to the side of the 
stone when standing ; this section, drawn through the centre of the 
hole, at right angles to its length, cuts as nearly as it was possible 
to ascertain, through the middle of the burial, showing that it was 
placed in the centre of this face of the stone. Presuming that the 
three stones of the cove originally formed a sort of triangular en- 
closure this face of the stone would have been the inner one. 

B 2 



4 The Re-erection of Two Fallen Stones at Avehury. 

The body had been laid on the level surface of the undisturbed 
chalk, without the slightest depression or hollow having been made 
to receive it. The bones were found to have been disturbed and 
broken in the ground, so that it was not possible to ascertain 
accurately the original position of the skeleton beyond the fact 
that it was crouched, and with its head to the East. Nor was it 
possible to say what had been the original position of the drinking 
cup. The soil and rubble at this spot is 15in. deep, so that the 
burial must have been a very shallow one, unless, as is not im- 
possible, there was originally a slight mound banked up against 
the stone, that had been levelled by cultivation. 

It seems that cultivation is quite enough to account for the 
broken and disturbed state in which the burial was found ; 
labourers on the spot stated that as it is not possible to plough 
quite up to the sides of the stones, the ground immediately round 
them is often dug over by hand, and this would account for dis- 
turbance of the soil at a greater depth than that of ordinary 
ploughing. 

It is now generally recognised that the " drinking cup " type of 
pottery belongs to the transition from the Neolithic, or to the 
earliest Bronze Age, in England, and as there can be little doubt 
that the burial was made at the foot of the stone after its erection, 
the importance of the discovery with regard to the date of the 
monument is considerable. If this is accepted, it shows that this 
stone, and therefore presumably the whole monument of Avebury, 
must have been standing at least as early as the beginning of the 
Bronze Age in England. 

The "drinking cup," of which fragments were found with the 
bones, was a well-made and well-decorated example of its type, 
namely, the " ovoid cup with recurved rim," and must have stood 
not less than 8in. in height. The ware is thin, and baked to a 
bright red both inside and out, showing the grey paste in the 
middle; the paste is fine and sparingly mixed with sand. The 
vessel was decorated from lim to base with a series of horizontal 
lines, alternating with rows of herring-bone pattern, and bands of 
the plain tooled surface. The horizontal lines, and the lines 



By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. I 

forming the herring-bone pattern, have the appearance of having 
been impressed by a notched or serrated tool, as is so often th( 
case on this type of vessel. 




" Drinking Cup," or " Beaker," found with skeleton at foot of stone. \ 

When the stone fell a considerable quantity of loose soil slipped 
into the cavity among the packing stones, some of which were 
loosened at the same time. A piece of the rim of the cup, together 
with a small fragment of Samian ware, and pieces of a modern 
glass bottle, were found in this loose earth. 

A fragment of the rim of another decorated " drinking cup " was 
found 2ft. deep among undisturbed packing boulders against the 
wall of the hole on the opposite side to the burial. A phalange 
of a sheep or goat and a splinter of bone were found under a flat 
[boulder lying undisturbed on the floor of the hole. Several frag- 
ments of pottery that may be Eomano-British (the small piece of 



6 The Re-erection of Two Fallen Stones at Avebnry. 

Samian ware found makes this the more likely) were found in the 
surface soil round the hole. 

The bones of the skeleton are unfortunately too incomplete to 
allow of measurement, but the individual to whom they belonged 
seems to have been of medium size, and of about middle age. A 
piece of the collar bone is stained green as if from contact witli 
some small object of bronze, but no fragment of the metal could 
be found. The fragments of the drinking cup, together with the re- 
mains of the skeleton.are placed in the Society's Museum at Devizes. 

On behalf of the Committee of the Society, Mr. C. E. Pouting, 
of Marlborough, and Mr. B. H. Cunnington, of Devizes, undertook 
the genera] supervision of the erection of the stones, Messrs. W. E. 
Chivers & Sons, of Devizes, being the contractors employed. The 
Society is indebted to the Great Western Railway Company for 
ttie loan of three jacks (two of 40 tons strength and one of 50 tons) 
from their works at Swindon, for use in raising the stones. 

The plan at first adopted for the Cove stone was that of raising 
it up by means of the jacks to a certain height, and then affixing 
wire ropes round the stone to pull it upright by means of two 
traction engines. 1 This plan was found not to be satisfactory, the 
only result being the breaking of the wire ropes, tested to a strain 
of 50 tons, without moving the stone at all. Accordingly the 
stone was eventually raised to the perpendicular by the jacks 
alone, being supported as the work proceeded, by a shoring of 
timber and a system of wedges ; this method, though slower and 
consequently more costly, being much more sure and safe. 

The actual work of raising the stone, the weight of which, as 
computed by measurement, was estimated at 62 tons, was begun 
on July 9th, and it was finally got upright on August 3rd, 1912, 
the work having been somewhat delayed by the wet weather. 

The stone now rests on a bed of concrete 1ft. thick, the hole 

having been lowered to take it, and it is also embedded in concrete 

to the level of the surrounding chalk; it stands Sin. deeper in the 

ground than it did before its fall. 

1 Three photographs appeared in The Sphere of July 27th, 1912, entitled 
* Adam after the Fall," " Raising Adam with Jacks," and " An unsuccessful 
attempt to raise the fallen Monster." 



By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 7 

The society is greatly indebted to Mr. George Brown, of 
Beckhampton, on whoRe land the stone stands, for his permission 
to raise it, and for the kindness and forbearance with which he 
accepted the inconvenience attendant on the operation. The 
length of time that the work was about, the trampling of visitois 
and others through the hedge and the serious interruption to the 
farming of the land, made no slight call on his patience and good 
nature. The Society are also grateful to Mr. Brown for his in- 
tention not to disturb or cultivate the ground immediately round 
the stone in the future. 



THE KENNET AVENUE STONE. 

While the work of raising the big stone at Longstone Cove was 
in preparation, it was suggested that, while the necessary apparatus 
was on the ground, it would be a good opportunity to raise 
the stone in the Kennet avenue that fell cir. 1889 (?), and this 
course was ultimately decided upon at a committee meeting of the 
Society in July, 1912. This stone is the third from the Avebury 
end of the line of seven stones on the east side of the avenue, in 
the group of eleven stones lying west of the road between Avebury 
and Kennet and is opposite to the only one of the group which still 
remained standing. The ground has been under the plough within 
the last few years, and the cavity made by the fall of the stone had 
been filled up and levelled off. On re-excavating this it was found 
that the hole as originally made to receive the stone was not so well 
defined as in the. case of that at Longstone Cove, where it had been 
dug into the solid chalk, for the base of the Kennet stone stood on a 
bed of chalk rubble at a depth of only 16in. below the surface. It 
was felt that there could be no certainty that this rubble had not 
been disturbed, and in view of the possibility of an interment having 
been made under the stone, the digging .was continued down until 
the solid chalk was reached at a depth of 4ft. Gin. from the surface. 
The depth of the rubble over the chalk varies considerably even in a 
small area, but as this seemed a greater depth than is usual, a hole 
was dug some yards away from thestone to test it there/and the same 



8 The Re-ercction of Two Fallen Stones at Avebury. 

conditions were found. The spot is at the bottom of the steepish 
hillside in the valley leading from Avebury to Kennet, a situation 
where, perhaps, a greater accumulation of debris might be expected 
than on more open or higher chalk lands. 

The stone had fallen inwards, or across the avenue, and toward 
the upward slope of the hill; the natural irregularity in the shape 
of the stone had given it a considerable tendency to overbalance 
in this direction, and it was interesting to find that those who 
originally put it up must have fully realised this weakness, for 
they had taken special precautions to overcome it, and all the 
sarsen boulders used as packing stones were on that side, not one 
being found against the lower side of the stone. Besides a few 
flint flakes nothing of interest was found in the digging round 
this stone. 

The thanks of the Society are due to Captain Jenner, of Avebury 
Manor, the owner of the property on which this part of the Kennet 
avenue stands, for permission to raise the stone, and to Mr. 
Parsons, the tenant, for granting access to it. 

The computed weight, from measurements, is about 17 tons. 

As soon as the jacks were finished with at the Cove stone, they 
and the necessary timber were moved over to the stone in the 
Kennet avenue. 

The work of raising this stone was begun with the jacks on 
August 6th, and it was raised to the upright on August 10th, 
The stone now stands 3in. deeper than it did originally, but 
otherwise in the same position. It is imbedded in concrete in the 
same manner as the larger stone. 

List of Donations to the Fund for setting up the two fallen Stones. 

[These sums were received in answer to an appeal from the Hon. Secretary, 
published in The Times and the County Papers, and in response to 
further personal appeals.] 



Marlborough College 

Nat. Hist. Society 
W. Heward Bell 
Society of Antiquaries 
R. H. Caird 



£ s. d. 



10 








10 








5 


5 





5 









G. P. Fuller 

Marquis of Lansdowne 

Basil Peto, M.P. 

Ld. Fitzmaurice 

Sir G- Prior Goldney 



£ 


s. 


d. 


5 








5 








5 








3 


3 





3 









By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 





£ s. 


d. 


Ld. Avebury 


2 2 





E. S: Wills 


2 2 





Capt. W. Godsal 


2 





J. Walmesley 


2 





E. Whitney 


2 





E. C. Beaven 


1 1 





Sir Vincent Caillard 


1 1 





Col. Hornsby Drake 


I 1 





F. P. Goddard 


1 1 





F. H. Goldney 


1 1 





A. Grant-Meek 


1 1 





R. S. Gundry 


1 1 





llev. G. R. Hadow 


1 1 





J. M. Harris 


1 1 





Rev. J. H. Hill 


1 1 





T. Lavington 


1 1 





W. F. Lawrence 


1 1 





H. Leaf 


1 L 





L. L. Morse 


1 1 





Miss Bouverie 


1 





A. M. Dunne 


1 





U. G. Gwatkin 


1 





Rev. the Hon. Sidney 






Meade 


1 





R. W. Merriman 


1 





Capt. Oakeley 


1 





E. Cook 


10 


6 


Mrs. B. H. Cunnington 


10 


6 


Rev. E. H. Goddard 


10 


6 


T. Holloway 


10 


6 



W. H. St. John Hope 

Mrs.W. H. St. John Hope 

H. V. Reade 

C. S. Awdry 

Major H. H. Dowding 

R. F. Fuller 

C. H. St. J. Hornby 

Mrs. E. H. Goddard 

H. E. Medlicott 

E. Pinckney 

Rev. J. F. D. Stephens 

Rev. A. W. Stote 

Rev. W. Symonds 

Dr. H. P. Tayler 

W. B. Treacher 

J. E. Ward 

Col. M. F. Ward 

Rev. J. E. H. Blake 

Col. A. Canning 

Rev. R. W. Hay 

E. H. Thornton Lawes 

Mrs. Story Maskelyne 

Mrs. F. Goddard 

Miss Laing 

Rev. H. G- O. Kendall 

Other small contributions 

Bank interest 



s. 


d. 


10 


6 


10 


6 


10 


6 


10 





10 





10 





10 





10 





10 





10 





10 





10 





10 





10 





10 





10 





10 





5 





5 





5 





5 





5 





2 


6 


2 


6 


2 





8 


6 



9 



£95 9 



EXPENDITURE. £ s. d. 

Messrs Chivers & Sons, for work of re-erection 93 15 10 

Incidental expenses 15 

Postage, &c. 18 2 

£9* 9 



Note.— A very curious difficulty arises as to the stone of the Kennet 
avenue now set up again : one would suppose that there would be no want 
of evidence as to the fall of a stone so lately as the eighties of the last 
century, but as a matter of fact it seems impossible to fix the exact year in 
which it fell, and there was even some doubt as to which of the stones it 
was that fell. William Long, in his account of Avebury, in Wilts Arch. Mag., 
iv., 309 — 363, published 1858, gives on page 329 a plan of this group of 
eleven stones, and says " Upon the ground plan on the opposite page, the 
distances between the eleven stones, above mentioned, are laid down. The 
only stone now standing is 8 feet 9 inches high, 9 feet 9 inches wide, and 
3 feet thick." This would naturally refer to the stone which has never 
fallen, No. 2 from the Avebury end of the Western side of the avenue. 
On page 323, however, he speaks of this group as consisting of " two stones 



10 The Re-erection of Two Fallen Stones at Avebury. 

and nine stumps of stones," a curious expression which seems to point to 
two stones, then standing, as distinguished from nine lying prostrate, though 
why these latter should be called " stumps " when they are entire stones does 
not appear. This plan is reproduced by the Rev. A. C. Smith on page 146 
of his " Guide to the British and Roman Antiquities of the N. Wiltshire 
Downs" published in 1884, and he quotes the description of the stones 
given by Long and only adds " All these stones mentioned by Mr. Long are 
still in existence," thereby apparently accepting the fact that only one of 
the eleven stones was standing at the time he wrote. 

The ground plan given by both Long and Smith is unfortunately so 
dubiously drawn that it may be equally claimed as evidence that the stone 
in question [the third in the line on the East or road side of the avenue as 
you come from Avebury], was intended to be represented as still standing, 
or as lying prostrate across the avenue, as it lay before it was recently set 
up. It is to be noted, too, that it was the only stone of the eleven lying in 
this position across the avenue. 

Both Long and Smith, however, assert in so many words that there was 
only one stone of this group of eleven standing in 1858 and 1884, when they 
respectively published their accounts of Avebury, and it is difficult to believe 
that two writers generally so accurate could have made a mistake of this 
kind, if two stones were actually then standing. Mr. Smith, especially, had 
a very extensive and accurate knowledge of Avebury and its surroundings. 
It is true that he only quotes Long's previous words, but that he should 
have accepted the statement that one stone only was standing if as a matter 
of fact, two were still standing, seems very unlikely. 

On the other hand there is direct evidence that a second stone was 
standing until some time in the later eighties of the nineteenth century and 
that it then fell. Stukeley, in his Abury, p. 42, Tab. xxii., gives a " Prospect 
of Kennet Avenue from the Druid's Tumulus on Hackpen hill, May 15th, 
1724." In this he shows eleven stones, of which four are standing, in the 
group under " Windmill Ball." Although, however, the total (eleven) is the 
same, the distribution of the stones (five on the East, and six on the West 
side of the avenue) does not agree with the distribution of the existing 
stones, so that this view is of little use as evidence. It is, however, to be 
noted for what it is worth that the only pair of stones shown as standing are 
apparently intended for the two actually now standing, viz., the one standing 
that has not fallen and the one re-erected in 1912. Hoare, in Ancient Wilts, 
Vol. II., p. 70, published in 1819, gives a plan of "Avebury and Silbury," 
Plate X. (reproduced in Long's "Avebury," W.A.M., iv., 309), showing the 
pair of stones, No. 3 on the East and No. 2 on the West side of the avenue 
(from the Avebury end) as shaded whilst all the other stones of this group 
are unshaded. This seems clearly to show that both these stones were 
standing in 1819. Again, Mr. C. E. Ponting, F.S.A., of Marlborough, has a 
clear recollection of driving past the stones one morning some time in the 
later " eighties " when the second stone was standing, and noticing when he 
returned past them at night that it had fallen. He recollects, also, speaking 
of the matter to Mr. Kemm, of Avebury. He is, however, unable to say 
with any certainty which of the stones it was that fell, though he thinks it 
was the one recently raised. William Coleman, a labourer of Avebury, a 



By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 11 

trustworthy man who has worked for Mr. B. H. Cunnington in excavations, 
also remembers the fall of the stone, and he says that he noticed that it was 
leaning badly in the morning as he went to work, and that it fell before he 
passed it again on his way home, in the evening. He is sure that it was in 
the month of February, but in what year he cannot say. He believes that 
the stone now set up again is the stone which then fell. Mr. Butler, of 
Kennett, and Mr. George Brown, of Avebury, and others, all say that they 
perfectly well recollect the fall of one of the stones here, and they believe that 
it was the one now re-erected. 

The two stones as they now stand form a pair. It may not be irrelevant 
to the question to observe that the under side of the stone now re-erected 
presents a very clean, unweathered, sharp surface, quite distinct from the 
surface of the upper side which was continuously exposed to the weather. 

On the other hand Mrs. Cunnington noted that whilst all the other 
prostrate stones have deepish hollows worn round them, by the treading of 
sheep, (fcc, and have every appearance of having fallen long ago, this stone 
had little or no hollow round it, and the line of weathering on the butt 
showing the point up to which it had been buried in the ground was clearly 
to be seen. But perhaps the strongest piece of evidence in favour of the 
identity of the stone recently raised with that which fell in the eighties, is 
the fact that on the ground plan referred to above ( W.A.M., iv., 329) Long 
gives 53ft. as the distance between this stone (x) and the one opposite (y) 
which has always remained upright. Mr. and Mrs. Cunnington have care- 
fully tested his measurements of the other stones and find them correct, 
assuming that he measured from the nearest points of the stones to each 
other. Bat the distance from the top of the stone x, as it lay prostrate, to 
the base of y was 44ft., whilst the distance between their bases as both now 
stand upright is 56ft., a difference of 3ft. only from Long's measurement, 
and this might be accounted for by the difficulty of knowing within a foot 
or so where its base had actually stood. In any case the measurements 
are decidedly in favour of the view that when they were taken both stones 
were still standing. 

It has seemed worth while thus to set out at some length all the evidence 
at present available, both pro and con. I should be glad to hear of any 
further light which can be thrown on the matter. 

The Rev. W. C. Lukis, whose plans of the Avebury circles are now in 
the Library of the Society of Antiquaries, did not plan the remains of the 
Kennet Avenue. He says in Proc. Soc. Ant., IX., 153, " When I had com- 
pleted the survey of the circles, the weather changed and continued stormy 
and wet for some time, and I was unable to plan the avenue, which I greatly 
regret, for I cannot bring myself to think there is any truth in Stukeley's 
notion that it commenced on Overton Hill, at a monument, of which not a 
vestige remains." There seems, indeed, a fate against the plans of these 
stones, for Mr. B. H. Cunnington, who has lately had an opportunity of 
examining the early editions of the 6-inch Ordnance Map, finds that only 
six stones on the road side of the avenue at this point are shown, instead 
of seven, a mistake which has apparently been copied in subsequent 
editions. E. H. Goddard. ,. 



12 



A BURIED STONE IN" THE KENNET AVENUE. 
By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 

A large sarsen, probably one of tbe stones of tbe Kennet avenue 
was recently (February, 1913) exposed in a trench cut for the 
purpose of laying down water pipes. The trench was cut from 
the top of the hill South of Avebury, sometimes called Windmill 
Hill, or Windmill Ball, 1 across the Kennet-Avebury road, and 
therefore across the line of the Kennet avenue, to a pumping 
station in the valley south-east of Avebury vallum. 2 

As one end of the stone projected into the trench, and so was in 
the way of the pipes, these were laid under it; and in clearing 
away the rubble from under the stone for this purpose the lower 
end of a human tibia and some other fragments of bones were 
found. As so many burials have been found under sarsens in this 
neighbourhood it seemed worth while to make some examination 
of this one, especially as from its position it must have been either 
in, or close to, the Kennet avenue. Therefore, with the permission 
of Captain Jenner, the owner of the land, and of his tenant, a 
section was cut at right angles to the trench, exposing the side of 
the stone furthest from the road. This digging revealed the fact 
that the stone was, as at first feared, much too large to lift without 
considerable labour and expense, and the aid of special appliances. 

In digging down to the stone, fragments of human bones were 
found over it, and generally scattered in the chalky rubble filling 
the hole in which the stone had been buried. The exposed side of 
the stone was undercut as much as possible, and as far as could be 
seen, it appeared to be lying on undisturbed chalk, the loose rubble 
and fragments of bones being only under the shelving side (or edge) 

1 This hill should not be confused with the Windmill Hill north of 
Avebury. See Smith's Antiquities of North Wilts, p. 145, d. 

2 The pond dug a few years ago on the top of this hill is utilised as a 
reservoir to which the water is pumped. The barrow marked "d "on 
Smith's Map (Section XL, G. V.) must have been on the site of, or very 
near, this pond. No trace of the barrow can now be found. 



A Buried Stone in the Kennet Avenue. 13 

of the stone, and as it did not seem likely that an undisturbed 
burial would be found, it was not thought worth while to carry 
the work further. It is known that many of the stones of the 
avenue and of the circles have been buried at various times by the 
farmers to get them off the land, and it is very probable that this 
was one of the avenue stones that was got rid of in this way. 

To account for the human bones one can only suggest that a 
burial at the foot of, or near the stone, was disturbed when the 
hole in which it was buried was dug, and that the bones were 
thrown in again with the rubble in filling up the hole. It is a 
curious and suggestive circumstance that a burial should actually 
have been found at the foot of another stone connected with 
Avebury, namely, that at Longstone Cove, described above. 1 

As the stone was not completely uncovered its full dimensions 
could not be taken, but one of the exposed sides (that furthest from 
the road) was 7ft. long, and the other (that in the trench) 4ft. long, 
It was 2ft. thick and irregular in shape, like the other stones of 
the avenue, of which Stukeley said they were "of all shapes, sizes, 
and height that happened." The top of the stone is now 2ft. 9in. 
below the surface of the ground, and it lies 12ft. from the 
edge of the road on the right-hand side from Avebury to Kennet. 
It lies between the single stone standing in a cottage garden just 
outside the Kennet entrance to Avebury, and the single stone 
standing close to the left side of the road nearer Kennet; and it 
is eighty yards on the Avebury side of the last-mentioned stone. 
If at any time it was desired to uncover this stone again it might 
be easily found by the fact that the water pipes actually pass 
under its end nearest Kennet, at a distance of 12ft. from the edge 
of the road. 

None of the human bones were found whole, but only parts of 
the following: one humerus, two ulnas, one radius, one tibia, one 
femur, one vertebra, a piece of the sternum, and of a pelvis, and 
three small bones of the foot. The ulnas are a right and left, and 

1 A considerable number of burials seem to have been found outside the 
" Sanctuary" in which the Kennet avenue, ended on Overton Hill. Stuke- 
ley's Abury, p. 33. See also Long's Abury. W. A. M., iv., 327. 



14 A Buried Stone in the Kennet Avenue. 

there seems little doubt that all the bones belonged to one skeleton. 
One of the ulnas was found under the side of the stone, the other 
in the rubble above it. The bones except for the breakages are 
sound and in good preservation. Several small pieces of brown 
and yellow glazed pottery were found in the superficial soil over 
the stone. 

A DWELLINGS PIT. 

In cutting the trench near the top of the hill (117 yards from 
the edge of the pond) the men cut through a small pit. This was 
cleared out and found to be rather oval in shape, some 3ft. by 4ft. 
and 3ft. deep. It was full, as these small "dwelling" pits usually 
are, of black earthy material mixed with grains of charcoal: a sarsen 
muller, or hammerstone, various fragments of coarse handmade 
pottery, broken bones of sheep, pig, and ox, some of them burnt, 
some rough flint flakes, including two "scrapers," and burnt flints 
were found in it. 



15 



WILTSHIKE PAKDONS OR INDULGENCES. 
By Canon Chr. Wordsworth. 

The latin word indulgentia was broadly used by St. Augustine 
and other theologians in the sense of " forgiveness." Among the 
imperial jurists it had acquired a narrower technical acceptation, 
being used by them to express, variously (a) remission of civil 
punishment due for an offence, (b) immunity from taxes, or (c) 
amnesty granted by the dispensing power of the Emperor. 

In the Christian Church, even in the early days ere the Empire 
had recognised or tolerated Christianity, the exercise of dis- 
cipline by the Church over her own members carried along with it 
as its natural consequence an authority to unloose, and a charitable 
readiness to relax the penalty of excommunication, wherever this 
could be rightly conceded. St. Paul trained the Church in Corinth 
to realise the Divine quality of mercy, or "goodness," as well as 
that of "severity." "To whom ye forgive anything, I forgive it 
also" (I. Cor., v. 13; II Cor., ii., 6—10. cf. Bom., xi., 22.) In 
course of time, with the Decian persecution, A.D. 250, difficult 
cases arose, as to the salutary treatment of those who had denied 
their Christianity when they were tempted to dissemble or renounce 
it under the stress of persecution ; and subsequently a way 
of return to communion was sought for them by themselves 
or by their friends after the storm had passed. Some of 
the " lapsed " (or libellatici, who had once procured certifi- 
cates of conformity from heathen authorities in the days of 
persecution) were willing to undergo penance, where it was in- 
flicted on them as a condition for their restoration to the Christian 
fold. On behalf of others it was alleged that certain of their own 
martyred friends or relatives had with their last breath commended 
the weaker brother or sister to merciful consideration, and in some 
cases a note in their handwriting was produced to that effect. Such 
pleas were duly respected. The next step was for the surviving 



16 Wiltshire Pardons or Indulgences. 

confessors who, though not called on to make resistance unto blood, 
had yet endured some other degree of cruelty, to speak up for their 
wavering friends, and to write from their prisons, or after their 
enlargement from captivity, "letters of peace," libellos pacis, as a 
certificate of restoration to communion for the renegades. St. 
Cyprian, Archbishop of Carthage, who had himself suffered as an 
exile, and who was destined to become a martyr subsequently, in 
A.D. 258, was indignant at the lengths to which this system was 
being carried, and the mercenary spirit in which it was exercised, 
and he prohibited the circulation of a form of written indulgence, 
or certificate of remission in general terms, which was being intro- 
duced into his province by one Lucianus, a Carthaginian confessor 
(Cyprian Epistles, xv., 3 ; xx., 2 ; xxiii. ; xxvi. ; xxvii.) 1 In the 6th 
and following centuries collections of Penitential Canons were 
compiled to specify in detail what measure of ecclesiastical dis- 
ciplinary punishment was to be meted out to each distinct class 
of offender: e.g., a thief would be enjoined penance for half a year, 
or, if he were a cleric, for an entire year; a murderer was excluded 
from communion for seven years ; and so forth. Every sin re- 
quiring its due and proper punishment, that punishment, it was 
held, must be undergone in this world or the next. In case of 
grievous sickness, the recognised meed of ecclesiastical temporal 
punishment, such as penitential fasting for one or more Lentings, 
or Lents 2 of forty days, or some other severe discipline, might be 
commuted, e.g., for the recitation of a number of psalms ; or it might 
be condoned, with the condition of a fine to be paid, or an act of 
bounty to the poor to be performed. A man with many friends 
or subordinates might even enlist their services to help him in his 
attempt to get through his heavy obligations on this side the 
grave by their undertaking to share his remedial discipline. The 
" Irrefragable Doctor," Alexander of Hales, who died at Paris in 
1245, formulated the belief that the Church has an available fund 
of superabundant merits as her "treasure" for the remission or 

1 See Archbishop Benson's Cyprian, and his article (" libelli ") in Smith 
and Cheetham's Diet. Chr. Antiq., ii., 982. 

2 " Lents " : i.e., quarentanes. 



By Canon Chr. Wordsworth. 17 

alleviation of pains and punishments due to sins. 1 A century 
later Ithis was asserted as a dogma by Pope Clement VI. . From 
some such a "Fund" it was held that the Church, through her 
Bishops, was able, and had long since been wont, to distribute re- 
missions to atone for the shortcomings of sinners. Leo IX. gave 
a plenary indulgence 2 to Edward the Confessor in 1060, and 
Urban II., in a council held at Clermont in 1095 issued a plenary 
indulgence for those who took up arms to recover the Holy Land 
from the infidel. Plenary indulgences are proclaimed at the Papal 
jubilee, which was established, somewhat before 1300, and which, 
under present arrangements, takes place every twenty-five years. 
In the latter part of the 12th century it was usual for a bishop 
to grant a few days' relaxation of penance enjoined, commonly 
called a pardon, for those present and in a state of grace (contrite and 
confessed) on such occasions as his consecration to the episcopate, 
or his dedicating of a Church. St. Hugh of Lincoln had begun in 
1186 with granting a pardon of thirteen days. Later on, in his 
anxiety to encourage contributions to the fabric of his Cathedral, 

1 Indulgence is defined by Amort, quoted in Addis and Arnold's Catholic 
Dictionary as " a remission of the punishment which is still due to sin after 
sacramental absolution, this remission being valid in the court of conscience 
and before God, and being made by an application of the treasure of the 
Church on the part of a lawful superior. 

2 Plenary indulgences remit all, partial indulgences remit a portion, of the 
temporal punishment due to sin : for example, an indulgence of forty days 
remits as much temporal punishment as would have been atoned by forty 
days of canonical penance. With some it has been held as a pious opinion 
that a plenary indulgence remits also all the pains of purgatory. Indulgences 
may be temporal — i.e., granted only for a time ; or they may be perpetual, 
or indefinite, which last till they are revoked. The earliest known specimen 
of small type used in printing is the indulgence of Pope Nicholas V. produced 
at Mainz by Schoeffer in 1454 or 145o. It includes a provision for plenary 
indulgence in mortis articulo, and contains the phrase " remittendo tibi 
penas purgatorii" and contains a form of receipt or acknowledgment for a 
contribution towards expenses of the war of 1451 against -the Turks and 
Saracens. (Facsimile in the Times extra number, 10th Sept., 1912.) 

Personal indulgences are those granted to particular persons. Local 
indulgences may be gained only in a particular place. Real indulgences are 
those attached to crucifixes, medals, scapulars, &c. Catholic Diet., s.v. 
"Indulgences." 

VOL. XXXVIII. — NO. CXIX. C 



] 8 Wiltshire Pardons or Indulgences. 

when liis end was drawing near in 1200, he offered a pardon of 
eighty days to such as should assist in that good work. 

In 1184 King Henry II. employed Templars and Hospitallers 
to make collection (as a kind of subsidy) for the second Crusade, 
pardons being given by way of encouragement. They were granted 
likewise to induce believers to build chapels, churches, and minsters, 
to aid hospitals or almshouses, and to make or repair bridges, roads, 
or causeways. The number of days granted by an indulgence or 
" pardon," as it was commonly called in England, varied normally 
from ten to thirteen, up to twenty or forty days' relaxation of 
penance enjoined. St. Hugh of Lincoln (a3 already mentioned) 
had granted as many as eighty days, but the Council of Lateran 
in 1215 restricted a bishop to grants of not more than forty days 
at a time, except on the occasion of his dedicating a Church, when 
he might grant a year's indulgence pro ilia vice ; but only forty 
days could be gained on subsequent anniversaries of that local 
festival. It became necessary to stigmatise the evil practices of 
over-zealous and unscrupulous "collectors " and hawkers of indul- 
gences who came to be known as quaestuarii rather than quaestores, 
and gave a bad reputation to the "Pardoner" in the popular 
literature of the fourteenth century. In June, 1546, the Council 
of Trent forbade quaestuarii to preach either personally or by 
substitute. (Sessio, v. cap. 2.) The Council of Vienne denounced 
eight evil practices of pardoners in 1312, and certain English 
Bishops before and after that date took steps to curb the extravagant 
issue of pardons. The authoritative service-books of Salisbury Use 
contain some references to indulgences. The lessons appointed for 
mattins on the feast of the Visitation of B. Mary declare and recite 
the pardons granted by Pope Urban VI. (c. 1378 — 89) to encourage 
worshippers to observe the feast on July 2nd, viz., by a gift of 
one hundred days for attendance at mattins, mass, and evensong, 
forty days for each of the little hours, and one hundred days of 
penance enjoined, for attendance at mattins, mass, evensong, and 
hours through the octave (Brev. Sarum, iii., 397 — 8). Similar in- 
dulgences granted by Urban IV. with respect to Corpus Christi 
festival (1264) are in the lessons (ib. i. cols, mlxviii., mlxix.) The 



By Canon Chr. Wordsworth. 19 

Missa de nomine Jesu, indulgenced by Eob. Hallam, Bp. of Sarum, 
in 1-411, is published in the York Missal (ed. Henderson, ii., 216). 
The rubrics of the Sarum Missale ed. 1861 — 83, following the text 
of 1526, set forth five indulgences, ranging in date from cir. 1200 
to 1400 (cols. 927*, 890*, 886*, 455 n., and 750*), and attached to 
the recitation of prayers, gospels, and votive masses. 

In his Cathedral statutes, sealed 26th October, 1319, Bp. Koger 
de Morti val directed that the benefit of indulgences (indulgentiarum 
munera) to encourage contributions to the Salisbury Cathedral fabric 
fund should be for the future published by emissaries (nuncios) sent 
by the President and Chapter, not only in the Cathedral Church 
itself but in every place in the city and diocese, every year on the 
eight Sundays from the first Sunday in Lent to the octave of Easter 
inclusive, and that all other pardoners (quacstores) from whatsover 
quarter they came, should be absolutely inhibited during that 
period, and be excluded from making their appeals for other 
charitable objects, during the eight weeks when the indulgences 
issued " by the holy fathers [his] predecessors and other Catholic 
Bishops," together with an additional xl. days, promised by himself, 
were solemnly published to the faithful people (Statuta Sarum ms. 
E. f. 13 b cap. xxii., A.D. 1319). Indulgences for Salisbury Cathe- 
dral fabric were issued previously in 1225, 1235, 1280, and 1286. 
Indulgences to encourage prayer for the souls of bishops and others 
buried in the Cathedral are extant, ranging from 1271 to 1328. 
The earliest of these 1 relate to Kobert Bingham, who, in 1244 built 
Harnham Bridge, as well as St. John the Baptist's Chapel on the 
isle which supports one of its piers, and who was reckoned as a 
second founder of the Cathedral Church as well as of St. Nicholas' 
Hospital. At the same date (1271) was issued a pardon (like St. 
Hugh of Lincoln's) for the moderate extent of thirteen days' penance 
■enjoined, by Anian II., Bp. of St. Asaph, available for " all persons 
truly contrite, confessed, and really penitent, who should recite 
the Lord's Prayer, and Salutation of B.V. Mary, with a faithful 
mind, for the souls of Giles late Bishop (1256 — 62) and Simon de 
Bridport late Treasurer [and Archdeacon, cir. 1258 — 70] . . . 

1 The un-dated inscription may be earlier than "c. 1270." 

C 2 



20 Wiltshire Pardons or Indulgences. 

at the tomb before the altar of B. Mary Magdalen." This beautiful 
tomb stands at the north side of the S.E. transept, and commemo- 
rates scenes in the life of G-iles de Bridport, founder of De Vaux 
College for (Scotist) scholars, cir. 1261, in whose episcopate the 
west front of the nave and the roof were finished and the completed 
Church was dedicated, 29th Sept., 1258, by Archbishop Boniface. 
An indulgence of xiii days was recorded in the partly-obliterated 
inscription cut on the second buttress from the east end, on the 
south side of the south wall of the Lady Chapel. A conjectural 
reading of this inscription is given in our list under the date "area 
? 1270," but it refers to the soul of a certain " Angnes," or Agnes, 
whose name cannot be identified in extant obit lists. 1 

In his Injunctions for Salisbury Diocese in 1538 Bp. Nicholas 
Shaxton forbade among other tilings offerings to be made to images 
(No. 14), the use by women of " measures of our Lady " (No. 18), 
and directed that "all relics (as they be called) " should be sent to 
him at his house in Bamsbury, or other-where, to be examined. 
He undertook in due course to return those which he found genuine, 
"with certain instructions how they ought to be used" (No. 21), 
and he directed " that the bell called the Pardon, or Ave Bell, 
which of long time hath been used to be tolled three times after 
or before Divine Service, be not hereafter in any part of my diocese 
any more tolled." 2 "That the knolling of the Aves after service, 
and certain other times, which hath been brought in and begun 
by the pretence of the Bishop of Bome's pardon, henceforth be 
left and omitted, lest the people do hereafter trust to have pardon 
for the saying of their Aves, between the said knelling, as they 
have done in time past." (lb., ii., p. 42.) " The people " (say the 
editors) " were accustomed to say Aves when the bells rang for 
service, and received indulgences for doing so." John XXII. 
(Pope 1316 — 34) recommended the saying of three Aves when the 

1 Agnes, wife of Nicol Hardyng, and Agnes Barowe, are named in the 
bedes of a later period. Salisbury Ceremonies (1901), p. 31. 

2 (No. 22.) Visitation Articles and Injunctions, Frere & Kennedy, Alcuin 
Club, ii., p. 60. This was in accordance with No. 16 of the Second Royal 
Injunctions (A.D. 1538.) 



By Canon Chr. Wordsworth. 21 

curfew rang. "In 1399 Abp. Arundel ordered an Ave to be said 
universally in the province of Canterbury at daybreak and at 
curfew. Out of this custom grew the ringing of the " Angelus," 
which was otherwise known as the Ave-bell or the Gabriel-bell.' 1 x 
I find this in the Metford Eegister at Salisbury, f. ; 143. 2 12th 
Feb., 1399—1400. " Mandatum pro pulsacione ignitegii et Day 
bell." The Abp. gives indulgence of forty days for recitation 
of the Lord's Prayer and five Aves. Indulgences were often 
mentioned in the descriptive title-pages of printed Horae 
beatissimae Virginis Mariae ad usum Sarishuriensis ecclesice, at 
least as early as 1510. h\ some such primers upwards of thirty 
indulgenced prayers are set forth, many of them offering re- 
missions and pardons of hundreds and thousands of years, with 
a profusion which the Council of Trent subsequently repudiated. 
Some of the indulgences mentioned in the Sarum Primer are 
attributed to early Popes; but several of the largest, to those of the 
latter part of the 15th century. The books which contained such 
indulgenced prayers were forbidden under the name of " rubric 
primers" by Kidley in 1550 and Hooper in 1551 within their 
dioceses, 2 and by Bp. G-uest as "superstitious popish primers" in 
1 565. 3 In 1548 Oranmer referred to the fact that in time past 
sums of money had been bestowed upon pardons by persons on 
their deathbeds or at other times. 4 It was the custom to bury a 
pu'chment scroll, on which the absolution was written, in the 
grave with the body of the deceased person to whom it was granted. 5 
En the 15th and 16th centuries after the Bidding of the Beads 
in Salisbury Cathedral Church on Sundays, or at such time as the 
relics of the Church were proclaimed, notice was published in 
Latin or English (both forms being entered in the Precentor's 
Processionah) that a total of nineteen years and three hundred and 
sixteen days of pardon was available for those present and qualified 

1 {ubi supra, ii., 42 n.) 2 Frere's Visitation Articles, ii., 244, 277. 

3 lb., iii., 157. Dr. Edmund Guest was Bp. of Rochester from 1560 till 
1571, when he was translated to Sarum. 

* lb., ii., 182. b lb., iii., p. 304, n. 



22 Wiltshire Pardons or Indulgences. 

to receive it, the "summa totalis" being made up of (1) a total of 
eight years and forty -one days specially granted for those who visited 
the Church of Salisbury on the occasion when the said notice was 
to be given (which the MS. does not specify, as it was well known, 
doubtless, to the dignitary who used it), and (2) the indulgence " of 
old time granted" to this Church, viz., eleven years 1 and one 
hundred and seventy-five days. One of the readers of this Magazine 
may be able by exercise of his arithmetical powers to divine from 
the succeeding list (a) how the two sub-totals (1) and (2) were made 
up, and hence (b) on what occasion, or occasions, the notice was 
given out in Salisbury Cathedral. 



A LIST of one hundred and sixty INDULGENCES and docu- 
ments thereto relating, as granted to the Church of Salisbury 
or other Churches in Wilts, or registered by Bishops of Salisbury 
about the years 1170—1536. 

cir. 1165—9. 40 days, granted by Thomas [Becket], Abp. of Canter- 
bury, to those who visit the relics at St. Peter's, Heytesbury, on the 
Invention of the Cross. "Pauperibus ecclesiisP Osmund Register, i., 343. 

cir. 1165 — 9. 20 days, granted by N[igel], Bp. of Ely, to those who visit 
St. Peter's, Heytesbury, and give their alms, on the feast of the Inven- 
tion of the Cross. " Pauperibus ecclesiis." Osmund Register, i., 344. 

cir. 1200. Indulgences, granted by Pope Innocent III. for saying Three 
Prayers of the Passion : Coll. "D. J. C, Fill Dei vivi qui pro redemp- 
tion " ; Secret u Auxilientur" ; and Postcom. " Domine Deus de Deo." 
Missale Sarum, p. 927.* 

[1225]. 30 days granted by Stephen [Langton], Cardinal of H. Roman 

Church, Abp, of Canterbury, " ad fabricam B. Marie Sar. de.nouo con- 

struendam." (marked " 1."). Hist. M$$. Report, 8vo. i. (1901) p. 377. 

The Abp. preached on 29 Sept., 1225, and celebrated service in the 

nova basilica, when the LadyChapel was built. [S. l.]. s 

1 I have overlooked the mistake of " vj anni " (where I ought to have given 
" xj ") in my Salisbury Ceremonies and Processions, p. 41, line 11. On the 
subject of Indulgences I may refer to Methuen's Antiquary's Books (Old 
.English Service Books, pp. 286 — 293 (1904, (fee.,) and to my paper on York- 
shire Pardons and Indulgences ; Yorks. Archceol. Soc. Transactions, xvi., 369 
—423 (1901). 

2 The entries marked " S " in the present list belong to a series of 58 
original (MS.) pardons or indulgences, some with seals attached, preserved 
in the Muniment Room of Salisbury Cathedral (Press IV.), which Chr. W. 
was allowed to examine and arrange a few years ago. Some of these were 
previously described by Mr. Reginald L. Poole in Hist. MSS. Report, 8vo., 
(various) i., pp. 377—379, issued in 1901. The "old numbers" which are 
also given in our list, with marks of quotation, may have some interest for 
future research. 



By Canon Chr. Wordsworth. 23 

cir. 1235. 40 days granted by Edmund, Abp. of Canterbury, to con- 
tributors to the structure of Salisbury Cathedral Church (marked 23). 
" Sane, . . . dilectissimi. Seal, green wax : St. Edmund, Abp. 
6 medallions. Verso, martyrdom of St. Thomas. [Box " jEdmund,"] 
Report (1901) pp. 377—8. 

dr. 1235. 40 days, granted by [St.] Edmund [Rich, of Abingdon], Abp. 
of Canterbury, to contributors to the fabric of Salisbury Cathedral. 
" Si juxta sapientis," n.d. (Duplicate, but seal lost.) [S. 2.] 

1253. 1 year and 40 days, granted by Pope Innocent IV., promulgated 
by William of York, Bp. of Sarum, to contributors to S. Paul's, London. 
Feb., 1252—3. Camden Soc, N.S. xxvi., pp. 3, 4. ex Brit. Mus. Add. 
Charter 5957. 

1258. "Licet is, cuius munere." 100 days, granted by Pope Alexander IV. 
to visitors at Salisbury Cathedral Church on the feast of the Assump- 
tion (15 Aug.). 
40 days, ditto, at Candlemas (2 Feb.) and 
40 days, ditto, at the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin (8 Sept.). 
Sum, 180 days. 21 May, 1258. 

Misdated by Benson & Hatcher, p. 734. Registrum Rubrum, 120 ; 
Sarum Charters, p. 329. 

1258. 122 days are granted by Abp. Boniface and his suffragans (besides 
Papal indulgences, &c.) to those who go ad certam ecclesiam to observe 
the dedication festival octaves of Salisbury Cathedral. Emman. Coll.. 
Cambridge, MS. I. 2, 6, f. 174. 

1261. 40 days, granted by Giles de. Bridport, Bp. of Sarum, to contribu- 
tors to St. Paul's, London. Camden Soc. NS.. xxvi., p. 176, n. 40. 

1264. Granted by Walter de la Wyle, Bp. of Sarum, to contributors to 
St. Paul's, London. H. H. Milman, Annals o/S. Paul's, app. c. 

1266. 20 days, granted by Walter de la Wyle, Bp. of Sarum, to persons 
attending Lincoln Sermons, and reciting 3 Paters and 3 Aves for the 
soul of H. de Lexington, Bp. of Lincoln. Lincoln Muniments. 

1270. 30 days, granted by Robert Kilwardby, for prayers at the tomb 
of Earl W. Longespe. Salisbury Ceremonies, p. 43. [Hatcher's] Hist. 
8f Descriptive Account of 0- & N. Sarum, 1834, p. 40. 

cir. ? 1 270, or earlier. 13 days' pardon granted at Salisbury, for a Pater 
and 5 Aves, at the tomb of Agnes, xiiith century inscription on a 
buttress outside the south side of the Salve or Lady Chapel, near St. 
Stephen's altar and porch (now blocked up). The buttress having had 
a niche and a square opening, apparently for a tablet, cut in the face 
of it, there is about one-third of the lettering of the indulgence entirely 
destroyed. It was presumably either this inscription, or else the 
curious epitaph of Precentor Adam Mottram, A.D. 1415, which is cut 
on the next buttress, westward of the indulgence before us (and which 
Mr. A. R. Maiden has deciphered and described in W. A. Mag., xxxv., 
359), that Leland appears to have found already illegible in 1540, when 
he left a blank space for it in his Itinerary ; see Miss L. T. Smith's 
edition, 1907, i., p. 265, as " in one of the mayne butteres (of the south 
isle again the high altare) of the chirch an inscription . . . [Latin] 
sumwhat defacid." It may be read, I think, as follows : — 



24 Wiltshire Pardons or Indulgences. 

: X : I : I : I : D [IES .- VE] NIE : 0[R 
ACION[#A£ .- D OM JINICAto 
DICEN[7'7^r5 : CVm :]V : SAL 
YTAC[IONIBVS : BEA]TE : V 
IRGINLZS: PBO: ANIM~\A : AN 
GNET[iS : HEIG : XEQJVLES 
CENT[7tf : ] 

The buttress is 2ft. 11 Jin. in width. The Lombardic letters are one 

inch and nine-sixteenths high. 
1271. 13 days granted by fr. Anian II.. Bp. of St. Asaph, for the Church 
• of Salisbury. Pater and Ave at altar of B. Mary Magdalene, for Bp. 

Giles, and treasurer, Simon de Bridport. 1 Sandwych, 11 June, 1271. 

" Quia aliorum suffragiis" [Box "Asaph" &c.J. [S. 3.] Report, 378. 
1271. 40 days granted by William [de Bitton], Bp. of Bath & Wells, to 

benefactors of Salisbury and prayers for the peace of the realm and 

the soul of Robert [Bingham] Bp. Warminster, 12 kl. Nov. 1271. 

"Indultum nobis celitus (good seal)." [Box " Wells, Exeter-"] [S. 4.] 

1273. 40 days, granted by Anian II., Bp. of St. Asaph, for prayers for 
the soul of 1 Robert \_1 Bingham] formerly Bp. of Sarum " coram sup)- 
premo altari virginis." " Cum, sicut sancta tenet ecclesia." Sarum 
vigil of St. Valentine, 1272—3. [S. 5.] 

1274. 40 days, granted by Peter, Bp. of the Orkneys, to those who wor- 
ship at Salisbury Cathedral. 

1274. 40 days, granted by Robert, of Holy Isle, Bp. of Durham, for 

worshippers at Salisbury Cathedral. 
cir. 1277. 40 days, granted by Archibald, Bp. of Moray, to worshippers 

at Salisbury. 

1277. 20 days, granted by Robert de Stuteville, Bp. of Dunkeld, to wor- 
shippers at Salisbury Cathedral. 

1278. 40 days, granted by Godefridus [Giffard], Bp. of Worcester, for 
prayers for the soul of W. Longespee, in the chapel of B. Mary. 
Blockelegh, 8 kl. May, 1278. [One of the largest pieces of parch- 
ment among the pardons preserved at Salisbury.] [S. 6.] 

1278. 30 days, granted by William, Abp. of Edessa [Ragensis], for 
prayers for the soul of " Earl " W. Longespe. [S. 7.] -Report, p. 379. 

1278. 40 days granted by David [MacCarvill], Abp. of Cashel, for say- 
ing Pater and Ave for the soul of W. Longespe, Knt., buried in the 
chapel of B. Mary. Calne, 4 Kl. Jul., 1278. [Box " Norwich," <fcc] 
Seal. [S. 8.] 

1279. 20 days granted by Robert [Burnell], Bp. of Bath and Wells, for 
prayers for the soul of W. Longespey, earl of Salisbury. Stockbridge, 
6 id. Apr., 1279. [S. 9.] 

1 Bp. Giles de Bridport (or "Bruieport") died 13th Dec, 1262. His 
brother Symon occurs in records as Archdeacon of Dorset in 1258, and of 
Berks in 1262, but we have not been able to ascertain when he was treasurer, 
nor when he died. 



By Canon Chr. Wordsworth. .25 

1280. 40 days granted by John [de Derlington], Abp. of Dublin, for the 
fabric of Salisbury Cathedral. 5 Kl. Apr., 1280, a consecracionis, 1°. 
" Vt nos allectiuis." (Marked " 5.") [S. 10.] 

1281. 20 days, granted by " rensis ecclesie minister 

humilis," for prayers for the soul of Hilde . . . de Lande, knt. 
1281. Sarr' die s. Lurgencij, martiris (? 10 Aug.) 1281. (Fragment). 
[S. 11.] 

1283. 30 days, granted by [Peter Quivil] Bp. of Exeter, for prayers for 
the soul of John de Lacey, son of the noble earl of Lincoln. 4 kal Jan. 
(28 Dec), 1283. [S. 12.] Report (1901), p. 378. 

1285. 15 days granted by fr. John [Peckham], Abp. of Canterbury for 
prayers for the soul of W. Lungespeye, knt. Wilton, 10 kl. Jun., 1285. 
a° consecracionis, vij. (Marked " D." [S. 13.] 

1286. 40 days granted by William [de Breuse], Bp. of Llandaff, for the 
fabric of Salisbury. 1 kal. May, 1286. Silk strings and seal. [Box 
" Asaph," &c] [S. 14.] Report (1901) p. 378. 

1287. July 31st. Robert [Macdonagh, Ord. Cistercien], Bp. of Cork, 
grants 40 days pardon to visitants at the Chapel of the B. Mary V. in 
Maiden Bradley Priory, provided that their own diocesans confirm the 
the privilege. Chanc. Miscell. Bundle 15, No. 6 F. 2, printed in Wilts 
N. and Q., vii., 249 — 50. " Gratum oosequium et Deo pium." 

1288. 40 days, granted by Henry [de Braundeston], Bp. of Sarum, " Ut 
ex deprecacione." Wodeford, 7 id. Feb., 1287—8. [S. 15.] 

1288. 40 days, granted by Godfrey [Giffard], Bp. of Worcester, for 
prayers for the soul of H. de Braundeston, " Aliorum infuturo." Boy- 
ton, 4 kl. Dec, 1288. [S. 16.] 

1289. 20 day s, granted by William [de la Cornere], Bp. of Sarum for 
prayers for the soul of W. Longespee, earl of Salisbury. Woodford, 
6 kl. Oct., 1289. " Mortuorum memoria." [S. 17.] 

1291. 40 days, granted by Nicholas Longespe, Bp. of Sarum, for con- 
tributors to Salisbury. 

1291. 40 days, granted by Thomas Inglethorpe, Bp. of Rochester, for 
worshippers at Salisbury. 

1291. 20 days, granted by John [de Saunford], Abp. of Dublin, for the 
soul of W. de Longespeye, earl of Salisbury. Sarum, id. Sept., 1291. 
[Box " Norwich," &c. Seal.] [S. 18.] Report (1910), p. 379. 

1292. 40 days, granted by Thomas [St. Ledger], Bp. of Meath[Midensis], 
for prayers for the soul of W. de la Cornere. Stanes, 8 kal. Mar., 
1291—2. [S. 19.] 

1292, April 26. Robert [Macdonagh], Bp. of Cork, grants 20 days pardon 
to persons coming to Maiden Bradley Churchyard and saying one 
Pater and Ave for the soul of Ric. de Piperharewe, buried there. 
Chancery Miscell. Bundle 15, no. 6 F. 3. (cf. A.D. 1287, July 31, above). 
Printed in Wilts N. and Q., 1909. 2oO. " Ut ex deprecacione vivorum" 

1293. 40 days, granted by fr. Nicholas [Cusack] O. F. M., Bp. of Kildare 
[Darensis], for prayers for the soul of W. de la Cornere. London, 12 
kl. Jul., 1293. [Box " Norwich," &c, Seal.] [S. 20.] Report, p. 379. 

1293. 40 days, granted by William [de Marchia], Bp. of Bath and Wells. 
London, 11 Kal. Jul., 1293 a", consecr. 1°. [S. 21.] 



26 Wiltshire Pardons or Indulgences. 

1293. 40 days, granted by John [de Saunford], Abp. of Dublin, for I 
prayers for the soul of W. de la Cornere [who had been Abp. elect of 
Dublin, in 1279]. " Obsequium Deo." London, Uul., 1293. [S. 22.] 

1293. 40 days, granted by Thomas [de Wuldhara] Bp. of Rochester, for 
prayers for the soul of W. de la Cornere.? Danstede Polor juxta Cantuar. 
2 id. Jul., 1293. [S. 23.] 

1293. 40 days, granted by Oliver [Sutton], Bp. of Lincoln, for prayers 
for the soul of W. de la Cornere. " Operibus pietatis." London, prid. ! 
id. Nov., 1293. [S. 24.]. 

1294. 40 days, granted by [Nicholas Longespe] Bp. of Sarum, for prayers 
for the soul of Lawrence de Hakbourn, formerly canon [preby. of 
Ruscomb, 1284 — 8. He had been elect, but not consecrated, to the 
bishopric in Aug., 1288]. " Belaxacionis remedium." Sarum, 13 kl. 
May, 1294. [S. 25.] 

1294. 20 days, granted by Thomas [de Bytton], Bp. of Exeter, for 
prayers for the soul of W. de la Cornere. London, 2 non. Jun., 1294. 
"Alioruminfuturo." [S. 26.] 

1294. 40 days, granted by L[eolin de Bromfield], Bp. of St. Asaph, for 
saying Pater and Ave for the soul of W. de la Cornere, canon. Lon- 
don, Sat after 21 Sept., 1294. " Obsequium Deo." Seal (border lost). 
Box " Asaph," &c] [S. 27.] Report (1901), p. 379. 

1294. 40 days, granted by Ric. [de Swinefeld], Bp. of Hereford, for 
prayers for the soul of W. de Corneriis. London, 10 kal. Oct., 1294 
(marked "D"). Seal (border lost). " Quoniam nobis, precibus." [Box 
" Asaph," &c.]. IS. 28.] Report (1901 ), p. 397. 

1294. 40 days, granted by Ralph [de Walpole], Bp. of Norwich, for 
prayers for the soul of W. de la Cornere. London. 10 kl. Oct., 1294. 
" Obsequium." [Box " Norwich" <fcc, fragment of seal.] [S. 29.] 

1294. 40 days granted by John [le Romain, " Romanus "], Abp. of York, 
for prayers for the soul of W. de la Cornere. Totenhale, 8 kl. Oct., 
1294, a pontif. ix. [S. 30.] 

1294. 40 days, granted by Thomas [de Wuldham], Bp. of Rochester, for 
prayers for the soul of Earl W. Longespe. [S. 31.] 

cir. 1295. ? days granted by Thomas [de Bytton], Bp. of Exeter (1292— 

1307), for prayers for the soul of [ 1 '] centor of Sarum, 

who is buried before the altar of St. Katharine. Chard, pr. id. Jul., 
12 . . {Fragment). [S. 32.] 

1295. 40 days, granted by Roger [de Molend.], Bp. of Coventry and 
Lichfield, for prayers for the soul of Earl W. Longespe. " Cleri et 
populi." 5 id. Nov., 1295, a consecracionis xxxviii . [S. 33.] 

1295. 30 days, granted by Gilbert [de Sancto Leofardo], Bp. of Chich- 
ester, for prayers for the soul of W. Longespe. London, 4 non. Dec, 
1295. [S. 34.] Hist. MSS. Report (1901), p. 379. 

1295. 40 days, granted by John [de Pontissara], Bp. of Winchester, for 
worshippers at Salisbury Cathedral saying Pater and Ave for the soul 
of Earl W. Longespe. " Mortuorum memoria." London, 4 Non. Dec. 
1295. [S. 35.] ; 

1 Succentor J. de Middleton d. after 1291. 



By Canon Chr. Wordsworth. 27 

1295. 40 days, granted by Anian, Bp. of Bangor, for prayers for the soul 
of W. de la Cornere. " Obsequium Deo gratum." [S. 36.] 

1296. 40 days, granted by Walter de Langton, Bp. of Coventry and 
Lichfield, for Salisbury fabric. 

1297. 40 days, granted by William [de Marchia], Bp. of Bath and Wells, 
for prayers for the soul of Nicholas Longspee, Bp. Wilton, 10 Kal. 
Jun., 1297. [S. 37.] 

1298. 40 days, granted by fr. William [de Hotham], Abp. of Dublin, for 
prayers for the soul of W. de la Cornere. " Obsequium, Deo gratum." 
London, 8 March, 1297—8. [S. 38.] 

1299. 40 days, granted by Nic. (? Ric. de Ferings), Abp. of Dublin, to 
worshippers at Salisbury Cathedral. 

1299. 40 days, granted by Simon [de Gandavo] Bp. of Sarum, for prayers 
for the soul of W. de Corneriis, " Humani generis." Ramsbury, 7 id . 
Aug., 1299. [S. 39.] 

cir. 1300. 40 days granted for saying Pater and Ave for the soul of 
Felippur de Salc[eto]. Inscription in French, outside the porch of 
Semington Chapel. See Aubrey & Jackson, p. 355 ; Wilts N. and Q,., 
iii., 475. 

1300. 40 days, granted by Nicholas [Che vers], Bp. of Leighlin [Lechlini- 
ensis], for prayers for the soul of W. de la Cornere. " Quoniam ut ait." 
Dublin, Friday after the Conv. of St. Paul, 1299—1300. [S. 40.] 

1300. 40 days, granted by Simon [de Gandavo], Bp. of Sarum, for prayers 
for the soul of Nicholas Lunggespeye, Bp. " Humani generis lapsum.' 
Ramsbury, non. Jul., 1300, a°. consecr. iij°. [S. 41.] 

1301. 40 days, granted by Godfrey [Giffard], Bp. of Worcester, for prayers 
for the soul of Nic. Longespe, Bp. "Ut animis." Hartlebury, non. Jun., 
1301. [S. 42.] 

1 1304. [A grant by Caducanus, Bp. of Bangor, is noted (by Hatcher) in 
Account of Salisbury, 8vo, Salisb., p. 41. Anian was the Bishop of 
Bangor circa 1267 — 1306, according to Sir T. D. Hardy, though Le Neve 
gave a Caducan II. in 1303.] 

1304. Licencia pro admittendis fratribus hospitalis S. Spiritus de urbe 
Romana. (Addressed to all abbots, priors, and archdeacons.) 7 Kl. 
May, 1304. Regist. Gandavo, f. 41. 

1305. 40 days, granted by Robert [Winchelsey] Abp. of Canterbury, for 
the soul of Nicholas Longespe, Bp., " Licet dare." Winton, 4 id. Nov., 
1305. [S. 43.] 

1305. 40 days, granted by John de Halneton, or Halghton, for Salisbury 
fabric. 

1306. 40 days, granted by Henry [de Merewell], Bp. of Winchester, for 
prayers for the soul of Nic. Longespe, Bp. " Mortuorum memoria." 
Highclere, 17 kl. Feb., 1305 — 6 a consecr. 1°. (On a large piece of 
parchment). [_S. 44.] 

1306. 40 days, granted by John [de Langton], Bp. of Chichester, for 
saying Pater and Ave, for the soul of Bp. Nicholas Loungespeye, 
Upham, 4 non. Apr., 1306. [Box, " Norwich," kc 1.] [S. 45.] 

1306. 40 days, granted by Ralph [de Baldock], Bp. of London, for 



28 Wiltshire Pardons or Indulgences. 

prayers for the soul of Nicholas Longespe, Bp. " Mortuorum memoria." 
Fulham, 2 id. Apr., 1306. [S. 46.] 

1308. Radulphi, London. Episcopi mandatum, ne questores de Bethlehem 
admittantur in diocesi. 1308. Registr. Gandavo, f. 94. 

1309. 40 days, granted by Anian [Seys], Bp. of Bangor, for prayers for 
the soul of Bp. Nicholas Longespe. London, Wed. after 30 Nov., 1309. 
[Box " Sarum, Bangor." Fragment of seal] [S. 47.] Report, p. 379. 

1310. 30 days, granted by Walter [Stapeldon], Bp, of Exeter, for prayers 
for the souls of llalph of York, Chancellor, and W. de Cherdestok. 
Faringdon, 27 May, 1310. " Mortuorum memoria" [Box, " Wells, 
Exeter."] [S. 48.] 

1310. 40 days, granted by John [de Drokenesford], Bp. of Bath and 

Wells, for prayers for the soul of Ralph of York, Chancellor. 
Also 30 days, for the soul of W. de Chardestok. " Mortuorum memoria." 

7 kl. Jul. 1310. [S. 49.] 
1310. 30 days, granted by Simon [de Gandavo], Bp. of Sarum for prayers 

for the soul of Ralph of York, Chancellor of Sarum, 4 id. Sep., 1313. 

'' Humani generis lapsum." [S. 50.] 
1310. Thirty days, granted by Simon [de Gandavo], Bp. of Sarum, for 

prayers for the soul of VV. de Cherdstok, canon. Sarr., 4 id., Sept., 1310. 

[S. 51.] 
1310. 40 days, granted by John [de Keton], Bp. of Ely, for prayers for 

the soul of Peter de Gurumvill [preb. of Bedminster and Redcliffe, 

1 298 — 1310.] " Mortuorum memoria." London, 1 Nov., 1310, a , cons. 

1°. [S. 52] 
1310. 40 days, granted by Anian [Seys] Bp. of Bangor, for prayers for 

the soul of Peter de Gurimvill, canon. " Pia obsequia," London, 4 Nov., 

1310, a°l°. [S. 53.] 
1310. 40 days, granted by John [de Monmouth], Bp. of Llandaff, for 

prayers for the soul of Mr. Peter de Gorumvile, canon, who is buried in 

the Black Friars Church, London. " Ut animis fidelium. London, 

4 non, Nov., 1310. [S. 54.] 

1310. 30 days, granted by Walter [Stapledon], Bp. of Exeter, for Pater 
and Ave for the soul of Peter de Gromvill, formerly Canon of Sarum, 
buried [1310] in church of friars preachers (Blackfriars), London. 
Stockwell, near London, 6 Nov., 1310. " Mortuorum memoria." [Box 
" Wells, Exeter."] [S. 55.] 

1311. 30 days, granted by John [de Ualderby], Bp. of Lincoln, for prayers 
for the soul of Mr. Peter de Grunvill Rector of Whitchurch, in dio. 
Lincoln, Canon of Sarum. Wimborn, 9 kl. Jun., 1311. " Pium 
nouimus" [S. 56.] 

1315. 30 + 30 + 40 days, granted by Roger de Mortival, for visitants on 
festivals at Shaftesbury. Mortival Regist., ii., f. 1. 

1316. 40 days, granted by Roger de Mortival, Bp. of Sarum, to con- 
tributors to the old work and the belfry of St. Paul's, London. Dugdale, 
St. Paul's, p. 10 ; Camden Soc, N.S., xxvi., p. 177. 

1329. Oct. 26th. Statute of Roger de Mortival, Bp., cap. 22. " De 
indulgenciis pro fabrica publicandis." For the Cathedral at Salisbury. 



By Canon Chr. Wordstvorth. 2 9 

" Orbis Factor." Directs that such indulgences be proclaimed on the 
Sundays in Lent and until Low Sunday, and offers an additional grant 
of 40 days, to those visiting the Church during those times. Statutes of 
Salisbury Cathedral, 1883, pp. 49, 50. 

1312. Oct. 26th. Statute of Eoger de Mortival, cap. 38. "Dereliquiis 
et veneracionibus sanctorum " offers 40 days to those of his own diocese 
(and to others where their own bishops approved), visiting Salisbury, 
Cathedral on the anniversary feast of its dedication. " Nunqtiam vsus." 
Statutes of Salisbury Cathedral" 1883. pp. 68, 69. 

1320. 40 days. Mandatum ad publicandum indulgenciam benefactoribus 
ecclesie Sar. 7 kl. Feb., 1319—20. Mortival Regist., f. 92. 

dr. 1320. 40 days, granted by Roger de Mortival, Bp. of Sarum, to hearers 
of sermons by Canons of Salisbury. Mortival Regist., ii., f . 104. 

cir- 1326. Indulgencia pro pace inter reges Anglie et Francie. Mortival 
Regist., ii., 202. 

1327. ?40 days, granted by Roger [de Mortival], Bp. of Sarum, for 
prayers for the soul of Ralph of York. Pottern, 10 kl., Oct., 1327. 
[S. 57] 

1327. 30 days, granted by Roger [de Mortival], Bp. of Sarum. for prayers 
for the soul of W. de Cherdstock, canon. 10 kal., Oct., 1327. [S. 58.] 

cir. 1328. Littera tangen' tumbam Symonis deOandavo, nuper Episcopi 
Sar. Mortival Regist, ii., f. 248. 

1328. 40 days, granted by Roger [de Mortival, Bp. of Sarum, for prayers 
for the soul of Bp. Nicholas Longespe. Sarum, kal. Mar., 1327 — 8 a 
consecr., xiij. [Box " Sarum, Bangor." Seal imperfect.] [S. 59.] 

? 1334. 300 days, granted by Pope John XXII. (? 2 Dec, 1334), for saying 

or hearing the gospel. " Apprehendit Bilatus" Missale Sarum, p. 890.* 
cir. 1335. 40 days, granted for praying for the soul of William de St. 

John, parson of Ramsbury. Inscription in French, on a stone in the 

chancel at Ramsbury. See E. Kite, Monumental Brasses of Wilts, p. 10. 
cir. 1336. Indulgencia pro hospitali B. Marie Magdalene, de Lyme. 

Wyvil Regist., i., f. 40. 
1340. Indulgencia pro fratre W. Dughernt, paupere heremita, de capella 

S. Andree de Bradley in Haukechurch. Wyvil Regist., i., f. 54. 
1340. Indulgencia ad orandum pro defunctis. (Particulars not specified.) 

Wyvil Regist., i., f. 54. 
cir. 1340. Indulgencia pro ecclesia, concernens eccl. Omnium Sanctorum 

apud Dorchester in diocesi Lincoln. Wyvil Regist., i., f. 66. 
cir. 1340. Indulgencia concessa ecclesie S. Laurencii juxta Candlewyke- 

strete, London. Wyvil Regist., i., f. 66. 
cir. 1348. 260 days, granted by Pope Clement [VI.], for hearing the 

mass de mortalitate evitanda. Sarum Missal, p. 886.* 
1353. Ad publicandum indulgenciam Ecclesie Sar. pro continuacione 

operis sive fabrice. (To be published in Churches from 1st Sunday in 

Lent to Low Sunday). Wyvil Regist., i., f., 164. 
1355. Littera ad orandum pro R. Shawell pugile electo pro recuperacione 

castri Shireburn. Jan., 1355. Wyvil Regist., i., f. 177. 
1374 — 5.- 40 days, granted by Ralph Erghum, Bp. of Salisbury, to en- 
courage contributions to the Hospital of Holy Trinity and St. Thomas 



30 Wiltshire Pardons or Indulgences. 

of Canterbury at Kome. See Register of Edmund Stafford, Bp. of 
Exeter, i. 22 b. (ed. F. C. H. Randolph, p. 308). 

1376. Indulgencia concessa questoribus hospitalis S. Trinitatis Oxon. 
22 Mar., 1375—6. Ergham Regist., f. 3. 

1376. 40 days, granted by Ra. Ergham in ' Littera ad recipiendum pro- 
curators domus S. Margarite iuxta Marleburg. Ord. S. Gilleberti de 
Sempringham." 2 April, 1376. Ergham Regist., f. 4. 

1 376. Indulgencia pro capella S. Johannis Bapt.de Bichstep inWarbelton, 
com. Sussex. Ergham Regist., f. 5. 

dr. 1376. Indulgencia pro Willielmo Holgate capto ab hostibus et in- 
carcerato per Francos. Ergham Regist., f. 5. 

1379. 3 years and 3 lentings and 600 days, granted to contributors to 
Trinity Hospital, Sarum, by Simon Sudbury, Abp. of Canterbury, and 
the Bps. of London, Winton, Durham, Ely, Lincoln, Sarum (Ergham), 
Bath and Wells, Rochester, and St. Asaph. Benson & Hatcher's 
Salisbury, p. 752. 

cir. 1386. Mandatum ad orandum pro aninia Johannis [Hare well] 
Bathon. et Wellensis Episcopi, qui obiit mense Julio incipiente. A.D. 
1386. lirgham Regist., f. 82. 

1388. Littera ad colligendum questum cum indulgencia pro hospitali S. 
Antonii diocesis Viennensis. 1388. Waltham Regist., f. 6. 

1388. Littera questus continens indulgenciam pro prioratuS. Margarete 
[ordinis S. Gilberti de Sempringham] de Marleburgh. 1388. Waltham 

Regist., f. 8. 
1338. Indulgencia, 40 dierum, pro hospitali S. Johannis, prioris, fratrum, 
sororum et infirmorum de Wylton, cuius fabrica per teroporis lapsum. 
ruinam patitur. Waltham Regist., f. 12. 

1 389. 40 days. Indulgencia pro hospitali S. Johannis Baptiste prope 
castrum [veteris] Sarum, et pauperibus degentibus in eodem. 10 
Jan., 1388 — 9. " Ut pauperes hospitalis. Waltham Regist. f. 12. Ben- 
son & Hatcher's Salisbury, p. 751. 

1389. Indulgencia pro ponte de Berebrigge apud Warton in Kendal, dio. 
Ebor. 31 Jan., 1388—9. Waltham Regist, f. 14. 

1389. Indulgencia pro ponte et calceto in parochia de Symondesbury et 
Chideock in agro Dorset. 4 Mar., 1388 — 9. Waltham Regist., f. 12. 

1389. Indulgencia pro visitantibus capellam B. Virginis de Bowe, in 
orientali parte monasterii de Sherborne. Waltham Regist., f. 31. 

1391. Monicio generalis super indulg' pro capella B. Marie super pontem 
orientalem [B. Anne], clausi Sar. Waltham Regist., ii., f. 13. 

1393. Pope Boniface IX. grants 2 years and 2 quarentanes, or Lentings 
to the faithful resorting to the house ef the Black Friars of Fisherton, 
Salisbury, out of devotion to St. Peter, Martyr. Bullarium Ordinis 
Predicatorum, ii., 332. 

1396. Littera Michaelis Sergeant vicarii spiritual., in absencia episcopi, 
ad colligendum elemosinas pro hospitali pauperum debilium et infir- 
morum S. Trinitatis Sarum, infra parochiam S. Martini 12 Apr., 1396. 
Metford Regist., f. 6. 

cir. 1396. Littera pro hospitali S. Antonii dioc. Viennensis. Metford 
Regist., 6. 



By Canon Chr. Wordsworth. 31 

1396. Indulgencia pro hospitali S. Thome de Aeon, Lond. Metford 

Regist. cxvii. 
1396. 40 days, granted by Richard Metford, Bp. of Sarum, for St. Giles' 

Hospital, Wilton, 26 Mar., 1396. Metford Regist. cxix. 
1 396. Indulgencia super domo leprosorum B. Marie de Langfort, dioc. 

Bathon. et VVellen. Metford Regist., cxx. 
131J6. Indulgencia super domo leprosorum de Honyngton dio. Exon. in 

altari B. INicholai apud Sherborne. Metford Regist., exxi. 

1396. Indulgence for the common road between Milcent Bawe and 
Henxbridge cross " in nostra diocesi." Metford Regist., exxi. 

dr. 1396. Indulgencia pro Edmundo Arthur, eremita de S. Maria le 

Bowe, apud Sherborne. Metford Regist., exxi. 
cir. 1397. 40 days. Indulgencia pro capella seu heremitag. S. Andree de 

Bradeford, pro reparacione eiusdem. ibid., cxxiii b . (12 Jul.). 

1397. Indulgencia pro animabus Johannis et Juliane Underwood de 
Litchet Minster. Metford Regist., exxiiij. 

1397. Indulgencia pro Hospitali S. Trinitatis nove Sarum. 2 Sept., 1397. 

Metford Regist., exxvi. 
1400. 40 days, granted by T. Arundel, Abp. of Cant., for repeating Pater 
and Ave at the tolling of curfew and day bell. " Mandatum pro 

pnlsacione ignitegii et Day -bell." 12 Feb., 1399—1400. Metford 

Regist., f. 143. Gf. Alcuin Club, Collection xv. Injunctions, ii., 42 n. 
1411. Against unauthorised pardoners. Monicio ne questores in diocesi 

Sar. admittantur pro hospitali contra concilium generale. Halam 

Regist., 15. 
1410. Indulgencia pro Jreedificatione ecclesie de Laverstoke. Halam 

Regist., 45. 
1410. 40 days Indulgencia pro Hospitali S. Johannis Baptiste de Malmes- 

bury, 2 June, 1410. Halam Regist., f. 47. 
1413. Indulgencia pro visitantibus limina S. Edwardi in monasterio 

Shaston jacent. 22 Jan., 1412 — 13. Halam Regist., f. 56. 
1418. 40 days Indulgencia pro domo sive hospitali Trinitatis et S. 

Thome martiris in civitate Sarum, concessa Stephano Caselat collectori. 

18 Apr., 1418. Chandler Reg., episc. p. iii., f. 3. 
14 18. Carta super annuo censu sol vendo Hospitali S. Johannis Hiero- 

solymitani in Anglia apud Clerkenwell. Chandler Reg. Episc, p. iii., 

f. 5. 
1426. Indulgencia concessa monasterio de Wilton. For S. Edith's 

holiday, on September 16th annually. 4 Mar., 1425—6. Chandler 

Reg. Episc. p. iii., f. 44. 
cir. 1432. Indulgencia cum ordinacione Henrici Chichele, Cantuar, 

Archiepi, pro admissione questorum pro tribus hospitalibus tantum ; 

viz. , Hospitali E. Thome Cantuar, Jo. Shepherd, in Borne. Hospitali S. 

Johannis hierosolymitani, the Frary. Et Hospitali S. Antonii. Nevyll 
Regist., f. 31. 
1440. Indulgencia pro edificacione campanilis de Cranburne. 12 Apr., 

1440. Ayscough Regist., p. ii., f. 45. 
cir. 1445. " Summa indulgencie annorum et dierum omnibus visitantibus 

hanc ecclesiam, vere confessis et contritis hac die, viij. anni. xlj. dies; 



32 Wiltshire Pardons or Indulgences. 

preter indulgenciam concessam huic ecclesie, que est xj. anni. clxxv. 
dies. Summa totalis xix. anni. ccc.xvj. dies." Bidding the Bedes 
from MS. Processionale, Chapter Library, MS. 148, f. 19 b . 

(Mr. Maiden observes that the grant of 100 days, made by Pope 
Alexander IV. in 1258, would suffice to make these totals correspond.) 

Sum total of Indulgences, cir. 1450. " It is granted to all her' beyng at 
this tyme able to receue pardon, viij. yer' xlj. dayes, beside the indul- 
gences of old tyme graunted, which is, xj. yer' iij score and xv. dayes. 
Summa totalis, xix. yer' cccxvj. dayes." Proclamation of the Relicks 
and Indulgences. Salisbury Processions, p. 41, from MS. 148, fo. 19 b . 

1452. 40 days : Indulgencia pro ecclesia prebendali de Wodeford. a . iii°. 
Beauchamp Regist., i., f. 16. 

1456. 40 days : Indulgencia pro captivis apud Constantinoplim, uxore 
et filiis Demetrii Paleologi. 20 Feb., 1555—6. Beauchamp Reg., i., f. 43. 

1457. 10 years [and ? 10 lents] on St. Osmund's Day (4th Dec), and 3 
years and 3 lents, each day within the octave, granted by Pope Callixtus 
III. to visitors at St. Osmund's shrine ? total 34 years, 145 days. 
Rome, 1 Jan., 1457. Canonization of St. Osmund, p. 234. 

1470. Indulgencia papalis plenaria Pauli II. pape, apud S. Thomam 

Cantuariensem. 2 non, Jun., 1470. Beauchamp Regist., i. f. 122. 
1472 — 3. 23rd Jan. ; 12 years and 12 lents, granted by Pope Sixtus IV. to 
those who visit the Cathedral Church on the obit and Translation of 
St. Osmund (4 Dec. & 16 Jul.) and assist in repairs of the fabric. MS. 
Miscellanea el Statuta quoad Sarum, f. 12. 
1473 — 1501, Oblations to the fabric of St. Edmund's, Salisbury, yearly 
at Michaelmas and Lady Day, at the publication of the Papal Indul- 
gence. Oh. Wardens' Accounts, St. Edmund's, Salisbury, pp. 14 — 53, 
361-9. 
1477. April 3. A jubilee indulgence granted by Pope Sixtus IV. to J. 
Ly veden [of Brixton Deverill], esquire, and Avice, his wife, of Salisbury 
diocese. Certificate by the Abbot of Abingdon, papal collector. 
Salisbury. W. A. Mag., xxxvii., p. 16. Miss Hughes' MS., No. 30. 
1480. Indulgence of " St. Johnys of Jerusalem," at St. Edmund's, Salis- 
bury. Ch. Wardens' Accounts, p. 25 ; cf. pp. xvi., 24, 26. 
1487. Littera pro questoribus admittendis pro hospitali S. Marie de 
Bethlehem juxta Bishopsgate. 20 Dec, 1487. Beauchamp Regist., ii., 
L. 25. 
cir. 1448. Littera pro questore S. Thome de Aeon. Beauchamp Regist., 

ii., L. 28. 

1496. 40 days, granted to those who contribute meat and drink to help 

proyide for the concourse of a general chapter of the Carmelites to be 

holden at Marlborough Priory in Assumption week, Aug., 1496. Blythe 

Regist., p. ii., f. 39. 

cir. 1496. Littera testimonialis pro transeunte ad terrain sanctam. 

Blythe Regist., p. ii., f. 40. 
1503. Indulgencia concessa hospitali S. Johannis de Divisis. 23 Nov., 

1503. Audley Regist., f. 172. 
1503. Indulgencia pro Roberto Key, incendium passo. Audley Regist. 
f. 171. 



By Canon Chr. Wordsworth. 33 

cir. 1503. Indulgencia pro hospitalibus S. Antonii de Hounslow,S.Thome 
de Aeon, &c. Audley Regist., f. 172. 

1504. Monicio ne questores admittantur sine consensu episcopi. 4 Jan. 
1503—4. Audley Regist., f. 114. 

1504. Indulgencia pro constitucione capelle S. Anne in parochia de 
Remesbury. 14 Jan., 1503 — 4. Audley Regist., f. 115. 

1504. Iudulgencia pro capella de Frome Whytfeld prope Dorchester. 
19 Feb., 1503—4. Audley Regist., f. 117. 

1506. 40 days : Indulgencia pro ponte de Crawford. 7 Dec, 1506. 
Audley Regist., f. 133. 

1510. Sept. 5th. " Hore beatissime virginis Marie ad vsum Sarisburiensis 
ecclesie . . . cum mtdtis oracionibus et indulgences iam vltimo 
recenter insertis. Printed in 8vo, by Thielman Kerver, Paris, for W. 
Bretton, London. 

cir. 1515. 40 days, granted by Edmund Audley, Bp. of Salisbury (and 
the like by Abp. W. Warham, J. Fisher, and other prelates), in support 
of a Brief from Pope Leo X., for redemption of Sir J. Pyllett, knight 
of the Holy Sepulchre, "from Mauris and Infidels." Brit. Mus. C. 18, 
e. 2 (49). 

1526. 32,755 years of pardon granted for the devotion of the Image of 
Pity, "and Sixtus the iiij., Pope of Rome (1471 — 84), hath made the 
iiij. and the v. prayer, and hath dowbulled his forsayde pardon." 
Hore B.V.M- ad usum Sarum, Paris, 1526, f. 54. 

1531. "The armes of our Lord" " 6000 yeres pardon." The Image of 
our Lady, 11,000 years' pardon, and other such indulgences, in the 
Hore B.V.M. ad usum Sarum. 1531. f. 69b. &c. 

One seventh part of the remission of all their sins granted by St. Boniface 
the Pope, for those who say the Mass of the Five Wounds. Missale 
Sarum p. 750. * 

100 days, granted by Pope Urban V., for saying or hearing the mass of 

Corpus Christi. Missale ad usum Sarum, 1526, p. 455 n. 
1536. 10,000 years indulgence granted by Pope Alexander VI. (1492 — 
1503), to penitents for deadly sins, and 20 years for venial sins, totieni 
quotiens, for use of a version of the Ave, in which St. Anne is included. 
Hore B.V.M. ad usum Sarum, 1535 — 6; with upwards of 30 other 
indulgences. [Such pardons were known as " tot quots."~\ 

1538. Injunction (No. 22) for Salisbury Diocese by Nic. Shaxton, Bp. of 
Sarum (Imprinted at London in Fleet street, at the sign of the Sun, by 
John Byddell, and are to sell at the Close-Gate in Salisbury.) " That 
the bell called the Pardon, or Ave Bell, which of long time ' hath been 
used to be tolled three times after or before Divine Service, be not 
hereafter in any part of my diocese any more tolled." Alcuin Club 
Collection XV., 8vo, 1910. Injunctions, ii., p. 60. 

1 Cf. the 16th of the Second Royal Injunctions of K. Henry VIII., ibid., 
42 ; where Dr. Frere notes that Pope John XXII. (dr. 1316— 34)recom- 

ended the recitation of three Aves at curfew, and Abp. Arundel ordered 

n Ave at daybreak and curfew throughout his province. See above, p. 31. 

he devotion was extended and encouraged by Sixtus IV. at the instance 
Elizabeth of York (cir. 1475 — 84) and by English Archbishops and 

i3hops, 26th March, 1492. E. Hoskins, Primers, 1901, p. 126. 

OL. XXXVIII. — NO. CXIX. D 



34 



NOTES AS TO NAMES AND LANDMARKS IN 
MARLBOROUGH. 

Taken from the Leases (cir. 1536 — 1708) recorded in the " Corporation 
Survey Book," begun in 1576. 

By E. Ll. Gwtllim. 

The Cage. "One tenement called the Cage lying 'in Kyngesbury 
Street." 

Our Lady Chantry. 1 From lease dated 10th March, 17°. Eliz. (1575). 
to Ric. Oornewall. 

" betwene a tenement belonging to the late Chauntrey calld our lady j 
Chauntrey in the tenure of Margaret Taylor of the N. partie and the , 
churchyarde of St. Maryes of the W. partie." 

Fraternity of the Blessed Name of Jesus. From a lease dated i 
19th August, 17° Eliz. (1575), to W. Carver. 

" A tenement in Kyngesbury Streate, between a tenement late John | 
Fryse of the S. part and a tenement sometyme perteyening to the fraternitie ' 
of the blessed Name of Jesus of the N. parte." 

The Hermitage and Dymer's Close. From a lease dated 19th ] 
August, 17th Elizabeth (1575), to Bic. Cohnan. 

" One tenement and a garden adioining, called the Hermitage lying in the ! 
Bally Warde in Marlebrough betwene a tenement of the maior and bur- 1 
gesses now in the tenure of J. Cotton of the W. partie and acertaynelane,' 
leading from the Quenes hye waie unto a certayne close called Dymer's '| 
close of the E. partie and extendeth to a meade of the inheritance of 
J. Symons of the N. partie and the Quene's highe waie of the S. partie-,} 
And also one cottage Or shambles newlie builded in the high strete of M.\ 
over the gutter that runneth under the cage." 

The Lyon in Herd Street. From a lease dated 19th August, lfll 
Eliz. (1575). 

Two tenements and a close of pasture with two gardens and two curtilages!) 
in " Herd Street, " betwene the Inne called the Lyon of the S. partie and aj' 
close in tenure of the said T. Pyke of the N. partie." 

1 For references to " Our Lady('s) Chantry," and to many other Marl; 
borough names which occur in this list, see the Index to vol. xxxvi. (A.D ( 
1910) pp. 677—679. 



Notes as to Names and Landmarks in Marlborough. 35 

W. Mydwynter's (now, 1910, Mr. A. M. Adams') Brewery. From a 
lease, 29th August, 12° Eliz. (1570). 

A. tenement with orchard and garden on the N. side of the High Street. 
"A tenement th'inheritance of Antony VVhytehart in the tenure of W. Goff e, 
of the W. partie and a tenement belonging to the churche of St. Peter now 
in the tenure of W. Mydwynter bocher (Ashton House and brewery, 19 L0) 
of the E. partie unto a meade called the Harte meade on the N. partie." 

Coolebridge [Cowbridge]. From a lease, 1.2th Nov., 16° Eliz. (1574) 
to W. Carver. 

A tenement with a close of meadow adjoining, lying in the Marsh Ward, 
*' betwene a close of pasture of W. Thynne gent, in the tenure of Ellen 
Collyns widowe of the S. partie and the bridge called Coolebridge of th' E. 
partie which premisses sometyme belonged to the Hospitall of St. Jo(h)nes 
in Marlebrough." 

Coolebridge, afterwards called " Cowbridge." The bridge leading to the 
railway stations and Hospital of St. John, now the Grammar School. 

Cowbridge and Bawleus Well. From a lease, 17 April, 14° Eliz. 
(1572), to Robert Mydwynter alias Kyng. 

A close of meadow lying in the Marsh Ward " at th'end of a bridg called 
Cowbridg between the cawsey leading to Cowbridg aforesaid on the W. 
partie and a lane or dyche leading up towardes Rawlens well on th'E. partie 
and the Ryver of Kynnett on the S. partie." 

St. John's Close and Blynde Lane. From a lease, 16th April, 14° 
Eliz. (1572), to T. Pyke. 

" A close of meadow or pasture called St. Jo(h)nes Close in the parish of 
■St. Peters, ' betwene a close called the Bell Close on the S. partie and a 
certaine narrow lane called the Blynde lane of the N. partie and extendeth 
from the Quenes higgh waie of the E partie unto the forsaid lane called the 
Blynde lane of the W. partie." 2 

Pound's Close. From a lease, 27th June, 1577, to Bic Collman. 

" One plock of medow called Pounds Close, containing by estimation 12 
roddes in length, and in breadth 2J roddes on the E. side of Kyngesbury 
Streat." 

Newland Street. From a lease, 18th July, 7° Eliz. ( 1 565). 

" A street ther called Newland " mentioned. (Now named " St. Martins " 
after the Church, now demolished, and marked only by the yew tree, near 
which it stood). 

" Newlande Street, alias St. Martins Street," is mentioned in several leases. 

Baywater and St. Martin's Lane. From a lease, 10th Sept., 7° 
Eliz. (1565), to Bic. Weare, alias Brown- 

" Two closes and a barne whereof one contains by estimation 2 acres and 
lyeth at the Bay pyttes 3 betwene a close in the tenure of Rob. Hanle on the 
N. partie and a close in the tenure of J. Cornewall on the S. partie the water 

1 The meadow S. of the Workhouse. 

2 The lane leading past Deverill House to the Common. 

3 At the end of the lane past Poulton Hill cottages. 

T) 2 



36 Notes as to Navies and Landmarks in Marlborough. 

called Bay water on the E. partie and St. Marty ns lane ' on the W. partie." 

Cross Close and Bay pitt Lane. From a lease, 13th Aug., 7° Eliz. 
(1565), to Walter Mersam. 

" One close of pasture or mead called Crosse close, 2 containing by estima- 
tion 2£ acres, lying in the Grene Ward in Marlebrough adjoining to Cole- 
harbor on the N. partie, Bay pitt lane 3 on tli'E. partie, St. Martin's Lane 
on the W. partie, and the Queries highway on the S. partie." 

Chymynage Close. From a lease dated 18th June, 7° Eliz. (1565), to 
J. Perrynhefe. 

A close called Chymynage close, 4 in Herd Street, <: betwene a close of 
Rob. Tubbyas of the S. partie the lane leading from the Thornes into 
Blowhorn Street, alias Pylat 5 Street, 1 on the N. partie." 

Laney's Close. From a lease, 14th July, 7° Eliz. (1565) to Ric. Laney. 

" One platt of meade in Blowhorne Street." 

" A platt of Rob. Weare gent, in the tenure of Walter Newport of the S. 
partie and platt of ground of T. Pyke sometyme the churche yarde of St. 
Martyn's on th'E. partie a close of the maior and burgesses in the tenure 
of the said Ric. Laney 6 on the N. partie and the Quene's high way on the 
W. partie." 

Stonebridge. From a lease, 6th July, 7° Eliz. (1565), to Ric. Colman. 

" A close of pasture in the Greene Warde on th'E. syde of the hygh way 
nere to Newbridge, 7 betwene the water of Kynnet of the S- partie and a close 
in the tenure of T. Chylwey on the N. partie." 

Holdiche and Large's Close. From a lease, 1st Dec, 5° Eliz. (1562), 
to J. Cornwall. 

" Three closes of pasture in the Green Ward one called Holdiche, 8 con- 
taining by estimation 2 acres lyeth on th'E. syde of the said ward betwene 
a close late T. Bacon's now in the tenure of the said J. Cornwall of the N. 
partie in the town diche on the E. partie the Quene's high way leading to 
Polton bridg on the S. partie." 

" One other close calld Larges lieth in the said warde nere to Rawlens 
well, which containeth by estimation J an acre adioyning to a close of the 
said J. Cornwall of th'E partie. 

And the other of the said 3 closes cont. by est. \ an acre lyeth in the said 
Warde near unto the said well called Rawlens well. 

Goddard's Close. From a lease, 13th June, 28° Hen. VIII. (1536), to 
J. Fryse. 

1 St. Martin's Lane=Cold Harbour Lane. 
-' Crosse Close, the meadow in front of G. Bailey's house. 
3 Baypitt Lane=Tin Pit Lane. 
* Chymynage Close, now occupied by Mr. Milburn. 
Pylat Street, still called Blowhorn Street. 
6 Still known as Laney's Close, and so called in the Survey Book in 1688. 
See that date. 

7 Known as Stonebridge (or Stonybridges) Lane. 
s Left-hand side of Poulton Hill. 



By E. LI. Gwillim. 37 

A close of pasture called Goddards close, 1 in a streat called Blowhorne 
Street, alias Pylat Street. 

"Betwene the land sometyme belonging to St. Marty n's Church on the 
N". partie the land of the maior and burgesses of the S. partie and extendeth 
from the Kynges high way of the W. partie unto a lane called St. Martyns 
lane of th'E partie. 

The Bear. From a lease, 16th July, 7° Eliz. (1565), to Philip Colleye. 

" A tenement on the S. side of the High Street betwene the inne called 
the signe of the Beare on the W. partie, a smythes shope in the occupation 
of Bobert Lanford on the E. partie." 

St. Mary's Church. From a lease, 25th Sept., 4° Ed. VI. (1550), to 
Bic. Mayle. 

In description of a tenement on E. side of Kingsbury Street. " ... 
and extendeth from the Queenes highway on the W. partie unto a close of 
pasture lately belonging to our Ladies service in the parish churche of St. 
Maries in Marlebrough on th'E. partie." 

St. Xatherine's Chantry. From a lease, 11th July, 7° Eliz. (1565), 
to Alice Spencer. 

A tenement in Bailey Ward [High Street] is described as having "a' 
tenement of the Quenes Maiesty, sometyme belonging to St. Katheryns 
Chauntry, on the W. partie." 

Bally Close. From a lease, 26th March, 3° Eliz. (1561), to Walter 
Mersam. 

"A barn and ground on the W. part of the Bailey Ward betwene a barne 
of Antony Whitharte on the S. parte a close of pasture belonging to Barton 
Ferme called the Bally Close on the S.W. partie the Quenes highway on 
E. partie and the Towne diche on the W. partie." 

Blynde Lane and Hermitage Lane. From a lease ... 4 
Eliz. (1561, or 1562), to J. Brownberd. 

" A close of meadow on the W. partie of a lane called the Blynde Lane 
betwene a close of Bob. Mydwynter of the N. partie and a tenement of 
J. Symons on the S. partie, and extendeth from the said lane unto a lane 
called Hermitage lane on the W. partie." 

Postern Gate. From a lease, 1st Nov., 18° Eliz. (1576), to W. Danyell. 

"All that their parcell of leyne ground containing by estimation 2 acre 
be it more or less lying together upon the hill on th'E. side of Postern gate 
sometym called the Horsedowne ther within the paryshe of Preshutt being 
bounded as followeth one end of the same 2 acres begynneth at a merestone 
of late newly pight upon th'E. parti and extendeth from thence to the ashe 
and so along by the olde diche to the waie called Posterngat on the S. partie. 
And so from the saide gate upon the new quick set hedg upon the brink 
unto another merestone also lately set on the N. side full over right against 
first merestone." 

[This is interesting as showing that the Corporation of Marlborough once 
had some rights on the Forest Bank. " Postern Cate " I guess to be " Five 
Stiles " now.— (E. LI. Gwillim.)] 

1 Part of Laney's Close. Pylat Street, still called Blowhorn Street. 



38 Notes as to Names and Landmarks in Marlborovgh. 

Cowbridge Close. From a lease dated ... to Rob. Glover. 

" One plott of void ground lieing nere Cowebridge betwene a close of the 
mayor and burgesses called Cowbridge Close on th'E. partie, the bridge on 
the W. partie, and the water of Kennett on the S. partie. 

Castell Inn. From a lease, 20th Nov., 40° Eliz. (1597), to Roger 
Hitchcock. 

" A barn situate upon the Town Ditch in the Rally Ward betwene a close 
of meadow called the Rally Close on the W. side, the yeard or backside of 
the Messe or Inn called the Castell on th'este side." 

[Note. —A " Castell Inne" existing already in 1597.] 

Coleherbert Lane. In a lease, 20th April, 40° Eliz. (1598), to J. 
Cornewall. 

" A lane called Coleherbert lane, alias St. Martyn's Church there." 

Newbridge Lane. In a lease, 10th Aug., 11° Jac. I. (1613), Newbridge 
Lane, in the Green Ward, is mentioned. 

Almshouse. From a lease, 6th May, 16 Jac. I. (1618), to T. Millington- 

A tenement and a void plot of ground on the E. side next unto the street 
in the Marsh Ward betwene the Almehouse on the N. and the land of T. 
Millington ... on the S." 

[Now Sebastopol Buildings.] 

In subsequent leases the tenement demised as above is described as lying 
"betwene a tenement of the land of Giles Millington in the tenure of Rob. 
Stagge on the S., the Almeshouse on the N., the Streete on the E., and the 
Schoole close on the W." 

Workhouse. In a lease, 22nd August, 1649, to Antony Awst. 

" A tenement or cottage heretofore in the tenure of Humfrey Ilsley and a 
plott of void ground thereto adioyning and extending thence to the 
Workhouse and lyeing in the Ballydich." 

[St. Peter's Workhouse.] 

Crabb's Close. In 1653 Crabb's Close was occupied by Thomas Crabb. 

Hart Mead and Crabb's Close. From a lease, 19th March, 1655, to 
Nathaniel Rashleigh. 

"A close of meadow containing by estimation 1 acre with a barne there- 
uppon standing now in the tenure of T. Crabb lyeing betwene the Hart 
meade on the N. and other Chamber land lett to the 4 several tenants last 
mencioned (Survey Book, pp. 53 and 44) on the S." 

[The Hart meade must have been to the N. of Crabbs' Close.] 

Bell Inn, Kingsbury Street. From a lease, 20th April, 1654, to 
W. Purrier. 

A messuage there new building on the W. side of Kingsbury Street. 

" Betwene a messuage called the Rell on the S., and other Chamber land 
then in the occupation of Obadiah Blissett on the N." 

In a lease, 7th Nov., 1655, to T. Bryant, of a messuage in Kingsbury, it 
is described as newly built, where was a former messuage called the Bell 
" burnt by the late great fier'' [April, 1653.] The sign of " The Bell " occurs 
at Marlborough in St. Peter's Rental, A.D. 1571. It was known about 
1698 as " The Bell and Brewers." (" The Bell and Shoulder," on the E. of 
Kingsbury Street, occurs from 1782.) 



By E. LI. Gwillim. 39 

Pound Close and King's Head Close. From a lease, 27th Aug , 
1656, to W. Dickman. 

" All such part of a certen tenement called Pound Close att the upper end 
and on the E. side of Kingsbury Streete as adioneth to a meadow called 
Kinges Hed close on the N. and E. parts." 

Workhouse and Hermitage Close. From a lease, 30th Sept., 1 658, 
to W. Willing. 

"A tenement over against the Workhouse betwene the street on the S. 
and W. partes, and a garden now used with the same tenement parcell of 
Hermitage Close on the N. 

The Katherine Wheel. From a lease, 28th Feb., 1666, to W. Church. 

A. messuage lately erected called the Katherine Wheele in Kingsbury 
Street in the parish of St Mary, " between the land of Nicholas Liddeard 
on the S., the land of Walter Randoll on the N, Kingsbury Street on the 
W., the land of the Mayor and Burgesses of the Devizes on the E. " The 
Catherine Wheel " is now known as " The Cricketers." It was at one time 
called the " Barleymow," at another " The George and Dragon," and is said 
to have been once " The Freemasons' Arms." 

The Holy Lamb. From a lease, 27th July, 24° Car. II. (1672), to J. 
Lyme. 

A messuage in Hurd Street on the E. side, " nowe an Alehouse known 
by the signe of the Holy Lamb." 

The Three Swans. From a lease, 20th Oct., 2° Jac. II. (1686), to W. 
Hill. 

" A tenement in St. Martins called the Three Swans lyeing next the house 
of Gabriell Mills on the E., and the widowe Garlicks on the W. 

The Angel. From a lease, 28th Dec, 1687. 
"Mr. T.Hunt of the Angell. 

Laney's Close. In a lease, 5 Jan., 3° Jac. II., (1688), to J. Foster. 

Laney's Close first occurs at this date by this name in the Survey Book. 
Bic. Laney, however, occupied this close as early as 1565. See above, 
" Laney's Close," p. 36. 

The Bear. From a lease, 4th June, 1687, to W. Greinfeild. 

A tenement in the High Ward " betwene the dwelling house of Humphry 
Wall, gent, heretofore a common inne caled the Beare on the W., the newe 
dwelling house of T. Seymour draper on the E., and extendeth from the 
street on the N. unto the land of the said W. Greinfeild being a waye that 
leadeth from the Marsh on the E., unto the back or yarde late belongeinge 
to the Beare on the S." ("A tenement called Le Bere, with an orchard 
and garden, and a certain way leading to a way called Kingsbury-street.'' 
Court Book D. fo. 32, A.D. 1525.) Now No. 3, High Street. Mr. Joshua 
Sacheverell (father to Dr. H. S.) soon after he became rector of St. Peter's, 
Marlborough (1669) prefixed to St. Peter's register this " Memorandum : 
that Mr. Humphrey Wall and heires, occupants of the dwelling and lands 
formerly known by the signe of the Bear, are by Composition to pay to th e ' 



40 Notes as to Names and Landmarks in Marlborough. 

Rector of this parish yearly at Easter the summe of 10s. for their seat in 
the south corner of the Chancell." ' 

The Cock. Lease, 13th Oct., 1697, granted to Anthony Powell: — 

" One messuage or tenement called the Cocke." In the Baylye Ward. 
(A note in the margin says that the Churchwardens of St. Peter's have the 
counterpart.) The Mount Inn, or Mount House, now the confectioner's at 
No. 1, Bridewell Street, near Marlborough College, was built after 1743 by 
Francis Greenaway. It was called " The Antelope " in 1791, and " The 
Fighting Cocks " in 1833. It was sold by St. Peter's parish in 1885. 

The Three Cups. From a lease, 29th March, 1708, to Mary Lyppyatt. 

" Two messuages known by the sign of the Three Cupps in the Marsh 
Ward the land late in the tenure of Mary Hurll on the N., tenements in 
the tenure of the widow Elford on the S., and part of the close called 
Cowbride Close on the N. and W., the River Kennett on the S., and other 
gardens in the tenure of . . . on the W. and the highway there." The 
sign of " The Three Cups " is traced back to 1667. It was afterwards 
changed (1774) to " The Chequers," and subsequently (1777) to " The Plume 
of Feathers." 



1 This paragraph, with some others in the present set of " Notes," has 
been communicated by Canon Christopher Wordsworth, Sub-dean of 
Salisbury, formerly Rector of St. Peter's, Marlborough. 



41 



PREHISTORIC AND ROMAN SWINDON. 
By A. D. Passmoee. 

The peculiar situation of Swindon Hill, half way between the 
high downs and the low lands, its dry soil, which soaks up the 
heaviest storms a few minutes after they have fallen, and the 
commanding outlook over an enormous tract of country, would 
make it exceedingly attractive to early man, who, living almost 
wholly in the open, could here find his two greatest needs, a plentiful 
food supply and a dry situation for his huts. As a defensive 
position it was also desirable because in prehistoric, and probably 
much later times, it was surrounded on three sides by swamps 
and water, leaving a narrow ridge of dry land towards Coate, which 
would be the only means of access to the hill for any considerable 
body of an enemy, or in a lesser degree of wild animals. 

With these facts in mind, investigations were commenced some 
years ago, and although by no means completed, it seems desirable 
to place on record what facts have as yet been ascertained. 

Although traces of Palaeolithic man on Swindon Hill are hardly 
to be expected, a small pointed ovate implement, finely shaped, of 
that period has been picked up in the immediate neighbourhood, as 
well as several flakes of similar age. At various sites on the hill 
flint flakes of doubtful age may be found, but any definite implement 
in that material is rare, the beautifully-worked axe, 1 from the 
Sands, and the finely-serrated saw, 2 from behind Wood Street 
(south), being the only two implements which may be referred with 
certainty to Neolithic or Bronze Age times. 

To this period the earliest remains of man as yet found belong. 

Since Roman times the ground on the west end of the hill has 
been quarried for lime and building stone, and in the Okus district 
the modern workings for this purpose have resulted in a huge 
excavation, bounded on the south side by a high wall of rock. 

1 Wilts Arch. Mag., xxxiv., 311. 2 Ibid. 



42 Prehistoric and Roman Swindon. 

From time to time this is out back as fresh stone is required, and by 
this means an appreciable proportion of the subsoil on the highest 
part of the hill has been quarried within the last few years. 

In November, 1906, men engaged in removing the turf and laying 
bare the top beds of sand and brash, came upon a shallow grave, 
3ft. in depth (the exact size of which could not be ascertained), 
containing a skeleton lying on its right side, head to the south, 
feet to the north, the face pointing east, the body only slightly 
contracted, the bones being spread over a larger space than usual. 
Behind the head and almost touching it, was the drinking cup here 
illustrated (Fig. 1). 

At the moment of discovery a landslide on a small scale happened, 
the cup was badly smashed, a part of it crushed to powder, and 
the remainder scattered. As restored from the collected fragments 
it stands 6in. high, 4f in. in greatest diameter at a point 2in. above 
the base, while the lip diameter is ^in. less. 

The ornamentation is so well shown that it needs no description. 
The cup is formed of a finely tempered paste of a light brown 
colour, very light and thin, the pattern being incised with a pointed 
stick or bone. The skeleton, although somewhat decayed, is that 
of a young person, probably about 15 years of age and of slight 
build. The skull was, unfortunately, much damaged, but as re- 
stored is markedly dolichocephalic, although no absolutely reliable 
measurements could be taken. 

This skeleton has been presented to the British Museum of 
Natural History at South Kensington. Twelve months later, men 
working at a spot roughly 50 yards east of the last interment, 
came upon a small heap of human bones lying on the stony brash 
within 18in. of the surface. They were those of a young child and 
seem to have been buried without the flesh and in a broken con- 
dition, no piece being longer than 4|in., while a considerable part 
of the whole skeleton is missing. Being so near the surface they 
may have been disturbed in former times, but a careful examination 
of the site yielded nothing in support of this idea. Lying by the 
bones were the crushed remains of a large drinking cup, which, as 
restored, stands 7|in. high and 5|in. in diameter at the lip. It is 




CM 



CO 



G 

o 

C 

'% 



a. 
o 



c 




By A. I). Passmore. 43 

formed of the same coloured and tempered paste as the last- 
described specimen, but has been ornamented, not by a pointed 
stick, but by a small flat piece of wood or bone having three 
notches cut in the end which, when pressed in the wet clay, left 
four holes of square outline. This process of indentation was 
continued round the cup to form the horizontal lines and the 
confines of the lozenge-shaped panels, the interiors of which and 
the middle and lower zones of ornamentation were afterwards 
impressed with numerous marks made by the end of a tool of 
oval section notched in the middle, the same punch being used 
throughout. 

The cup is illustrated in Fig. 2, from which it will be noticed 
that it is not so elegantly shaped as Fig. 1. 

The crushing of this vessel has furnished a most instructive 
lesson in the manufacture of Bronze Age pottery. The pieces on 
one side, which had evidently been lying uppermost, were disinte- 
grated, and showed that after the base had been completed its edge 
was brought up thin, or to a feather edge on the outside ; and a 
thin collar of clay was then formed with its lower edge bevelled 
off to form a feather edge on the inside. This was applied to the 
ready-formed base and the edges pressed together. This process 
was repeated four times, until the necessary height was reached, 
the top of each succeeding collar being shaped like the top of the 
base. The writer remembers while living in a Ba-Eolong village in 
the Orange Eiver Colony, watching women make pots in exactly 
the same way. Thus it may be said of one side of this pot, where 
water had for centuries soaked over it, that it had not been broken 
but had come apart at the old joints. Traces of this method of 
pot making may be observed in fragments illustrated in various 
publications, but as far as can be gathered the reason has not before 
been noticed. 

Ln August, 1908, the same men, working under parallel con- 
ditions, turned up the remains of a third interment of like character, 
but unfortunately much scattered at some former time (of which 
more later). The few remaining bones were those of a young 
person about 12 years of age, and amongst them were four frag- 
ments of a large drinking cnp of the same material and temper as 



44 Prehistoric and Roman Swindon. 

before, but of different and somewhat uncommon ornamentation, 
the whole surface, with the exception of a narrow band of incised 
vertical lines round the top, being covered by triangular panels, 
confined by narrow plain bands, the panels themselves being filled 
with carelessly-executed lines impressed on the wet clay, some 
with a notched tool and others scored with a pointed tool. The 
fragments are too small to allow of an accurate judgment of the 
size of the cup, but it was probably about 8in. high and of a 
large diameter in proportion to its height {Fig. 3). 

It is remarkable that all these interments should have been of 
young individuals, one of tender age and the other two certainly 
under 20 years. The question as to whether these remains were 
covered by tumuli or not must remain unanswered as the field 
before quarrying operations were commenced (according to Mr. 
Humphreys, of Okus Farm,) was ploughed, and a famous ground 
for barley. Observations taken on the spot and from a distance, 
however, show no appreciable thickening of the soil at or near the 
site of the burials. A point of interest in connection with these 
interments is that the sand of Swindon Hill has certainly not that 
destructive effect on human bones buried in it which is often at- 
tributed to the sands of other localities by excavators ; the bones 
here are hard and brittle, with only a small amount of decay. 

The eastern part of this quarry (Okus) has from time to time 
produced several relics, of apparently late Celtic times, chief 
amongst which is a set of chalk loom-weights, found together in a 
hole in the sand. They were unfortunately scattered, but one 
afterwards recovered is roughly oblong in outline, the same in 
section, 7|in. long, 4in. wide and 2^in. thick. It is perforated at 
the slightly smaller end, the centre of the orifice being l£in. from 
the top, the interior of the perforation is flu. in diameter/increasing 
towards each end to fin. on one side and fin. on the other. The 
weight is exactly 3£lbs. These weights were used on primitive 
looms to keep the warp threads taut. 

The Roman house on the opposite (southern) slope of the hill 
has been before described and illustrated. 1 Further quarrying 
1 Wilts Arch. Mag., xxx., 217. 



By A. D. Passmore. 45 

operations on that horizon have revealed the fact that a large area 
of land there was quarried in Roman times. The curious building 
on the north-east corner of the Roman house may, therefore, have 
been a limekiln. 

Leading up north from here are long hollows right across the 
hill, and where they are cut through and exposed in the Westlecote 
Quarry (wherein was the Roman house, now destroyed,) it is 
plainly seen that the limestone and some harder rock below has 
been removed, the excavation was then filled in by the waste sand 
and turf, throughout the mass of which are numerous fragments 
of Roman pottery and bones of edible animals, but nothing of a 
later age. To this ancient quarrying is to be attributed the dis- 
turbance and scattering of the third interment described above. 

Tbese facts led to an examination of the huge but little known 
Roman foundations at Lotmead and Covingham Farms at Lower 
Wanborougli, where a large town once existed on the junction of 
the doubtfully-named Ermin Way and the road from Winchester. 
Here Hoare committed an unfortunate error, by ■naming the 
town on no evidence, Nidum. Wanborough, judging from the im- 
portance of its buildings and the richness of the pottery found on 
the site, must be the missing station in the thirteenth route of the 
Antonine Itinerary, while Nidum is included in Iter XII. The 
Roman name of Wanborough is lost, unless part of it exists in the 
names of Nythe and Covingham. Swindon Stone (Portlandian) 
was found in the foundations, which establishes the important fact 
that in Roman times, possibly in the 1st century A. D., the valuable 
limestones and building stones of Swindon Hill were worked by a 
resident quarryman on behalf of the Roman station at Wanborough, 
only 2\ miles away in a straight line. As there must have been 
a good road between the two places, interesting speculations as 
regards the Mercian advance to the battle of Ellandune are raised. 

In the autumn of 1906 the extension of the large clay pit 
situated east of Victoria Road, 1 revealed the remains of a Roman 

1 Owned by Mr. George Whitehead, through whose enlightened generosity 
a magnificent series of reptilian remains from the Kimmeridge Clay have 
been preserved. 



46 Prehistoric and Roman Swindon. 

building around the foundations of which were quantities of coarse 
pottery, nearly all of which were fragments of large pots, probably 
of local manufacture. Interspersed with these were a few fragments 
of the usual finer wares, and one fine piece of a Gaulish bowl upon 
which is a gryphon in relief. According to the British Museum 
Catalogue of Roman Pottery it is of 2nd century date and made at 
Lezoux (France) ; in shape it agrees with Form 37; the pattern 
is there described as " a gryphon to right, a sea monster below 
with three forked tail and coiled body, above; egg and tassel pattern 
with zig-zag lines under it." The Swindon fragment is identical 
except that the monster faces to left instead of to right, but as there 
remains the tail and one hind leg of another facing to right the 
patterns agree. 1 The work of excavation ceased after exposing 
the edge of the site, but it is hoped that it will be resumed at an 
early date, when, from indications so far observed, a Roman pot 
works will probably be uncovered. 

For some years it has been noticed that in nearly all excavations 
in new ground in a zone starting from Wood Street and roughly 
following Devizes Eoad, at the end of which two streams divide, 
one ending at Winnifred Street, the other dying out towards 
Westlecote, there are found large quantities of human remains. 
Although nearly a hundred skeletons have now been examined at 
different times, nothing has yet turned up by which the date of 
the interments can be ascertained. Some are dolichocephalic in 
cranial measurements, while others close by are of an opposite 
shape. Some at the Westlecote end are certainly Roman, being 
buried in rubbish pits of that age and others in shallow graves with 
datable pottery. As regards the remainder there is as yet no 
evidence of date. 

In studying the early interments described above accompanied 
by characteristic pottery, it should not be forgotten that at Broom, 
practically on a part of Swindon Hill, once stood the row of large 
standing stones described by Aubrey, 2 and at Coate, a little further 

1 Mrs. Cunnington has kindly supplied this information. . 
2 Jackson' Aubrey, p. 193. 



By A. J) Passmore, 47 

off, still exist stone circles which were described in this Magazine. 1 
It has since been noticed that other stones exist under the turf 
round the larger circle of which a plau was given, and further 
investigation will probably prove the existence of a double con- 
centric circle, with an outlier on the north-east side. 

All the objects described above are in the writer's collection, 
who must acknowledge his gratitude to Messrs. Bradley, Organ, 
and Humphreys, for so kindly allowing him access to their several 
quarries and enclosed lands. 



A. D. Passmore on Stone Circles at Coate, Wilts Arch. Mag., xxvii., 171. 



48 



TROPENELL MEMORANDA. 

COTTBLS. 

Tn the previous volume (Wilts Arch Mag., xxxvii., pp. 564 — 565) 
it was shown how the king, by writ 12 May, 1369 (Close Boll Cat.), 
ordered John de Evesham, escheator in co. Wilts, " to take of 
John Wrenche and Margaret his wife security for payment of their 
relief at the Exchequer, and to cause them to have seisin of a 
messuage and two carucates of land in Atteworth," reciting the 
story there set out, and that Thomas Spigurnell, to whom the 
king by letters patent, 16 June, 1366, had committed "the 
keeping of his manor of Atteworth," " to hold for a set yearly 
farm during pleasure," "said nought in effect wherefore livery 
thereof ought not to be given them," John and Margaret, " as the 
heritage of the said Margaret." It was also conjectured that, 
Wrench and his wife having thus recovered possession, they shortly 
afterwards sold the manor to pay expenses. 

What Wrench and his wife actually did with the manor was, all 
the time, on record, in the Pedes Finium, or Feet of Fines (not yet 
calendared, unfortunately, for Wiltshire), as follows : — 

" Final concord in the Octave of the Trinity, 43 Edward III (June, 
1369), between Thomas Spigurnell and Katharine, his wife ; querents, 
and John Wrenche, and Margaret his wife, deforciants of a messuage, 
two carucates of land, 30a. meadow, and 100a. wood, in Atteworth ; 
acknowledged to be the right of Thomas as those which Thomas and 
Katharine have of the gift of John- and Margaret ; to hold to Thomas 
and Katharine and the heirs of Thomas ; warranty for themselves and 
the heirs of Margaret ; consideration, 100 marks. 

Fee t of Fines ( Wilts), Case 255. File 51 (38). 
The sale, within a month of the writ close which put them in 
possession, by Wrench and his wife to the farmer, under the crown, 
of the manor whereof they had nominally dispossessed him, suggests 
naturally that the whole of the proceedings were collusive in their 
nature, — set in motion, that is to say, not by the successful suitors, 
but by Spigurnell himself. 



Troptnell Memoranda, 49 

There is a writ (Close Roll Cal.), dated 6 October, 1374, to 
Peter de Brugge and Nicholas Braye, ordering them to deliver to 
the prior of Andover the goods, chattels, and stock of that priory, 
which was in the King's hands hy reason of the war with Prance, 
or if not the value of such goods, &c, to be levied from the goods 
and chattells of of Thomas Spigurnell, deceased, to whom by letters 
patent the king had committed the keeping of that priory, inasmuch 
as the king is informed that since their livery to Spigurnell, great 
number of such goods, chattels and stock have been eloigned. 

Thus we learn that, five years after Thomas Spigurnell had 
acquired the fee of Cotels Atworth he died, leaving an estate with 
claims against it. His wife Katherine, to whom jointly with 
himself the manor had been conveyed, did not long survive him, 
dying 15 October, 1374, as appears by the Inquisition of which 
an abstract is appended. Her heir was her brother, and the pre- 
sumption is that her husband also died issueless. Accordingly 
there is nothing surprising in the sale (Wilts Mag., xxxvii., pp. 
561—562), 30 March, 1377, of the manor of " Atteworth " to 
Sir Philip Pitz Waryn, — presumably by direction of Thomas 
SpigurnelPs executors. The inquisition referred to above, taken 
after the death of Katharine Spigurnell,. is as follows: — 

" Writ 20 October, 48 Edw. 3 : inq. 28 Oct., 48 E. 3 (1874). Katherine 
late the wife of Thomas Spigurneli held jointly enfeoffed with the said 
Thomas late her husband likewise deceased for the term of their lives 
of the gift and feoffment of Koger de Mortuo Mari late earl of March, 
deceased, two parts of the manor of Worthymortymor, co. Hants, with 
reversion thereof expectant after the death of the aforesaid Thomas 
and Katharine to Edmund de Mortuo Mari, earl of March, son and 
heir of the said Eoger, being of full age. The said two parts are held 
of the king in chief by knight-service, and are worth 101. 15s. 6d. clear 
She died 15 October last past ; Nicholas Audeleye is her brother and 
heir of full age." 

Inq. p. mortem Chancery 1st Series. 1st Nos., No. 61. 
(I.P.M.Edw.'lII. File 239(1.) 

West Ciialfield. 

The inadvisability of printing any notes upon the manorial 
history of any part of this county without a preliminary search 
through the Peet of Fines is demonstrated no less clearly by the 

VOL. XXXVIII. — NO. CXIX. E 



50 Tropenell Memoranda. 

following addition, necessitated by a chance discovery, to the 
account (Wilts Arch. Mag., xxxvii., pp. 582 — 588) of the descend- 
ants of George Percy, by Margaret, his wife, the heiress of West 
Chalfield. 

With the new piece of evidence before us we know that George 
Percy, the elder, was still living in 1344, in which year he and 
Margaret, his wife, levied a fine of a carucate of land in Great 
Chalfield and Great Atworth with the advowson of Little (or West) 
Chalfield to themselves for life, with remainder over, as follows : — 
13-20 Jan., " Final concord in the quinzaine of Hilary 17 Edward III., 
1343-4. of France the 4th, and afterwards in the quinzaine of Easter 

in the year abovesaid, between George de Percy and 
Margaret his wife, querents, and Reynold de Berlegh, parson of the 
chapel of Little (Parva) Chaldeteld, and John le Parker, deforciants, of 
two messuages, a carucate of land, 24a. meadow, 12a. pasture, and 8a. 
wood, in Great (Magna) Cildefeld and Great (Magna) Atteworth, and 
advowson of the chapel of Little (Parva) Chaldefeld ; George and 
Margaret acknowledged the tenements aforesaid and the advowson 
aforesaid to be the right of him, Reynold, as those which the same 
Reynold and John have by the gift of the said George and Margaret ; 
for this John and Reynold granted to the said George and Margaret 
the said tenements and the advowson and gave them back to them, to 
hold to the same George and Margaret of the chief lords, ifcc, the whole 
life of them, George and Margaret ; and after the decease of them 
George and Margaret the aforesaid tenements and the advowson shall 
remain to George son of them, George and Margaret, and the heirs of 
his body begotten, to hold, <fec. ; and if it happen the same George, son | 
of them George and Margaret, to die without heir of his body begotten, 
then after the decease of the said George the said tenements and ad- 
vowson shall remain to Thomas, brother of the same George, and the 
heir of his body begotten, to hold, &c. ; and if it happen the same 
Thomas to die without heir of his body begotten then after the decease 
of the said Thomas the said tenements and advowson shall remain to 
Nicholas brother of the same Thomas and the heirs of his body begotten, 
to hold, &c. ; and if it happen the said Nicholas to die without heir of 
his body begotten then after the decease of the said Nicholas the said 
tenements and advowson shall remain entire to John de Chausy and 
Agnes his wife and the heirs of her, Agnes, to hold, &c." 

Feet of Fines ( Wilts), Case 254. File 45 (27). 
The manor of West Chalfield is, apparently, not dealt with by 
the fine, and remembering that Margaret Percy, in her widowhood, 
gave (loc. cit., p. 581) land there to a chantry, its subsequent 
devolution was possibly prescribed by some act of hers. Similarly 
the Percy estate at Castle Eaton is not included, and this possibly 



Tropenell Memoranda. 51 

was settled on Thomas Percy (ibid, pp. 588). Otherwise this fine 
obviates the necessity of further considering Tropenell's variants 
of the pedigree (ibid, pp. 586, 587), and greatly strengthens the 
case for the identity of John Percy, the husband of Elizabeth 
Hertrugge (ibid, p. 580 and pp. 582 — 586), with John Percy, the 
son of George and Margaret. We now know that Tropenell's fifth 
version of the pedigree (Cartulary , vol. i., p. 405) is essentially 
correct. There were three sons surviving in 1344, George, Thomas, 
and Nicholas, on whom and their issue the carucate and advowson 
were entailed, while in Agnes, wife of John de Chausy, we discover, 
possibly, the daughter of the marriage. On the other hand there 
is no apparent need for the levying of such a fine at all if the 
succession declared by it were normal, and the true intent of it 
may well have been to exclude a grandson, aged six or seven, heir 
presumptive by the mother to many manors, from his paternal 
inheritance. 

With one slight emendation Tropenell's final account holds good 
(Cartulary, vol. i., p. 405, and Wilts Arch. May., xxxvii., p. 587) : — 
" Memorandum that the seyd George Percy alias Percehay and 
Margaret his wyf, by the wheche Margaret Lytell Chaldefeld moved, 
hadde isseu iij sones, that ys to sey George, Thomas, and Nicholas. The 
seyd George and Nicholas deyd without isseu. Thomas hadde isseu 
John and John hadde isseu John, and John had isseu Alise, and Alise 
hadde isseu John Bourne that now ys lord of Littell Chaldefeld." 
The emendation proposed is that George (son of George and 
brother of Thomas and Nicholas), did not die without issue, bufc 
had a son John, who married Constance, widow of Sir Henry Percy 
of Great Chalfield, died without issue, and was succeeded by (his 
first cousin) another John, son of Thomas. Thus there are still three 
" Johns " but not three in direct line, father to son. Combining 
the available facts we get the following possible pedigree : — 



B 2 



52 



Tropencll Memoranda. 



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53 



CASTERLEY CAMP. 

Being an account of Excavations carried out by 
Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington. 1 

Introductory. 

The large earthwork known as Casterley Camp, is situated on 
the north-east corner of the War Office land, west of the river 
Avon, on Salisbury Plain. It is on high ground about two miles 
south-west of the village of Upavon, and can be reached by a rough 
track that leaves the main road opposite the turning into Upavon 
village. 2 

Permission was obtained from the War Office authorities, and 
from their tenant, Mr. J. C. Chisman, of Widdington, in September, 
1909, to cut a few sections in the outer entrenchment of the camp. 
During excavations at Knap Hill Camp, it had been found that 
numerous causeways of undisturbed chalk, had been left in the 
ditch of that entrenchment, 3 and certain appearances in the ditch 
and rampart suggested the possibility of finding similar causeways 
at Casterley. To test this, sections were cut lengthways with the 
ditch on the outer side of several gaps in the rampart, but it was 
proved that the appearances were deceptive, and no causeways 
were found, with the exception of that forming the northern en- 
trance. The discovery, however, was made of a sunken way leading 
to the western entrance, and this was examined. 

1 The work was carried out under their personal supervision, and they 
were present during the whole time, motoring to and fro from Devizes 
morning and evening. Several of the men employed, who came from Rowde 
and camped out on the spot, had had previous experience of similar digging 
at Oliver's Camp and at Knap Hill Camp. The excavations have all been 
filled in, partly by these men, and partly by men kindly lent for the purpose 
by Mr. Chisman, the tenant of Widdington Farm, to which Casterley is 
attached. Thanks are due to Mr. Chisman, as tenant, for his ready 
permission, subject to that of H.M. War Department, to dig, and for kind 
help and assistance in many ways. 

2 The camp is also spoken of locally as Catterley Banks, or Calley Banks. 

3 Wilts Arch. Mag., xxxvii., 42. 



54: Caslerley Camp Excavations. 

When in 1909 permission was asked to cut a few sections in the 
outer ditch there was no intention to carry the work further. But 
when on a more intimate knowledge of the site it was found that 
the outlines of one of the interior works could still be traced, the 
possibility suggested itself of finding the other works known to 
have existed, and that the excavation of sections of these ditches 
might help to solve the problem of the date of the earthworks as 
a whole. 

This further work was ventured upon, therefore, solely for the 
purpose of obtaining evidence of the date, or dates, of the con- 
struction of the earthworks, and its degree of success must depend 
upon how far it may appear that this object has been gained. 

In 1909 four men were employed digging for a fortnight. In 
1910 work was resumed on June 20th, and carried on with one or 
two intervals up to September 20th, sometimes four and sometimes 
six men being employed, for altogether eight full weeks. The 
whole time was devoted to the exploration of works in the interior 
of the camp. In 1911 six men were employed for six weeks, the 
time being taken up partly in further exploration of the interior 
works, partly on the entrances, and partly in making sections in 
the outer entrenchment. As the course of one of the ditches 
(No. 8) was still in doubt the work was continued with four men 
for two weeks in August, 1912. 

To some extent the total amount of work done in the four years 
may be gathered by reference to the plates showing the excavations 
but a considerable amount of surface trenching that does not appear 
had to be done in the course of searching for the ditches and pits. 
For the sake of brevity, and of continuity, the results will be 
described as a whole without reference to the dates when the 
various cuttings were made. Having first proved the position of 
ditch No. 1, traces of which could be detected on the surface, 
search was made by means of trenching for others, the relative 
positions of which were known from Sir li. Colt Hoare's Map, 1 
and in the course of tracing these, ditches not seen by him were 
found, and so the work developed, it must be confessed, beyond 
what was at first contemplated. 

1 Ancient Wilts, South, p. 177. 



By Mr. and Mrs. B. II. Cunnington. 55 

The Earthworks. 

Casterley Camp originally consisted of a great outer enclosure 
and of a series of inner works, but the banks and ditches of these 
latter have now almost entirely disappeared from the surface as a 
result of many years of cultivation. Beyond the entrenchment 
on the northern side of the camp there are traces of banks 
which may have been outer works, or perhaps more probably this 
appearance of -banks may be due only to the wearing down of 
several move or less parallel tracks leading to the camp; there are 
also still traces of the banks on either side of the sunken way 
leading to the western entrance. 1 

Sir E. Colt Hoare visited Casterley Camp about the beginning 
of the 19th century, when considerable traces of the inner works 
were still visible; he had the camp surveyed and his plan 2 has 
proved of the greatest possible value, not only as affording evidence 
of the former existence of the inner, works, but also for showing 
the original line of the outer rampart in several places where it 
has since been defaced. So slight are the remaining surface traces 
of the inner works that unless Sir 11. Colt Hoare had recorded them 
it is quite likely that the knowledge of their former existence 
would have been entirely lost. 

The site appears to have been known from time immemorial as 
Casterley Camp, but the term "camp," as implying a place of 
military strength or occupation is no doubt misleading. The term 

1 Sir R. Colt Hoare shows a bank and ditch on the south side of the 
camp ending at the entrenchment. Possibly this Avas only a boundary line. 

2 Sir R. Colt Hoare describes Casterley thus : — " This earthen work bears 
the strongest marks of originality, and none of the modern signs of inno- 
vation. I consider it a British town, but not so populous as either of those 
already noticed at Stockton and Groveley. Here we find no deep or mul- 
tiplied ramparts, but a single ditch and vallum of no great elevation, 
enclosing an area of about sixty acres. This camp from its elevation 
commands a very distant view, and upon minute investigation, will be 
found to be one of the most original and unaltered works of the British 
aera, which our country, amidst numerous antiquities of a similar nature, 
can produce." Ancient Wilts, South, 177. This was written after more 
than one visit to the site, and when it was already under cultivation, but 
he certainly saw it before it was cultivated, for he wrote under date of 
Oct. 10th, 1807 : — " Casterley much changed in its appearance having been 
lately ploughed up," " Nunc seges est ubi Troja fuit." Extracts from a 
Note-Book ; Wilts Arch. Mag., xxii., 237. 



56 Caster ley Camp Excavations. 

"village" or " settlement " would more clearly describe the true 
nature of the place, but for the sake of convenience it is spoken of 
throughout as the "camp." Although a sunken way led to the 
site on one side, and on the other side the weak outer entrenchment 
was carried down the slope at the head of the combe, presumably 
for reasons of defence, the defences cannot be described as strong, 
and, as Professor Haverfield has pointed out, it is unlikely tbat 
in those days anybody lived without some form of protection. 
The site seems to have few features in common with the many 
so-called " British villages," of which traces are still visible on the 
downs, where Romano-British pottery, &c, may usually be found. 
But Casterley may perhaps be compared with the villages of 
Woodcuts and Rotherley, excavated by General Pitt-Rivers, and 
described as "of Roman age but of British construction" {Excava- 
tions, II., 65). Casterley also proved to have been occupied during 
the Roman period, but showed no evidence of Roman influence in 
the construction of the earthworks, or in its plan. 3 



3 The ditches at Casterley were considerably larger and deeper than those 
of Woodcuts or Rotherley, and there is no reason to think that any of them 
were made for drainage purposes as they seem to have been there. At 
Rotherley the ditches seem to have varied in depth from 2ft. to 3ft. 9in , 
and at Woodcuts from 2ft. 8in. to 6ft. 4in., while at Casterley they ran from 
3ft. 6in. up to 9ft., most of them being over 5ft. Cgbury Camp, on Salisbury 
Plain, near Great Durnford, as described and planned by Sir R. Colt Hoare 
{Ancient Wilts, South), shows some striking points of resemblance to 
Casterley, and it would be of great interest to know if these two works are 
of the same period. It is, like Casterley, of large area (upwards of 62 acres), 
enclosed within a feeble outer entrenchment, and containing an elaborate 
system of interior earthworks. Some of these appear to have been en- 
closures similar to those at Casterley, but the most remarkable point of 
resemblance is in the long out-stretching banks and ditches connecting the 
inner works with the outer entrenchment, and dividing, as at Casterley, 
the camp into separate areas rather than forming compact enclosures. A 
similar fate has overtaken the inner works in both cases, and the interior 
of Ogbury Camp having been under the plough for many years practically 
no vestiges of these works remain above ground. Sir R. Colt Hoare "dug 
in several parts within the area of the enclosure, but found no one symptom 
of ancient residence." At Ogbury, as at Casterley, Hoare saw what he 
considered to be " the very early and simple handiwork of the Britons, 
unaltered by their successors and conquerors, the Romans and Saxons." 
According to him there was only one original entrance, but excavation might 
reveal others. 



By Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington. 57 

The Outee Entrenchment. 

The great outer enclosure consists of a single vallum and ditch, 
enclosing sixty-eight acres of land, and measuring one mile and a 
quarter round. The entrenchment, whicli is on the whole well 
preserved, is for the greater part of quite feeble proportions, but 
notably stronger on the south and east, from B to H on Key Plan 
PI. X. There is no obvious reason for the strengthening of this 
part of the entrenchment, and it has been suggested that for some 
reason it was strengthened after its original construction, but 
cuttings made through the rampart on the eastern side (C — C, 
Ca — Ca, D — D) showed no sign of any such addition, and there is no 
evidence that points to the entrenchment having been made at 
different dates. It is only left to conjecture that the weaker part 
may originally have been reinforced by more formidable stockading, 
or some such additional defence, or the explanation may be con- 
nected with the arrangement of the interior works, that seem to 
turn their backs to the area bounded by the weaker entrenchment. 
It will be seen that two long ditches stretching out from the inner 
works meet the outer work in both cases just at the point where 
the stronger merges into the weaker entrenchment (B and H on 
Key Plan, PL X.) the fact of their ending as they do at these 
points must be taken to have an important significance in relation 
to the stronger and weaker parts of the entrenchment. 

The camp stands on a plateau with higher ground to the north, 
with the inclusion in the north-eastern corner of a portion of the 
sloping side of a combe. At first sight it seems curious that this 
piece of sloping ground should have been included in the defence. 
But it has been suggested by more than one military authority 
that this part was in fact thrown out to cover the head of the 
combe, for had the entrenchment been carried along on the level, 
approximately on the line marked on Key Plan, PI. X. " Old cultiva- 
tion bank " x troops could arrive up the combe unseen within rushing 

1 Appearances on the spot are deceptive from the fact that along the line 
marked " old cultivation bank " a strip of land has been left as a rough 
headland and gives to it the appearance that might be expected to result 
from a roughly levelled rampart. When Sir R. Colt Hoare made his map 
there was no break in the rampart at this corner, " B," and no doubt the 



58 Casterley Camp Excavations. 

distance of the bank. The entrenchment is strong all along the 
eastern side up to the point, " B," where it turns sharply down the 
slope of the combe, but from this corner onwards the defence is of 
much feebler proportions. The big ditch ends abruptly at the 
corner, " B, : ' and the ditch of the smaller rampart that forms the 
continuation of the entrenchment, starts from the outer side of the 
big ditch at right angles to it. PI. XIV., B. and section. 

It will be seen that ditch No. 6, coming from the interior of the 
camp, ends also at this corner at the inner edge of the big ditch. 
It is remarkable that the ends of these two ditches are almost, but 
not quite, opposite to one another. It has been suggested, as these 
two ditches are as nearly as possible of the same size and depth, 
that they were once continuous, and that the big ditch was simply 
cut through it, thus leaving a section exposed on either side of the 
big ditch. But as the ends are not opposite each other, and the 
distance between them is only 23ft., if the ditch was ever con- 
tinuous there must have been a sharpish turn or kink at this point. 
It seems on the whole more probable that the ditches were 
separately designed to end as they do, the one being a part of the 
outer entrenchment, and the other of the inner works. 1 

Entrances, and other Gaps in the Rampart. 

There were originally at least three entrances into the camp; 

weaker rampart originally merged into the stronger one as they still actually 
do at their other point of junction on the south side of the camp. In con- 
firmation of this it is interesting to find that the big rampart perceptibly 
lessens off for the last few yards as it comes to the corner. Nevertheless 
when it was found that the big ditch came to an abrupt end at " B " cuttings 
were made along the course where it appeared that the ditch might have 
been continued on the level, but no such continuation exists. It was also 
proved that the outer ditch at "A" does not turn round, but runs unin- 
terruptedly round the head of the combe. 

1 In connection with these long ditches stretching out from the inner to 
the outer works the possibility of their having been covered ways suggests 
itself. But with the exception of both ends of the small ditch, No. 5, the 
eastern end of ditch No. 9, and one end of ditch No. 3, the ends of the ditches 
were all too deep and too steep to admit of this explanation, for had they 
been sunken ways they must have sloped up gradually, as was actually the 
case in the sunken way to the western entrance. 



By Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington. 59 

one ou the north, 1 K, and one oh the south, G, hy unexcavated 
causeways through the outer ditch, and one on the west hy a sunken 
road leading from the downs into the camp. It has been suggested 
that not improbably there had been an entrance at H from the 
long combe leading to Water Dene Bottom, but cuttings made 
there proved that the outer ditch was continuous. Moreover there 
is no break in the rampart at this point, and it is actually higher 
than it appears, because an accumulation of soil several feet in 
tbickness, washed down from the higher ground, has been banked 
up against it ou the inner side. The fact also that a ditch (No. II.) 
coming from the interior of the camp ends abruptly at the inner 
edge of this rampart seems to add to the improbability of there 
ever having been an entrance there. 2 

There are wide gaps in the rampart at Da and F that have 
been also regarded as possible entrances. Cuttings made outside 
these gaps proved however, that the outer ditch is continuous in 
both places, and it is therefore unlikely that they were original 
entrances. 3 A track used for farm purposes to Casterley barn now 
passes through the gap at Da, and another track that has been 
used within recent years passes through the gap at F, and runs 
through the camp roughly from south-east to north-west, dividing 



1 Sir R. Colt Hoare suggested that there must have been an entrance on 
this side although he could detect no sign of it. Ancient Wilts, South, 177. 

2 Within living memory there was a pond just outside the rampart at this 
spot ("H" on Key Plan), and consequently the present appearances are 
deceptive. An old labourer stated that when this pond ceased to hold 
water, the pond by the barn, for which the rampart was cut away, was 
made, but as this pond also failed to hold water, the one in Widdington 
Combe was subsequently made. Certain hollows within the camp to the 
east of the barn were pointed out as being the places from which clay for 
puddling the ponds had been dug. 

3 The ends of the rampart at Da appear to flank each other. If there had 
been a sharp turn in the rampart at this point where the gap was cut as there 
is in the same bank a little further to the south it would have this appearance. 
It is noteworthy that Sir R. Colt Hoare, who saw it earlier, in spite of this 
appearance of flanking, doubted its being an original entrance. 



60 Castcrley Camp Excavations. 

it into two nearly equal parts. 1 In Andrew & Dury's Map of 
Wiltshire, dated 1773, this latter track is shown cutting across the 
corner of the Plain from the road in the valley nearly opposite 
Chisenbury into the main road between Charlton and Conock. The 
map shows the road dividing into several ways that join up again 
in the manner common to these unmetalled down roads. At 
Casterley one track is shown leading through the old entrance at 
G, and another through the gap at F, and one of these subdividing 
again within the area of the camp, three tracks pass out through 
gaps on the northern side. This is interesting, as showing how 
gaps in a rampart become multiplied. One way gets worn into 
ruts, and the traffic then diverges off into a parallel way, necessi- 
tating other breaks in the same line of rampart. 

The considerable gap at A has, in its present state, the appear- 
ance of having been an original entrance, since both ends of the 
rampart are _thrown back on the inner side. This turning of the 
rampart, however, has apparently resulted from its having been 
thrown back to make way for the farm traffic, for which this gap 
is still used. Sir K. Colt Hoare does not show these turned ends 
of the rampart, as he doubtless would, had they been there in his 
time, particularly as he expected an entrance on this north side of 
the camp and as he states explicitly he could find no sign of one. The 
outer ditch was cleared out and found to be continuous in front of 
this deceptive " entrance." 

There are various other more or less pronounced breaks in the 
rampart on every side, but none of these appear to have any claim 
to antiquity, and in every case the outer ditch was found to be 
unin tempted. 2 



1 This track is shown on Hoare's Map, Ancient Wilts, Amesbury North 
District, Station V., p. 113, and on the 25in. Ordnance Maps. The line of 
this track across the camp is still very noticeable as a bank or ridge. We 
were told that when the ground was under cultivation this track served as 
a boundary between the two fields, and the existing ridge may be the 
result of ploughing on either side of it. 

5 There are many gaps in the feeble rampart along the head of the combe 
that appear to be only the result of wear, and these were not examined. 



By Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cuhnington. 61 

The Inner Works. 

There is no reason to believe that the interior of Casterley had 
ever been cultivated before Sir B. Colt Hoare saw it for the first 
time, but from some date between then and his last-recorded visit 
in 1807, 1 until the War Office acquired the land in 1901, it was 
under cultivation. 

It is indeed fortunate that Sir K. Colt Hoare published a plan 
of the camp as he first saw it, for during those ninety years or so 
of cultivation the ground has been ploughed and rolled until all 
the surface inequalities have been smoothed away, and the last 
vestiges of the banks and ditches of the inner works practically 
obliterated. But although the surface is now levelled, it is possible 
at some seasons of the year to trace the lines of the rectilinear 
enclosure by the difference in colour and growth of the grass over 
the ditch. Guided by such slight traces as these, and working 
with Sir B. Colt Hoare's invaluable but necessarily incomplete 
plan, it has been found possible, by tracing the course of the various 
ditches, to re-construct the main outlines of the inner works. 

The arrangement of these inner works is curious and complicated, 
and can only be understood by reference to the plan. PI. X. 

It will be seen that the ditches form three principal enclosures 
that may be regarded as complete in themselves, in spite of various 
sub-divisions. Of these three enclosures one is more or less recti- 
linear, while the other two are of irregular outline, and for the 
sake of convenience these two latter will be referred to as A and B. 

The other ditches appear rather to divide the area of the camp 
than to form distinct and separate enclosures in themselves. 

The Rectilinear Enclosure. Ditches Nos. 1 and 2. 

The rectilinear enclosure must be regarded as the original and 
most important of the inner works, as it is clear that the other 
works were planned in relation to it, and not it in relation to 
them. The irregular enclosures, for instance, must have been 
planned either later, or as subordinate to it, because the part of 

1 Extracts from a Note-Book, Wilts Arch. Mag., xxii., 234. 



62 Casterley Camp Excavations. 

their boundary which is common to both is rectilinear, and clearly 
an integral part of that, and not of the other enclosures. 

A curious feature about the l'ecti linear enclosure is that the 
bank was on the outside of the ditch, not, as is usual, on the inside. 1 
The only advantage of this arrangement seems to be that it would 
allow for more level space within the enclosure, but it seems in- 
consistent that such a large ditch should have been made at all, 
when apparently so little regard was paid to defensive strength. 

Within this enclosure it will be seen there is a smaller ditch 
(No. 2), forming an inner enclosure, roughly parallel to the outer 
one. The eastern boundary of the two enclosures coincide, 
or in other words the smaller ditch disappears into the larger 
one, and the entrances are identical. There is indeed no way 
of getting beyond the smaller enclosure without in. some way 
bridging the inner ditch. It was suggested that the smaller ditch 
might have been intended for drainage purposes only, on lines 
analagous to some of the ditches found by General Pitt- Rivers, in 
the villages he excavated, and considered by him to have been 
drains. But as the whole of this ditch was cleared out and no 
cross drains were found to run into it, and as its position and the 
nature of the soil would render such a large drain entirely su- 
perfluous, this explanation of its existence cannot be maintained. 
It seems not unlikely that this ditch represents a slightly earlier 
enclosure, that was soon found to be inadequate, and that the 
larger enclosure was then made, utilising all that was possible of 
the smaller ditch, the rest being filled up, and the entrance being 
retained in its original position. 2 

1 Sir R. Colt Hoare noticed this, and suggested that the enclosure must 
therefore have been used for religious purposes, taking for granted that 
this fact did away with any idea of defence. " By having the ditch within 
the vallum, denoting probably a place appropriated to religious purposes." 
Anc. Wilts, South, 177. An old man who had worked on the land for many 
years, and who remembered seeing the banks and ditches, volunteered the 
statement that the bank was outside the ditch, it having struck him as 
peculiar, and unlike that of the outer entrenchment. It will be seen later, 
that the other enclosures at Casterley seem to have shared in this peculiarity. 

3 The fact that below the surface soil nothing later than the bead rim 
type of pottery was found goes to support the view that it was filled in at 
an early date. 



By Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington. 63 

The Irregular Enclosure A. Ditches Nos. 3, 4, 5. 

This enclosure is divided into three compartments by two cross 
ditches, Nos. 4 and 5. This whole area is regarded as one large 
enclosure because the boundary ditch No. 3 is continuous from the 
corner of the rectilinear enclosure, with the dividing ditch No. 4 
only cutting into it at an angle. Thus the whole length of the 
large ditch No. 3 evidently forms the boundary of a distinct en- 
closure ; this enclosure being bounded on its other sides partly by 
ditch No. 7, and partly by the bank and dilch of the rectilinear 
enclosure. 

It should be remembered that the bank of the rectilinear en- 
closure was on the outside of its ditch, so that the end of the 
boundary ditch No. 3 must have been at the foot of this bank, 
and there would have been no entrance there, as the space between 
the two ditches at this corner suggests, if this fact is not taken 

I into account. 

At the entrance to the enclosure A ditch No. 3 takes a sharp 
turn, and gradually decreasing in size from this point, shallows 
out to nothing. It will be seen that as far as is known there is 

: only one entrance into the whole of this enclosure, but it is possible 
that there is another entrance causeway that was not found. 

I Through the somewhat imposing and difficult entrance access could 
be gained immediately to either of the three compartments into 
which the enclosure was divided. The dividing ditch No. 5 was 
a comparatively slight affair, only some 4ft. deep, and shallowing 
out at both ends, but No. 4 was as large as the boundary ditch 
itself, and must have effectually cut off one part of the enclosure 
from the other. 

The Irregular Enclosure B. Ditches Nos. 6, 7, 8, and 8a. 

It will be seen that two ditches issue from the ditch of the 
rectilinear enclosure, one on either side of the entrance. 

One of these (No. 6), after a somewhat devious course, makes 
for the corner of the outer rampart at B, and running right under 



64 Casterley Camp Excavations. 

it, ends in a big outer ditch in the same maimer in which it had 

started from out of the ditch of the enclosure. 

Ditch No. 7, issuing from the opposite side of the entrance to 

the rectillinear enclosure, runs for a short distance almost parallel 
with No. 6, it then turns sharply in an opposite direction, and 
meeting ditch No. 8 at nearly right angles, ends in it. 

Ditch No. 8 starts as a flanking ditch at the entrance to the 
enclosure A ; after running for some distance in an easterly direction 
it turns sharply to the north, and intersecting the cross ditch No. 
9, eventually ends in ditch No. 6. It will be seen that between 
its intersection with No. 9 and its end in No. 6 there is an entrance 
causeway giving access into the enclosure B, and thence through 
to the rectilinear enclosure. It appears that ditch No. 8 was 
made solely for the purpose of forming this enclosure, B, while 
ditch No. 6 must have been made for some other reason, and only 
incidentally forms part of its boundary. Ditch No. 7 might equally 
well have been made as part boundary of either of the two irregular 
enclosures, and there seems to be nothing to show which of these 
two enclosures was made first. 

The short ditch No. 8a serves no obvious purpose; it runs out 
of No. 8, both ditches being of the same depth, 6ift. ; at its end 
the ditch No. 8a shallows up to 4|ft. It appears that at this 
spot a fire had been lit in the ditch, and among the ashes a very 
perfect iron hammerhead (PI. VII L, Fig. 1), together with several 
pieces of iron slag, were found. 

Ditches Nos. 9, 10, 11. 

Of what use ditch No. 9 could have been it is difficult to see, 
as it does not form part of any enclosure, nor can it be said to 
divide any definite area of the camp, and it can only be conjectured 
that it was of use in conjunction with some features that have 
now vanished. At its eastern end it was found to shallow up and 
to run out to nothing in a manner resembling that of the sunken 
way while it maintained its usual depth right up to its western 
extremity. 



By Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington. 65 

Ditch No. 10 starts from underneath the rampart at D — D, 
the end of the ditch being under the very crest of the 
rampart. The rampart there must undoubtedly have been 
built over the ditch, the end of the ditch not improbably being 
'filled in for that purpose. There was no old surface line over the 
iditch as there was under the rampart on either side of the ditch, 
lor any distinguishable difference between the filling-in of the one, 
or the building of the other. The course of this ditch is a fairly 
straight one, and it ends in the cross ditch No. 9. Between this 
junction and the rampart its course is interrupted by a causeway 
giving access into the inner area of the camp. 

Ditch No. 11 is perhaps more remarkable than either of the 
other ditches. It starts from the inner edge of the southern ram- 
part at H, Key Plan, Pl.X, and after talcing two nearly right-angled 
turns, curves towards the cross ditch No. 9, runs for a few yards 
side by side with it, and finally merges into it not at a sharp angle, 
as is the case in the junctions of all the other ditches, but gradually 
coalescing with it to form one ditch, like the meeting of points on 
a railway line. 

Traces of ditch No. 1, and more faintly of Nos. 3 and 10 have 
occasionally been detected on the surface. No surface trace of 
either of the other ditches has been seen, although it has been 
looked for at all seasons of the year, under varying conditions. 
An interesting exception, however, occurred in the case of ditch 
No. 6 in the wet summer of 1910, when for a week or more its 
course could be traced from about where it is cut across by the old 
trackway to the outer rampart by a stream of blossoms of the 
white Bladder Campion. Apparently the long succulent roots of 
this plant liked the comparatively soft silt in the ditch, and those 
growing in it flourished exceedingly and showed up in strong 
contrast to their poorer neighbours round them. Unfortunately, 
campions have never yet been found to show up either of the 
other ditches in this way, and they failed altogether to do so even 
in No. 6 in the dry summer of 1911, or in the following wet season 
of 1912. 

Some of the ditches seem to have been filled up and their 

VOL. XXXVIII. — NO. CXIX. F 



66 Casterley Camp Excavations. 

surfaces levelled off earlier than others. It was found that in the 
ditches seen by Sir R. C. Hoare there was as a rule, a very evident 
old turf line, showing what had been their surface level before the 
hollows that marked the course of the ditches in his time had been 
filled up as a result of cultivation. In the ditches that Sir E. C. 
Hoare could not see, as in the case of Nos. 2, 8, 9, 11, there was no 
such old turf line. It seems, therefore, that these ditches must 
have been levelled off purposely at some early date, for if left Co 
silt up naturally they would never have filled to the top any more 
than the ditches that he did see, or that of the outer entrenchment. 
These ditches may have begun to silt up naturally, but the filling 
must have been completed artificially before there had been time 
to form a turf line over their surfaces. The obliteration of these 
ditches could not have been due to cultivation at some undefined 
period before the advent of Sir R. C. Hoare, and after the aban- 
donment of the site, for had such been the case all the ditches 
would have been subjected to the same conditions. It is suggested 
that these ditches were levelled off by the inhabitants themselves 
when they were no longer needed. Large quantities of rubbish 
were certainly thrown into the ditches, more especially Nos. 8, 6, 
and the higher part of 11. The filling in at some of the cuttings 
of these ditches was composed almost entirely of ashes and black 
earthy soil, quite distinct from the usual chalky silt, and sherds of 
pottery, broken bones, etc., were more than usually abundant. 
The edges of No. 8 were worn into steps, possibly by people 
scrambling in and out, and it was suggested that very possibly 
they were used as latrines. 

The dimensions of the ditches are shown in the sections, but the 
following table of depths may help to give more readily a general 
idea of their size : — 

to 9ft. deep (the greater depth being on 
either side of the entrance). 

„ 4ft. 9in. deep. 

„ 6ft. 6in. „ 



itch No. 1 


7ft. 


„ „ 2 

„ „ 3 

4 

„ „ 5 


4ft. 

5ft. lOin 
6ft. 
4ft. 



By Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington. 67 

Ditch No. 6 3ft. 6in. to 6ft. 8in. deep. 

„ „ 7 5ft. 6in. „ 7ft. 3in. „ 

„ „ 8 5ft. lin. „ 8ft. 2in. „ 

„ 8a 7ft. Oin. „ 4ft 9in. „ 

„ 9 4ft. 6in. „ 5ft. Oin. „ 

„ 10 4ft. 3in. „ 6ft. 8in. „ 

„ „ 11 7ft. 6in. „ 8ft. 6in. „ 

Ditch of outer entrenchment, 3ft. 6in. to 9ft. 

The Position of the Banks. 

It should be remembered that the ditches must have had their 
accompanying banks, for had the material dug out been carried to 
a distance, or even levelled off, the ditches could never have silted 
up full again as they have done. As to the positions of the banks, 
we know that that of the rectilinear enclosure was on the outer 
side of the ditch. Hoare shows a trace of the bank of ditch No. 6 
on its western side, and it seems likely that this bank was con- 
tinuous with that of the rectilinear enclosure. 

It is probable that the bank of ditch No. 3, like that of No. 1, 
was on the outer side of the ditch ; there would have been no room 
for the bank on the inner side at the entrance to this enclosure, 
and moreover the fact that ditch No. 4 runs right into No. 3, looks 
as if there was no bank on the inner side. If the bank had been 
on the inside ditch, No. 4 would probably have ended a few feet 
out from No. 3, as in the case of No. 3 itself where it met the bank 
of ditch No. 1. 

There is no direct evidence, but it seems probable, that the bank 
of No. 7 was also on its western side, and that it may have been 
continuous, like No. 6, with the bank of the rectilinear enclosure. 
There is nothing to suggest on which side the banks of Nos. 4 and 
5 were. 

It is, perhaps, reasonable to suppose that the bank of No. 8 
was also on the outer side of the enclosure B, as Nos. 7 and 8a run 
right into it on the inner side ; on the other hand there would have 
been no room for the bank on the outer side of No. 8 where it 

v 2 



68 Castcrley Camp Excavations. 

forms a flanking ditch at the entrance to the enclosure A, so that 
there must at least have been a different arrangement at this 
point. As to the bank of ditch No. 10, Hoare seems to show it on 
the western side. There is no guide to the positions of the banks 
of ditches No. 9 and 11 except that at the point of junction of 
these two ditches the banks could not very well have been on that 
side, and therefore it seems likely that they were on opposite sides 
of these two ditches. 

If these suggested relative positions of banks to ditches are 
correct it will be seen that the banks would all have been towards 
that area of the camp bounded by the weaker outer entrenchment, 
with the ditches (more particularly Nos. 6 and 11) facing the more 
strongly entrenched area, the reverse of what might be expected 
for purposes of defence, but at the same time showing a certain 
uniformity of design. However situated, the banks must have 
afforded some protection from wind and weather, very desirable in 
such an exposed position. 

The Entrances, as Excavated. 

There were originally at least three entrances through the outer 
entrenchment, one to the south, at G-, one to the north, at K, and 
one to the west, by meaus of the sunken way. See Key Plan PI. X. 

The Southern Entrance, PI. XII. This is by a causeway, 17ft. 
wide, of unexcavated chalk left in the ditch opposite a gap in the 
rampart. In view of the gate-post holes that we found at the 
somewhat similar entrance to Oliver's Camp 1 , a search was made 
for post holes in corresponding positions and the four excavations 
shown on the plan were found. The three smaller holes may well 
have held gate posts, but the large excavation is not so simply 
accounted for. Like the other three holes, this larger one was filled 
with a clean chalk rubble, but unlike them it showed a layer of 
dark material, resembling decayed turf, all over the bottom, some 
2in. to 3in. thick. Nothing else was found in either of the holes, 
with the exception of a few fragments of red-deer horn in the 

1 Wilts Arch. Mag., xxxv., 420. 



By Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington. 69 

larger hole between 1ft. and 2ft. deep. The sides of this hole 
were practically perpendicular, except at the end towards the 
ditch, where the sides sloped and there was an irregular ledge 
in the chalk from 1ft. to 1ft. 3in. above the bottom of the pit. 
It is thought that possibly this ledge may have served as a 
step, if the pit was ever occupied ; but the object of the pit 
is not at all clear. It has been suggested that it may have served 
as a guard-room, porter's lodge, or sentry-box. In that case it 
could only have been in the nature of a shelter for the guardian 
in bad weather, and the layer of dark turfy material in the bottom 
of the pit may be the decayed remains of a thatched roofing. This 
suggestion, however, is not without difficulties, and the fact that 
there are two holes that may be regarded as post-holes on one side 
of the road, and only one post-hole on the other side, with the end 
of this pit where the second hole should have been, suggests the 
possibility of its having had some connection with the gates. It 
might have held large timbers or pallisading to protect this corner 
of the rampart ; but if this was the case, it is curious that it should 
be on one side of the entrance only. 

The Western Entrance. ■ PI. XV. The entrance on the western 
side was by a sunken road leading from the downs into the camp, 
and intersecting the outer ditch at nearly right angles. For a 
short distance outside the camp there are slight banks along either 
side of the filled-in way, but further out, as well as inside the 
ramparts, they have disappeared, although no doubt originally a 
bank or banks extended along its whole course. 1 The road seems 
to have been cut from 4ft. to 5ft. deep on an average, and was at 
best a narrow pathway with no room for two people to walk 
abreast, scarcely any room for passing, and none at all for vehicles 
of any kind (see plan and sections). Within the outer ditch it 
became gradually shallower, and ran out altogether a few yards 
within the ramparts. 

It leads out from the camp over the downs in the direction of 



1 Sir R. Colt Hoare actually shows the continuation of the banks within 
the ramparts. Ancient Wilts, South, 177. 



70 Casterley Camp Excavations. 

one of the combes leading to Water Dene Bottom, 1 where it shallows 
up and runs out altogether on what is now an open down. 2 

Where the ditch of the entrenchment and the sunken way intersect 
each other, a curious feature was found. It will be seen in the longi- 
tudinal section of the road, that the ditch and the road are of the 
same depth at the entrance, except at the actual point of inter- 
section, where the level of the road suddenly drops some 2ft. for a 
space equal to the width of the ditch. It will be seen (enlarged 
section R, PI. XV., of sunken way) that this sunken space was 
evidently made in connection with the road, for it is at right angles 
to it, and not to the ditch. The object of the excavation sunk 
below the usual depth of the road and ditch at their point of 
meeting is not known, but it seems probable that it had something 
to do with some form of gate or barrier to block the entrance. 

The Northern Entrance. The entrance on the northern side was 
by a causeway 12ft. wide left unexcavated in the course of the 
ditch K (Key Plan, Plate X), and leading to a gap in the rampart. 
Time did not permit a search being made there for post-holes. It 
is perhaps worth recording that this gap in the rampart, thus 
proved to be an original one, looked less imposing than several 
gaps in the same bank that have no claim to antiquity. 

Excavations in the Kectilinear Enclosure. 

The ends of the ditch, on either side of the causeway of un- 
disturbed chalk forming the entrance to this enclosure, were cleared 
out to the bottom — with interesting results (PI. XIII.) On one side, 

1 In common with other settlements on the Plain the question of the 
water supply at Casterley is a difficulty. In wet "seasons the water still 
occasionally rises to the surface in Water Dene Bottom, and if, as appears 
to have been the case, the water-level was formerly higher than at present, 
it is possible that there was a constant spring there. Otherwise, if there 
were no wells, the nearest water would seem to be the river Avon, some 
mile and a half to two miles away in the valley. 

2 Similarly narrow and ditch-like roads or " ways " are still in use in parts _ 
of Algeria, but whether made or only the result of wear the writer does not 
know. Old trackways deeply worn, apparently only as a result of traffic 
are common enough on the downs, and some of them are nearly as steep- 
sided and as narrow as the sunken way at Casterley. 



By Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington. 71 



at the junction of the two ditches (Nos. 1 and 7), between 2ft. and 
3ft. deep, a layer of burnt material was found, covering an area of 
about 12ft. square. It seems that a structure of some kind, that 
had been built over the surface of the partly filled-in ditch at this 
spot, had been destroyed by fire, and bad left this layer of ashes 
to mark the site. In and about tins layer were found a number 
of oyster shells and broken bones of animals, a quantity of broken 
pottery, including fragments of two decorated Samian bowls of 
form 37, with "free style" decoration, and one fragment stamped 
DECMI.M ; about a hundred iron nails, some of them lame, 
that had probably been used in the woodwork of the building; 
pieces of concrete flooring, wall daub ; fragments of bricks and 
tiles; pieces of quernstones ; two iron knife blades; and other 
iron fragments; fragments of glass; bronze "viper" ring (PI. L. 
Fig. 11); bronze stud or tag (PI. I., Fig. 6); and a bronze coin 
of Claudius (see List of Coins, No. 1). In the ditch on the other 
side of the entrance at a depth of between 4ft. and 5ft., scattered 
ashes and mould were found, together with oyster shells, bones of 
animals, a bronze pin without its head, and other decayed frag- 
ments of bronze; two bronze ear picks (PI. I., Figs. 1 and 2), part 
of an iron knife blade ; a half-finished spindle whorl of pottery ; 
sherds of pottery including fragments of at least three Samian 
bowls of first century type (one of form 29, and two of form 
30), PI. V., Figs. 10, 11, and 12) ; and a coin of Nero (see List 
of Coins, No. 2). This deposit seemed to be where rubbish had 
been thrown into the ditch, and similar patches of ashes, &c, 
were noticed in several places in the ditches, being quite distinct 
from those places where fires had been actually lit. 

Bitch No. 2. The whole length of Ditch No. 2 was cleared out 
to the bottom. A considerable quantity of pottery of the " bead 
rim " type was found in it, nearly all of it in the lowest foot above 
the bottom, there being above this a stratum with little in it, and 
pottery of later Komano-British types in the first foot below the 
surface only. Figs. 1 to 6, 10, 11, PL IV., Figs. 2, 3, 5, PL VI., 
Figs. 1, 2, and fragments resembling Figs. 6, and 8, PL V; were 
all found in the bottom of this ditch. 



72 Casterley Camp Excavations. 

At the spot shown on plan PL X. a skeleton was found 2ft. deep, in 
a grave that had been dug across the ditch and nearly at right angles 
to it. It had been dug partly in the silt of the ditch and partly 
through the undisturbed chalk of the bank, showing that the 
grave-diggers were indifferent to, or unaware of the existence of the 
ditch. The skeleton lay face downwards, with the head to the 
north-east, and the arms doubled up under the chest: from the 
hips upwards it rested on the silt of the ditch, and from there 
downwards in a narrow trench in the undisturbed chalk. Nothing 
was found with the bones, except, on the floor of the trench two- 
small sherds of pottery, one of New Forest and the other of Samian 
ware. No doubt these were thrown in accidentally, in filling in 
the grave; they only prove that it must have been filled in some 
time during, or after, the Romano-British period. 

Hut Site (Plan of Inner Works Plate X). In the north-east corner 
of the enclosure an irregularly-shaped excavation was found that ap- 
pears to have been the site of a hut or dwelling of some kind, the 
foundations of which were sunk 2£ft. below the surface. Somewhat 
similar irregular excavations were found by General Pitt-Rivers at 
Rotherley, and believed by him to be hut-sites, but here there 
was no drain or pit to carry off surplus water as at Rotherley. 1 
Pottery, including fragments of Samian ware, one piece stamped 
with the name of Peculiaris; numerous oyster shells, a few cockle 
and mussel shells ; iron nails, one blade of a pair of iron shears 
(PI. III., Fig. 12) ; bronze tweezers, (PL I., Fig. 10); and an iron 
hinge pin brooch of common Roman form (PI. II., Fig. 2), were 
found in this excavation. 

"Within the enclosure at lb it was found that a rough paving 
of pieces of sarsen stone, hard chalk, and flints, had been laid 
down, covering impartially the surface of ditch No. 2 and the ad- 
joining ground; the extent of this, however, was not ascertained. 
A similar rough paving was found below the turf covering ditch 
No. 6, at Section X., at the elbow of ditch No. 7, but there again 
its whole extent was not found. 

1 Excavations, II., 53 — 4, 113, section V. 



By Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington. 7 '6 

The T-shaped Fire Place in Ditch No. 6. 

A T-shaped hypocaust was discovered on the side of ditch No. 
G (PI. XIV.). The builders of this fire place had taken advantage 
of the side of the partially filled-in ditch to begin operations, thus 
saving themselves the additional labour of excavating a stoke hole 
or " praefurnium." The cross part of the fire hole was neatly 
lined witli a walling of blocks of hard chalk and rough flints, set 
in thick mortar. The two lower courses of the wall were built of 
blocks of chalk only, and the upper chiefly of flints, placed with 
then - flat surfaces outward, and so skilfully laid that the surface 
of the wall was fairly smooth and level. Behind this single 
course of laid stones the wall was backed up with rough flints. 
The whole of the fire place, and the approach to it from the ditch, 
was filled up with blocks of chalk and flints, similar to those used 
in the wall ; these had apparently formed part of a chimney, or 
superstructure of some kind, that had collapsed after the disuse of 
the fire place. 

The floor of the fire place was of undisturbed chalk, slightly 
discoloured by fire, and was covered by a layer of wood ashes an 
inch or more in thickness. These ashes spread out beyond the 
floor of the fire place over the surface of the ditch, forming a con- 
tinuous layer over floor and ditch all on the same level, thus show- 
ing that the fire place was in use after the ditch had become partly 
silted up. Outside the fire place the space in the ditch had 
evidently been used as a praefurnium, and a heap of ashes and 
rubbish was found there. In this accumulation in addition to a 
quantity of broken pottery there were a number of oyster shells 
and a few cockle and mussel shells ; bones of animals ; few frag- 
ments of glass; about forty iron nails, some large, and several hob- 
nails such as were used in boots ; iron cleats, and other fragments 
of iron ; a piece of lead ; a large pebble that had been used, for 
hammering or pounding ; five pottery discs (pot covers?), and a 
disc of counter of bone inscribed on one side with a four-armed 
cross (PI. I., Fig. ]4); and pieces of tile and brick. Among the 
big stones in the fire place itself, there were in addition to some 



74 Casterley Camp Excavations. 

pottery a piece of flanged tile, a piece of a quern of millstone grit, 
two discs of pottery, a few iron nails, and bones of animals. 

The discovery of this fire place was interesting as affording 
definite evidence that the occupation of the site went on after the 
ditches were allowed to silt up. 

Trenches were cut on the surface behind the fire place in order 
to see if any traces of a dwelling on tins spot could be found. 
Nothing in the way of foundations, however, was found, but some 
fragments of concrete flooring, and of brick, oyster shells, and 
pottery tend to show that there was a dwelling there, built per- 
haps with mud walls and timber, all traces of which have perished. 

Sections through the Eampart. 

It has already been explained that the outer rampart on the 
east and south-east sides is stronger than elsewhere. It was 
thought, therefore, not improbable that this portion had been 
strengthened for some purpose at some time later than the original 
construction. To test whether this was indeed the, case, two sec- 
tions were cut through the rampart, one at C — and one at Ca — 
Ca. The rampart did not show any sign in either of these sections 
of having been constructed at different times, or of having had 
any addition made to it. In the two other sections that had to be 
incidentally made to find the ends of ditches No. 6 at B and of 
ditch No. 10 at D — D the rampart showed a similar construction, 
and no sign of any additions having been made to it. 

In the two first sections only two fragments of pottery were 
found, but little as this is, it affords valuable evidence of the date 
of the construction of the rampart. On the old turf line, im- , 
mediately under the crest of the rampart at C— C, a fragment of 
pottery of a quality and texture common in " bead-rim " bowls was 
found. In the section at Ca — Ca, a piece of a rim of a " bead-rim j 
bowl was found, also on the old turf line, 2ft. within the inner 
edge of the rampart. 

Between 1ft. and 2ft. deep in the filling-in of ditch No. 10, 
at its extreme end under the crest of the rampart, part of a base 



By Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington. 75 

of a vessel was found. This base is certainly that of a " bead-rim " 
bowl, the ware being of a special quality of which these bowls 
were sometimes made, its peculiarity being that it is rather soft, 
black all through, and freely mixed with white particles. It is of 
the same kind of ware as the large " bead-rim " bowl, PI. IV., fig. 
5. It is quite unlike any of the earlier hand-made "pit" pottery. 
It seems therefore clear that the rampart must have been thrown 
up, at least on this side, after the " bead-rim " type of pottery was 
being used on the site. 

Sections in Ditch of Outer Entrenchment. 

Section s were taken out to the bottom of the outer ditch at A, 
B, Ca, D — D, at the western entrance, and on either side of the 
northern entrance. On the bottom at A four fragments of thin 
hard grey pottery were found that might be Romano-British or 
earlier. A much-worn flint hammerstone, fragments of red deer 
horn, and a few fragments of "thin red" Romano-British pottery 
were found 2ft. below the turf. At B two fragments of bead rim 
bowls were found 4|ft. deep. At Ca the depth as excavated was 
5ft. ; Romano-British pottery of " thin red " quality was found 2£f t. 
deep ; on the bottom a fragment of rather soft light red pottery 
was found, that might be Romano-British or earlier. 

In a long section at D — D a number of fragments were found 
throughout, chiefly of bead rim bowls; in the last foot above 
the bottom a large fragment of a vessel resembling Fig. 2, 
PI. IV., was found, part of a cover (PI. VII,, Fig. 4), and a 
number of worn fragments, all apparently of one vessel, of 
the same type as Figs. 6, 7, and 8, PL V. ; the vessel shown on 
PI. VII. (top figure) also came from this layer ; it was found 
in small worn and scattered fragments and has been restored. 
2ft. above the bottom was found a small fragment of Samian ware 
not much larger than a shilling, an oyster shell, and fragments of 
" bead-rim " bowls. Neither of the other sections yielded pottery 
at any depth. The evidence from the outer ditch is not of any 
particular value, except in so far as it confirms that obtained from 



76 Caslerley Camp Excavations. 

the rampart, showing that the outer entrenchment is at least no 
older than the inner works. 



The Pit-Dwellings. 

In the course of trenching to locate the ditches, three pits were 
found within the irregular enclosure A. No sign of these showed 
on the surface, and it' is probable that there are others hidden 
beneath the soil, but they are difficult to locate, and some time 
was spent in a fruitless search. 1 

Pit 1. 

6ft. 3in. deep, oft. wide at top, sides perpendicular, widening 
out somewhat at the bottom. 

This pit was so small that it scarcely seems possible that it 
could have been used as a dwelling place, and it may have been 
used chiefly for storage. Unless some form of ladder was used 
it would have been by no means easy to get in and out of the pit, 
as there was no step cut in the side. 

Below the surface soil to within 1ft. or 15in. of the bottom the 
filling-in consisted of clay, with occasional lumps of chalk, a few 
flint flakes, and a few sherds of inferior pottery. The last layer 
came out quite black and consisted chiefly of wood ashes. In this 
a considerable quantity of soft hand-made pottery was found, 
together with the following objects : — a few flint flakes, a number 
of burnt flints, two flint haunnerstones, bones of animals, a sling 
bullet made of chalk, a bone button (PI. I, Fig. 15), and one or two 
fragments of polished bone. 



1 There is a patch of the deposit known as " clay with flints " over part of 
the area of the camp, including most of the irregular enclosure A, and 
spreading out towards the south. In places the deposit is from 2ft. to 3ft. 
thick, and filling up the natural unevenness in the surface of the chalk 
beneath, it forms small clay pits over which much time and labour may be 
spent before it can be decided with any certainty whether the particular 
spot is a natural or an artificial pit. 



By Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington. 77 

Pit 2, Plate XIV. 

Oval in shape, measuring 17ft. by 15fb., general level of floor 
6ft. deep, extreme depth to bottom of post hole 9^ft., sides nearly 
perpendicular. 

This pit was very much larger than either of the other two, and 
may well have been a dwelling place. As shown on plan there 
was a smaller pit adjoining the larger one, forming a sort of annex. 

In the centre of the larger pit a hole had been dug below the 
general level of the floor, and this was probably the post hole in 
which the " roof-tree" for support of the roof stood. 

Below the surface soil to within a few inches of the bottom the 
filling-in consisted of hard tenacious clay, with a number of natural 
flints, very laborious and hard to dig. This material so closely 
resembled a natural undisturbed deposit of " clay with flints " 
that had it not been for an occasional flint flake of unmistakable 
human make, and some scattered fragments of decayed wood or 
charcoal, the effort to get through the clay would have been given 
up, and the spot regarded as a natural " pot hole." 

In this pit there was no layer of ashes or black material on the 
floor as in the two smaller ones, but for the last few inches above 
the bottom the clay was mixed with a darkish mould, and more 
earthy in character. 

The floor of the annex was of level undisturbed chalk, and lying 

I on it were found four human skeletons, three of adults and one of 

a child of about six years of age. They lay more or less in a circle, 

close to the sides of the pit, but the attitudes of the skeletons did 

not give the impression that they had been placed there with care 

for burial. Under the sternum of skeleton No. 2 the spiral spring 

i of an iron brooch was found, and under the foot of No. 1 (the child) 

a fragment of iron that may have been part of a ring, or the bow 

I of a brooch. 

The brooch was a fortunate find as it shows that these pit people 

I belonged to the Early Iron Age, for otherwise the poor hand-made 

; quality of the pottery and the finding in this pit of a flint axe and 

flint flakes, might have given rise to the supposition that the pits 



78 Casterley Camp Excavations. 

were of a much earlier date. A considerable part of a large 
(PI. I., Fig. 8) "cooking pob" was found, crushed among the 
bones of skeleton No. 2, and sherds of similar pottery were scat- 
tered over the floor of the larger pit as well as on that of the annex. 

The filling-in of the annex was for some reason of a much less 
clayey nature than that of the larger pit, and in it were found no 
less than fourteen antlers of the red deer. The antlers appeared 
to have fallen, or to have been thrown in, in a loose heap, with 
their branches pointing in all directions, some lying fairly flat, 
others sticking straight up. The point of the first antler was found 
lft. below the turf, and the tangled mass extended downwards for 
a depth of 2ft., thus leaving only about lft. between it and the 
skeletons beneath. A few fragments of pit pottery were found 
among the antlers, which were very much decayed, most of them 
crumbling to pieces when touched. They varied considerably in 
size, and several of them must have been fine specimens when 
perfect; two pairs had part of the skulls attached, and must there- 
fore have been taken from slaughtered deer; one of these had the 
brow tine sawn off; the other antlers were all shed. 

The following objects were also found in this pit: — a few flint 
flakes, a fine flint axe, found on a ledge in the wall of the large 
pit; a loom weight and spindle whorl of chalk, found together 
behind one of the skeletons (No. 3) ; and close up against the wall 
at the back of the annex; fragments of coarse hand-made pottery; 
part of an iron brooch found under the sternum of skeleton No. 
2, and some pieces of much rusted iron, part of a ring or the bow 
of a brooch, found under the foot of the child's skeleton. The 
brooch was of stoutish iron wire, with spiral spring, pin and bow 
all in one piece ; only the spring and a remnant of the bow and pin, 
all much rusted, remained. 

The child's skeleton (No. 1) lay on the threshold of the annex, 
on its left side, facing into the large pit, the knees drawn up, and 
hands close up in front of the face. Skeleton No. 2 (on the right 
hand side looking into the annex) lay with its back close up under 
the side of the pit, on its left side, one knee more drawn up than 
the other, the hands close up in front of the face. 



By Mr. and Mrs. B. H Cunnington. 79 

Skeleton No. 3 lay close up to the wall at the back of the pit, 
backbone twisted, lying partly on its side and partly on its back, 
face upwards, hands down, knees slightly bent. Skeleton No, 4 
was close to the wall opposite to No. 2, on its right side, hands up 
to the face, and the knees drawn up. 

Pit 3. 

7|ft. deep, 4|f t wide at top. Sides perpendicular. The filling-in 
of this pit was like that of the others, of clay, with about 1ft. of 
black material and wood ash at the bottom. In this pit a ledge 
cut out in the side may have served as a step. Some fragments 
of " pit " pottery were found among the filling-in, and more pieces 
of the same kind of pottery, some flakes and burnt flints, frag- 
mentary bones of animals, two fossil echini that had been burnt, 
and a small sandstone hone, at the bottom of the pit. 1 

The Inner and Outer Works Contemporary. 

The question arises whether the outer entrenchment and the 
inner works are of the same period, and constitute parts of a single 
scheme, or whether they were designed independently of each 
other ; and further there is the possibility of the different parts of 
the inner works being themselves of different dates, and planned 
without reference to each other. 

That the inner and outer works were not made wholly without 
reference to each other appears from the ditches Nos. 6, 10, and 11, 
and it is clear that the rampart was erected after they had been 
dug, for No. 10 and 11 ended under the rampart at D and H, and 
No. 6 ran right under it into the outer ditch at B. 

It seems incredible that three separate ditches should end in 
this way in the outer entrenchment unless that entrenchment had 
been planned in reference to them, or they to it. It seems, there- 
fore, that, although the outer entrenchment was actually made 

1 The fossil echinus has been noticed in pits on Wilsford Down and in 
those at All Cannings Cross. The pit-dwellers seem to have had some fancy 
for them. 



80 Casterley Camp Excavations. 

after (at least) some of the inner works, they were not planned I 
independently of each other, and cannot be of very different date, 
Imt are probably the work of one and the same people. 

The evidence is also in favour of the greater part of the inner | 
works being contemporary one with another. This does not of 
coarse necessitate that they were all actually made, or even planned, j 
at once, but that the various parts were made as additions to, and! 
not independently of, those already existing. 

It appears, for instance, that the ditches Nos. 1 to 8a are mutually 1 
inter-dependent on each other. 

The relationship between Nos. 1 and 2 has already been suggested 
(page 62). Nos. 3 and 5 come to an end in the bank of No. 1, and! 
could only have been made when that bank and ditch were inl 
evidence. No. 4 ends in No. 3 at a sharp angle, and must havq 
been dug when No. 3 was still open to the bottom. 

Nos. 6 and 7 start at right-angles out of No. 1, and could only! 
have been dug when No. 1 was open to the bottom ; No. 7 runa 
into No. 8, and consequently shows that Nos. 1 and 8 must hav« 
been open at the same time. The short ditch No. 8a begins (oil 
ends) in No. 8, the two being of equal depth at their point of 
junction. 

Thus it is clear that Nos. 1 to 8a form a contemporary group! 
all planned in relation to each other, with No. I as the principal ami 
connecting link of the group. It has already been shown (page 611 
on different grounds, that the irregular enclosures were subordinate 
to the rectilinear enclosure bounded by ditch No. 1, and now i 
appears that No. 1 is actually the most important member of thJ 
group, forming, as it does, the connecting link between this sys ten 
of ditches. 

In the same way it will be seen that Nos. 9, 10, and 11 arl 
evidently connected with each other, but it is not impossible Ilia 
these three are altogether independent of Nos. 1 to 8a, for No. I 
cuts right through No. 9, and therefore these two ditches were nol 
necessarily made in reference to each other. 

Nevertheless the groups Nos. 1 to 8a and 9 to 11 are both linkel 
with the outer entrenchment, and it may be argued that if bot| 



By Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington. 81 

groups were contemporary with this, they were therefore contem- 
porary with each other. The fact that a ditch from both groups 
actually runs under the same outer rampart is certainly in support 
of this view. 

The Date of the Construction of the Earthworks. 

The fact that fragments of "bead-rim" bowls were found under 
the great outer rampart shows that at least this rampart must 
have been made after this type of pottery was introduced to the 
site. The same kind of pottery found in the deeper strata of all 
the ditches of the inner works, to the exclusion of later types, shows 
that these ditches had begun to silt up, before the later Bomano- 
Kritish wares had become, as they eventually did, common on the 
site. As already explained, the ramparts of the inner works have 
entirely disappeared, so that no evidence could be obtained from 
them, but it seems from the general arrangement of the ditches 
that the inner and outer works must have been practically con- 
temporary with one another. The conclusion therefore seems 
inevitable that the date of the construction of the earthworks at 
Casterley is identical with that of the " bead-rim " type of pottery. 
It remains to be seen within what limits this date can be fixed. 

The results obtained from excavations at the Koman camp at 
Hal tern, in Westphalia, afford valuable evidence as to the date 
that may be given to this type of pottery in Germany. 1 Bowls or 
cooking pots with "inbent" or " bead rims " occurred plentifully 
at Haltern ; the earliest of these were mostly hand-made vessels of 
native manufacture, while the later ones were wheel-turned and 
made under Koman influence. 

All the " bead-rim " bowl pottery at Casterley is well made and 
wheel-turned. 

The finds at Haltern all fall within the few years between about 
.11 B.C., and 10 A.D. As the evolution of the " bead-rim " howl 
:an apparently be traced at Haltern from its native hand-made 

1 Mitteilungen der Altertums — Kommissionfur Westfalen, V., 1909. p. 
!40, type 58, Abb, 32, a— c, PL XXI., 20, and p. 294, type 91, Abb, 48, 1— 
L PI. XXV., 4-10. 

Vol. xxxviil— no. cxix. g 



82 Casterley Camp Excavations. 

prototype, and the developed wheel-turned bowls were only made 
there under Roman influence, the developed wheel-turned bowl 
may be considerably later in date at Casterley than at Haltern, 
but it can scarcely be earlier. 

It is not known with any certainty how long this type survived, 
but as at Casterley it was found — in the critical positions as far 
as date is concerned — without intermixture of later Romano-British 
types, this point does not materially affect the case. It would be 
more to the point to know how soon the later types, including the 
early Samian, appeared, for it is clear that the ditches had already 
begun to silt up before they arrived at Casterley. 

Samian ware seems to have been imported into Britain to some 
extent even before the Roman conquest of A.D. -A3, but it is not 
at all common till after that date. Its absence, and the absence 
of all the other common Romano-British types from the lower 
strata of the ditches, point to the earthworks not having been kept 
in repair, and the consequent silting up of the ditches, soon after 
the date of the Roman conquest. It seems, therefore, not im- 
probable that the earthworks became obsolete, and were allowed 
to fall into decay, as a consequence of the Roman occupation of 
the country. 1 Thus it appears that the earthworks as a whole 
were made in the period somewhere between about 10 A.D. and 
the latter part of the century, but probably before the year 43 A.D. 
It may be that some of the inner works were actually made some- 
what before the earlier date, but it is remarkable that, except in 
the pits themselves, only some half-dozen fragments were founc 
of any pottery earlier than that of the wheel-turned " bead- 
rim" bowls. It does not, therefore, seem likely that the site was 
inhabited to any extent before the period of this particular type 
of wheel-turned pottery. 

Professor Haverfield, to whom we are greatly indebted for 
reading these notes, and for his valuable criticisms, writes: — 
" I think that you are probably right in your dating of 
Casterley. The objects which you have found in the lowest strata 

1 Professor Haverfield writes : — " There is certainly no recognisable trace 
of Italian or Roman influence in the plan of the village." 



By Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cnnnington. 83 

of the place, and which would, therefore, naturally belong to its 
earliest period, seem to be early in character and to belong indeed 
to the beginning of the Christian era. Mr. Bushe-Foxe, to whom 
I have had a chance opportunity of showing your specimens of 
" bead-rims," tells me that his recent excavations at Hengistbury, 
near Christchnrch, yielded a good many specimens of pottery of 
similar fabric aud rim to yours, and he is inclined to date these to 
the century of which the beginning of the Christian era marks the 
middle; something, however, would depend on the shape of the 
bowl as well as on its rim. There are certainly cases abroad where 
this rim occurs on rough similar wares of a good deal later date 
than A.D. 50, and I suspect there may be cases also in England. 
It is, of course, not quite safe to adopt the chronology of a local 
ware made on the Rhine as a precise guide for the dating of a 
similar British ware. A common style of pot, made at one period 
on both sides of the Channel, may have lasted on in one district 
for some time after it had ceased to be made in the other. The 
Haltern parallels give, therefore, rather a general clue than a 
precise date for your Casterley pieces." 

Castbeley as an Inhabited Site, 
The Three Periods of Occupation. 

Although it appears that the earthworks as a whole belong to 
one definite period, there were three stages in the occupation of 
Casterley as an inhabited site. 

The earliest of these is represented by the three pit-dwellings 
that were found, which are certainly older than the earthworks, 
and do not appear to have had any connection with them, it being 
probably a mere coincidence that they were within the area. 

The second stage is that of the erection and occupation of the 
earthworks by a people using "bead-rim" bowls of hard-baked, 
wheel-turned pottery, entirely distinct from that of the soft hand- 
made pottery of the pit people. 

The third is that of the decay of the inner works, when the 

ditches were already silted up, and the inhabitants were living 

under Roman influence. 

G 2 



84 . Castcrley Camp Excavations. 

The relationship between the first and second people is not clear, 
but the evidence favours a decided break between the two occu- 
pations, either in point of time or of an invasion by a new race, or 
tribe, of superior culture. 

Be this as it may, the pit people themselves belong to the Early 
Iron Age, as was shown by the discovery of an iron brooch, and 
other fragments of iron, at the bottom of the largest pit. 

The pottery from the pits is strikingly different from that found 
in the ditches, and the fact that not a fragment of the later types 
of pottery was found in either of the pits, seems to be good evidence 
that the pits must have been filled up either before, or on, the 
arrival of the people using " bead-rim " bowls. 

It may be said that perhaps only the poorer people used the pits, 
and that therefore only the poorer kind of pottery would be found 
in them. But in every ditch, almost in every cutting, fragments 
of " bead-rim " bowls were found in the bottoms of the ditches, and 
it is impossible to believe that, had these pits and ditches been 
open at the same time, some fragments of the pottery so freely 
scattered about the ditches would not also have found their way 
into the pits, separated as they are by only a few feet from sections 
of ditches that proved to contain many fragments of " bead-rim " 
bowls and their contemporary types. One would also expect to 
find a certain proportion of the coarser pottery in the ditches along 
with the better made wares had the two types been in use at the 
same time. But with the exception of a few small worn fragments 
in ditches Nos. 3 and 5, and at the bottom of the sunken way, none 
were found in the ditches, although fragments occasionally turned 
up in surface trenches. 

There is, on the other hand, no reason to believe that there 
was any break between the two latter stages, and it is prob- 
able that the same people continued in peaceful occupation of 
the site after, as before, the Roman conquest, only gradually 
adopting something of the manners and customs of their conquerors 
as in time they became familiarised with them. That Roman 
habits were more or less adopted is shown by the discovery of 
the T-shaped fireplace, of bricks and tiles of Roman pattern, and 



By Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington. 85 

pieces of mortaria, Samian and other pottery, coins, etc, such as 
are usually associated with Romano-British remains. 

At what date the settlement ceased to he inhabited there is no 
direct evidence. The presence of coins of the Constantine period 
suggests that it was occuped at least as late as the earlier part of the 
fourth century. It is, perhaps, not improbable that Casterley gradu- 
ally ceased to be inhabited in the fifth century, as a result of the 
Saxon occupation of the country. The Saxons, it seems, preferred to 
settle in the valleys, in sheltered and well-watered sites that are 
inhabited to this day. It is a fact, at least in Wiltshire, that while 
relics- of Romano-British and earlier habitation are of frequent 
occurrence on the downs, those of post- Roman date are conspicuous 
by their absence, and it seems not improbable that all the sites 
of the so-called "British villages" on the high downs gradually 
fell into decay at this period, as their inhabitants of native descent 
fell victims to the Saxon onslaughts, died, or migrated to the more 
genial and prosperous settlements of their conquerors, to become 
in time racially absorbed in them. 1 

The Pottery. 

It has been said that three distinct stages can be recognised 
in the occupation of Casterley Camp. 

The recognition oE these stages of occupation is based on the 
character of the pottery, which falls naturally and inevitably into 
three classes or types. 

(1) The first, or " pit," period, is easily dealt with, there being 
a clear distinction between it and the second period, not only in 
the type of the pottery itself, but in its place of occurrence also. 
The pottery found in the three pit-dwellings was, without exception, 
all of inferior quality, hand-made and devoid of ornamentation. 
The colour of the paste is black or very dark brown, sometimes 

1 There is a local tradition to the effect that the village of Upavon once 
stood where the camp is, and that the people eventually moved down and 
built Upavon. That part of the camp situated at the head of the combe is 
said to have been the burial ground. It is not known if any burials have 
ever been found there to give rise to this latter part of the tradition. 



86 Caster ley Camp Excavations. 

baked on the outside of the vessel to a dull red colour. It is very 
soft and sandy, and only occasionally mixed with grains of 
pounded flint. Tt is imperfectly baked, and when wet very apt to 
crumble to pieces, and even after it has been dried it breaks easily, 
and can be cut with a knife. Both the inner and the outer surfaces 
are often striated, the result apparently of tools used in smoothing 
the surfaces before baking. A few pieces have been smoothly tooled 
and bear a fair polish. Compared fragment with fragment, or taken 
as a whole, this pit-pottery presents a striking contrast to the hard- 
baked, wheel-turned wares of the two succeeding stages. The frag- 
ments found seem all to have been parts of bowls or cooking pots, 
with straight rims, rather straight sides, and flat bottoms, but the 
pieces are mostly too small to determine the exact shapes of the 
vessels. The two largest pieces are shown on PI. IV., Figs. 8 and 12. 1 

Scarcely any of the pit type of pottery was found except in the 
pits themselves, and this perhaps suggests that there was no con- 
siderable occupation of the site by these people. This soft badly 
baked pottery, however, crushes into powder when trodden upon, 
and a later occupation of the site would in this way destroy much 
of it beyond recognition. 

(2) Between the pottery of the two later stages there is no such 
distinct difference in quality, and it is only when the two are 
compared as a whole that the difference becomes apparent. 

To demonstrate this, the pottery from all the lower strata of all j 
the cuttings made through the ditches was arranged side by side ! 
with that from the upper strata in the same ditches. Half the 
depth was taken as the line of separation, because the deepest find I 
of Samian ware was at just half the depth of ditch No. 1 ; it seems 
that where, as in this case, an earlier merges without a break into 
a later stage, some such arbitrary line must be drawn. 

As a result of this arrangement, it appeared at a glance that | 
there was a very striking difference between the pottery from tliej 

1 Similar pottery, equally badly baked and roughly made, has been found 
with other Early Iron Age remains in Wilts, as at a site near All Cannings 
Cross {Wilts Arch. Mag., xxxvii., 526) and in pits on Wilsford Down, near, 
Avebury, etc. 



By Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington. 87 

upper and lower strata of the ditches. Certain kinds of ware and 
types of vessels were seen to occur below, that were absent or only 
poorly represented above, while wares and types appeared above 
that were entirely unknown below. 

In the lower half, the pottery consisted entirely of bowls or 
cooking pots with bead or inbent rims, and of a few other types 
that are found elsewhere in association with the bowls — rim 
sherds of the bowls themselves being actually more numerous 
than those of all the other vessels put together in the proportion 
of about one to four. 1 



1 This type of vessel is also described as a " cooking pot with inbent rim," 
or as the " Haltern cooking pot." The bowls from Casterley appear to be 
identical with the cooking pots found at Haltern and described by Loeschcke 
under type 58 {Mitteilungen der Alter turns- Kommission Jiir Westfalen V. 
1909, Die Keramischen Funde, by S. Loeschcke, p. 240). Loeschcke believes 
the vessels found at Haltern to have been made at the Roman potteries at 
Xanten, but that they are Belgian in form, and copied from handmade 
Belgian models, these earlier handmade pots also occurring at Haltern and 
being described under types 91a, 91b. The occupation of Haltern is stated 
to have lasted only about a quarter of a century, and to have been not 
earlier than the year 11 B.C. and not later than 10 or 16 A.D. The 
rim described by Loeschcke as the least common and probably the latest 
form of the "bead rim" at Haltern (Abb. 38-c, p. 241) is almost the only 
form found at Casterley. The fact that it is found at Haltern at all shows 
that this form was already developed not later than 16 A.D. Loeschcke 
thinks that with certain changes this type of rim survived into the third 
century,but the evidence as regards Wiltshire suggests the disappearance of 
these bowls as early as the end of the first century. 

Mr. Thos. May, in his valuable paper on "The Roman Pottery in the 
York Museum" (reprintedfrom the " Reports of 'the Yorkshire Philosophical 
Society, 1912, p. 86), states that the "inbent rims " of later date are more 
upright and end in triangular or heart-shaped thickenings. Mr. May states 
that the " bead-rim bowl " or " Haltern cooking pot " appears to have been 
widely distributed in the east and south of Britain in the first half of the 
first century, and cites the bowls from Casterley as illustrated in the 
" Catalogue of the Antiquities in the Devizes Museum, Part II." 

There is evidence to show that the " bead-rim bowl " type did not survive 
here to any extent to the end of the first century. Among a large collection 
of pottery from a Romano- British site at Westbury, Wilts, in the Museum 
at Devizes, including first century Samian, there is not a single fragment of 
a " bead-rim " bowl ; the type is scarcely to be found at all in the pottery 
from the several Roman villas represented in the Museum. In the early 
occupation of the Roman fort at Newstead, dating (it is said) from about 



88 Casterhy Camp Excavations. 

The "bead-rim" bowls range in size from large pans that could 
nob have measured less than from 15in. to 20in. in rim diameter, 
to small delicate bowls of from 3in to 4in. in rim diameter. 
The paste is very hard, and usually grey, varying from a light grey 
to black ; sometimes the ware is baked to a light red or buff colour, 
and then the paste usually contains red particles of pounded brick 
or pottery. Sometimes the paste is mixed with pounded flint, and 
often a considerable quantity of black particles. These black 
particles consist of carbonized vegetable matter, and under the 
microscope fragments of wood, and of grass or straw, have been 
recognised. 2 

Many of the howls have been stained black, and in that case 
generally have a beautifully smooth and polished surface. 3 

80, till or after 86 A.D., the type does not seem to occur at all, nor at 
Gellygaer, in Glamorgan, said to have been first occupied soon after 
A.D. 100. On both these sites flanged rim bowls seem plentiful, while they 
■were entirely absent in the " bead-rim " bowl period at Casterley, Oare, and 
Knap. As to whether this pottery was imported or made locally there is 
little or no evidence, but the quantities in which it is found, and the fact 
that it is not mixed with poorer quality ware, suggests rather a local, or 
at least a British, manufacture. 

3 Some years ago the remains of kilns were found at Broomsgrove, near 
Pewsey, Wilts ( Wilts Arch. Mag., xxvii., 294). Some of the pottery found 
there was of the " bead-rim " bowl type, and contained similar black grains. 
Specimens of this pottery were sent to General Pitt- Rivers, who stated that 
he had noticed similar grains in pottery he had found in the Wansdyke, but 
that he had found nothing similar to it in the neighbourhood of Rushmore. 
(Ibid, pp. 299—300. Excavations, III., PI. CCXXII. Fig. 15 ; PI. CCXXIIL, 
Figs. 12, etc.). It would be interesting to know if similar black particles 
had been noticed in pottery from other localities. 

3 The extreme blackness of some of the ware, and the variation in colour, 
is probably due to " fuming," or smothering, a process well known, it seems,' 
in the Late-Celtic or La Tene period. Before the firing is completed the! 
vessels in the kilns are smothered in dense black smoke, the resulting black, 
or blackish colour being due to the chemical action of the smoke and gases' 
in combination with the iron in the clay, not — as was formerly thought — ; 
by the direct penetration of soot, or carbon particles. Another method thatj 
seems to have been employed was that of dipping the partially baked vessel 
in a solution of " ground iron " and then re-firing. Some such practice as! 
this may account for the fact that the bowls often show a zone of polished! 
black surface round the rim, whilst the rest of the vessel is left rougb andj 
of a dull red colour, perhaps the upper part of the vessel only having been 
dipped. 



By Mr. and Mrs. B. H. ' Cunnington. 89 

A distinct variety of paste is black or very dark brown, and 
mixed with a large proportion of pounded white flint, and this 
when tooled gives the ware almost a speckled appearance. The 
bowls are often tooled and polished from rim to shoulder, the rest 
of the surface being left comparatively rough. Some of them have 
a more or less pronounced cordon round the shoulder (PI, IV., 
Fig. 11 ; PI. VIIL, Figs. 21—23). The vessels found with the bowls 
are usually made of the same kind of paste as the bowls them- 
selves ; they are : (a) open shallow dishes (PI. V1L, Fig. 3 ; PI. VIIL, 
Figs. 28—30) ; (b) covers with hollow knobs (PL VII., Fig. 4) ; (c) 
jars with recurved upright rims (PI. IV., Figs. 1, 2, 9) ; (d) vessels 
with moulded foot rings and wide expanding bodies, decorated with 
cordons or with lustrous tooled lines round their girth (PL VI., 
Figs. 3 — 5); (e) cups or bowls with or without cordons (PL VII., 
Figs. 1, 2). Associated with these in the lower strata of the ditches 
were a few pieces of particularly interesting pottery of finer wares, 
including red and black (terra nigra) Belgic ware, and some very 
fine white and greyish wares ornamented with feathered zigzag 
(PL V., Figs. 1—2) and with hatched patterns (PL V, Figs. 6—8 ; 
PL VI., Fig. 1) (see description of plates). 1 

A large quantity of pottery of the " bead-rim" type was discovered 
in 1908 near Oare, on the Eainscombe estate, Pewsey, in what is 
believed to be an accumulation of rubbish from some dwelling site. 2 

The pottery from Oare and that of the second period at Casterley 
are identical in character. The " bead-rim " bowls themselves from 
the two sites have every characteristic in common, and the other 
pottery, such as covers, shallow ditches, cups with cordons, etc , 

1 It has been remarked that with the large quantity of pottery of the 
bead-rim type so few associated relics were found. But taken as a whole 
the finds at Casterley were not numerous, and doubtless a certain number 
of the surface finds really date from the earlier or bead-rim period, while 
it is not possible to ascribe them to it definitely. With the exception of 
the iron pin (PI. III., Fig. 16) ; the hammer head (PL VIIL, Fig. 1), a few 
nondescript fragments of bronze and iron, some sling bullets, fragments of 
loom weights, one or two spindle whorls and pottery disks, really nothing 
was found in the lower strata of the ditches in definite association with 
" bead-rims." 

2 Wilts Arch. Mag., xxxvi., 125. 



90 Casterley Camp Excavations. 

found at Casterley associated with " bead-rim " bowls, were also 
found at Oare. The finer wares from both sites are also 
practically identical, although Arretine ware has been identified 
at Oare and not at Casterley. The types of Eomano-British pottery, 
including Samian ware, that were absent from the strata containing 
exclusively the " bead-rim " type of pottery at Casterley, were also 
wanting at Oare. 

From the evidence of date afforded by the pottery, fibulae, and 
other objects found there, the accumulation of the rubbish heap at 
Oare has been dated about the early years of our era. Thus on 
independent grounds the same date has been arrived at on both 
sites for the period of the ascendancy of the " bead-rim " bowl. 

A third site has also afforded evidence of the prevalence of the 
" bead-rim " type of pottery previous to that of the ordinary 
Eomano-British wares. On Knap Hill 1 a small settlement en- 
closed by a slight bank and ditch was discovered, adjoining the 
earlier hilltop camp. In the lower part of the filling-in of this 
ditch, only pottery of the " bead-rim " type was found, while on the 
surface and elsewhere relics of the Eomano-British period were 
plentiful. 2 

In the upper strata of the ditches at Casterley " bead-rims " were 
comparatively scarce, and only occurred as small and worn 
fragments, whereas from below the pieces were both larger and 
less worn. 

1 Wilts Arch. Mag., xxxvii., 42. 

2 The evidence that " bead-rim " bowls are, on the whole, of early date, 
is in no way contradicted by the observations made by General 
Pitt-Rivers in the three villages of Romano -British date examined by 
him. The percentage of "bead-rims" was small in all the villages, being 
2.16 at Woodcuts, 1.50 at Rotherley, and only 0.03 at Woodyates. At 
Woodcuts and Rotherley the proportion of " bead-rims " was far less on the 
surface than in the pits ; in Woodcuts it was 9.52 on the surface as against 
5.81 in the pits, and at Rotherley 0.71 as against 4.10. (Excavations, II., 
pp. 144-5 ; III., pp. 17, 53). General Pitt-Rivers remarks " this led to the 
inference that "bead-rims" being a simpler form of pottery, and as a rule 
of rude quality, may have been in earlier use than other kinds of vessels." 
On the sites of some of the so-called "British Villages" on the downs, 
fragments of " bead-rim " bowls are abundant, while on others they seem 
to be almost, if not quite, absent. This may point to the earlier origin of 
some villages than of others. 



By Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington. 91 

A few " recurved " rims were found below, but in comparison 
with " bead-rims " they were scarce ; above, the proportion is re- 
versed, and it is the " bead-rims " that have become scarce. 

The following types of vessels and wares, found in the upper 
strata of the ditches, were entirely absent from the lower strata: 
deepish bowls of grey or black ware with flanged rims (PI. VIII., 
Figs. 1—15 ; PI. IV., Pig. 7) ; vessels of the so-called " Upchurch 
ollse" type with zones of lattice pattern ; New Forest, Castor, and 
Samian ware, mortaria, and the thin, rather soft red ware, some- 
times coated white, that is common in the later period. 

The lowest find of Samian ware was 4 — 5ft. deep in ditch No. 1, 
consisting of fragments of two bowls of form 30 and one of form 
29. 

The finds of this ware consisted generally of only small frag- 
ments, but the following forms have been recognised : forms 25, 
27, 33 or 44, 35,36, 79, 80, 81; and of decorated bowls forms 
29, 30, and 37. 

Three makers' stamps were found, namely : — BVKDOF, for Burdo 
f (ecit) on the base of a small bowl (form 33 ?) found on the surface 
of ditch No. 2 ; PECVARF., for Peculiars f(ecit), on a small base 
from the hut-site at la ; and DECMI MA, for Decimus Ma(nus), 
from the burnt stratum at the entrance to the rectilinear enclosure. 1 

The accumulation of pottery found in the T-shaped fireplace, or 
hypocaust, and in its adjoining praefurnium,isof peculiar interest 
because it was probably collected within a few years at most, and 
it is instructive as to the various kinds in use at the same time. 

There were here altogether two hundred and sixty rim 
pieces of various vessels, including, it is remarkable, only one 
small worn fragment of a "bead-rim" bowl. Evidently "bead- 
rim" bowls were not used by the people to whom this fireplace 
belonged ; it is probable that even this one piece, as it was more 

1 These three names are probably those of manufacturers at Lezoux in the 
second century. The two former names are known to occur on bowls of 
form 33, and the latter on bowls of the same form from Pudding Pan Kock, 
the site (it is believed) of the wreck of a boat load of these wares somewhere 
in the second century A.D. (Pro. Soc. Ant., xxi., 268 ; xxii., 395). 



92 Casterley Camp Excavations. 

worn than the other pottery, slipped in from the surface, and 
became accidentally associated with it after the destruction of the 
fireplace. Among this pottery were fragments of mortariums of 
red and cream-coloured ware, deepish basins with flanged rims, 
(PL IV., Fig. 7) ; jars of grey and black " Upchurch " ware with 
lattice pattern, jugs with handles, New Forest ware, thin red pottery, 
some with white coating, and Samian ware. Among other frag- 
ments of Samian of unidentifiable forms (plain wares) was a piece 
of a bowl of form 37 with transitional decoration in two zones or 
friezes. Drageudorff, Dechelette, and indeed all workers, place 
this style of ornamenting bowls of form 37 as earliest in the series 
of bowls of this type. Dechelette ascribes them (in the case of 
Lezoux wares) to the period A.D. 75 — 110, or thereabout. The date 
of this fireplace may, therefore, probably come within this period. 



Very grateful acknowledgments are due to Mr. Percy Farrer, 
of the R. E. Staff of H.M. War Department at Bulford, for : 
surveying and measuring the excavations, and for plotting out the i 
ditches, &c. Tins work was undertaken by him as a labour of love,] 
often at considerable personal inconvenience, not only as regards: 
the actual field work, for which he made many visits to Casterley,; 
but also the tedious task of preparing the plans and sections. ! 

The sunken road at the western entrance was surveyed and I 
planned by Mr. A. J. Ilandell, of Devizes. 



All the objects found during the excavations have been placed 
in the Society's Museum, at Devizes, by permission of H.M. War 
Department, in whose ownership the site now is. 



By Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington. 93 

Coins. 

We are indebted to Mr. H. St. George Gray for very kindly 
identifying and describing the coins found at Casterley. As Mr. 
Gray remarks they cover a period of nearly 300 years, and it is a 
little surprising tbat more were not found, 

1. CLAUDIUS I., A.D. 41— 54. Second brass (dupondius). Obv.:— 
(Tl. CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG. P.M. TR.P. IMP. P.P.)=Bare 
head to left. Rev. :— (S.) C.=Pallas standing to r., throwing a 
dart and holding a buckler. Struck A.D. 41. Cohen 84. (This 
coin has been burnt). 
Found in burnt layer at entrance to rectilinear enclosure. 
NERO, A.D. 54—68. Second brass {dupondius). Obv. :— NERO 
CLAVD. CAESAR AVG. GER. P.M. TR.P- IMP. P.P.)=Headto 
right; a globe below. Rev. : — S.C.=Victory ascending, and 
holding a buckler upon which is inscribed S.P.Q.R. Struck 
between AD. 66 and 68. Cohen 292. 

Found with fragments of Samian bowls of forms 29 and 30, 
4^ft. deep, at entrance to rectilinear enclosure. 
VESPASIAN, A.D. 69— 79. Second brass (dupondius). Obv.:— 
IMP. CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG. COS- lll. = Laureated head 
to right. Rev. : — S.C= Eagle with head turned to right, stand- 
ing on a globe. Struck A.D. 71. Cohen 480. 
Found in surface soil over Ditch No. 2. 
VESPASIAN. Same type as No. 3. 

Found in surface soil over Pit 1. 
FAUSTINA senior, wife of Antoninus Pius (died A.D. 141). 
First brass (sestertius). Poor specimen. 
Surface Ditch No. 7. 

6. MARCUS AURELIUS, A.D. 140— 180. First brass (sestertius). 
Poor specimen. 

Found in surface soil, Ditch No. 7. 

7. ALLECTUS, A.D. 293—296. Third brass. Obv. :-IMP. C 
ALLECTVS P.F. AVG. =Bust radiated, draped, and cuirassed. 
Rev. : — PAX AVG.=Peace standing to left, holding an olive 
branch in right hand, and transverse sceptre in left hand. S.P. 
in field. ML. in exergue. Cohen 37. 

Found in surface soil over Ditch No. 10. 

8. HELENA, wife of Constantius Chlorus, and mother of Constan- 
tine I. (died A.D. 328). Third brass (silvered). Obv. :— 
FL. HELENA AVGVSTA=Draped bust to right, with a diadem 
ornamented with pearls and a pearl necklace. Rev. : — 
SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE=Helena, veiled, standing to left, 
holding a branch and raising her dress. In exergue R Q with 
a wreath between (1). Cohen 12. 

Found 1ft. deep in outer ditch at DD. 



94 



Casterley Camp Excavations. 



9. CONSTANTINE I., A.D. 306—337. Third brass. Obv. :— 
CONSTANTI (NVS P. F. AVG)=Laureated and draped bust to 
right. Rev. :— SOLI INVIC(TO COMITI)=Thesun, semi-nude, 
standing to left, raising right hand, and holding a globe. In 
field, T. F. In exergue PLN (London). Struck between A.D. 
315 and 318. 

Found in surface soil, Ditch No. 1. 

10. CONSTANTINE II., A.D. 317—337. Third brass. Obv. :— 

CONSTANTINVS 1VN. NOB- C=Laureated head to right. 
Rev. :— CAESARVM NOSTORVM around a laurel wreath ; 
VOT. X inside. In exergue PTR (Treves). Cohen 38. 
Found in surface soil over Pit 1 . 

11. Unidentifiable. Second brass. 

Found in surface soil over Pit 1. 

12. Unidentifiable. Second brass ; burnt. 

Found as No. 1. 

H. St. George Gray. 



Human Kemains found at Casterley. 

Notes by the late Dr. J. Beddoe, F.E.S. 

[Nos. 2, 3, and 4 were found in Pit 2. The fourth skeleton 
(No. 1) found in the pit was too immature for useful measurement. 
No. 6 was found buried in the rectilinear enclosure.] 



Skull No. 2. 

Circumference, horizontal, is large, about 550 

Sagittal, frontal arc 122 

parietal 1 38 

occipital sup. 65 

occipital inf. 58 

Height basio-bregmatic 144 

basio-maxim 148 

Transverse arc, from centre of meatus 340 

German way 342 
Cranial Index 67.16 

Do. altit. 71.63 

There is much posthumous deformation about this skull, which has 
interfered with the piecing, as well as otherwise affecting the measurements. 
Dentition incomplete : teeth moderately worn: one carious. The calvarium 
would pretty surely have been shorter, broader, and lower but for the post- 
humous compression. It is coffin-shaped in vertical aspect, with square 



Lengths max 


.201 


3 Glab-inial 


196 


2 Metopo-inial 


192 


Ophryo-inial 


195 


Breadths front- 


min. 91 


Stephanie 110 


Maximum 135 


The maximum 


oreath 


is parietal, &. 


; very 


high 





By Mr. and Mrs. B. H Cunnington. 



95 



narrow forehead, great elevation of posterior parietals, strong parietal 
, bosses. 

It is thin and light, with large capacity. I make it 1628, the medium of 
seven methods giving 1638, with wide variations : but the deformation 
makes all these results even less trustworthy than usual. 



Lengths Max 190 

Metopo-inial 171 
Glab-inial 176 
Ophryo-max 183 



Facial 



74 



Skull No. 3. 

Height Basio-bregmatic 

Ear-height 
Orbital (right) 42—33 
Nasal 49—24 

Palatal 51—36 ? 



150? 
125? 



Circumfer. horiz. 
Sagittal, frontal 
parietal 
Occip. sup. 
inf. 
Transverse 

German way 



514 
130 
132 

75 
50? 
310 
312 



Cranial index 68.42 



Breadths Front-min 91 

Stephanie 107 

2 Auric 104 

1 Zygom 127? 

Maximum 130 

Mastoid 120 

^Astevial 108 
Bigonial 113 
Mandible Chin height 37 
Length 95 Bamus 70 
Male adult, probably aged, though some sutures open. 
Skull long oval, phenozygous, carinate, rather thick, with glabella and 
ridges prominent and forehead low and narrow. Teeth worn : only 12 in 
maxilla. Chin bifid, jaw heavy. 

Capacity not large : mean of eight plans (two of Welcker's, three of 
Pearson's, one Pelletier's), 1461 — Manouvrier and Flower 1393,Beddoe 1432 : 
these are probably the most nearly correct. 

Skull No. 4. 



Lengths Glab-maximum 180 
Metopo-inial 182 
Glab-inial 180 

Ophryo-max (Inial) 181 



Height Opistho-vertical 135 
Basio-bregmc : impracticable 







Circum-horizontal 526 


Breadth Front min 


94 


„ Sagittal frontal 130 


Stephanie 


112 


parietal 135 


Zygomatic 


131 


Occip. sup. 62 


Auricular 


111 


„ inf. 57 


Maximum 


144p 




Mastoid 


120 


„ Transverse (by 327 


Astevial 


108 


centre of meatus) 


Bigonial 


102 


„ German way 324 


Mandible. Chin-height 


32 


Cranial Index 80.00 


Length 94 Bamus 68 






Male adult, probably of considerable 


age. 



96 Casterley Camp Excavations. 

Sphenoid in vertical aspect ; phenozygous; well arched and rounded in 
lateral do. ; inclining to platykephaly ; orbits squarish ; glabella and brow 
ridges not very prominent, but occipital ridge strong. Teeth moderately 
worn, one carious in maxilla. Capacity. — Average of four diametral plans 
1440, of three peripherals 1538. Manouvrier and Flower, 1450? Beddoe, 
1534. I think it must be quite 1500. 

These three skulls (2, 3, 4) differ very widely inter se, but are all of types 
apt to occur in the late Celtic period, when the prevailing forms are such 
as might probably result from admixture of much of the Neolithic race with 
a smaller proportion of the " bronze " element, while now and then pretty 
pure survivals of the amalgamated types crop out atavistically. In this 
instance No. 4 is scarcely distinguishable from an ordinary round barrow 
cranium of the bronze period, though not so rugged as such skulls frequently 
are, while No. 2 has the coffin shape which is a slight modification of the 
pentagonal and long elliptic types common in the Neolithic people, and the 
extreme smallness of its cranial index is due to compression. 

Long Bones. 
Two Right Femora : — 

m.m. 
1.— Length 18.25 inches=463.5. 
or in position 18.33=465 
Mid- shaft circ. 92. 28X31 
Diameter of head 48 
Fine bone, bent and pilastered ; neck-arch flattened 



2.— Length. 16.75 inches=426 
,, in position 17.1=430 
Mid- shaft circ. 85 . 27 X 25 
Diameter of head 49. 
Much bowed and twisted, but very little pilastered ; neck almost 
horizontal 



Three Left Humeri, lengths 12.7, 12.0, and 13.0 inches, or 322, 305, and 
330. Circumf. mid-shaft 60, 58, 65. 



One Right Humerus, 12.3=312, circumf. 63. 





Skull No. 6. 


Lengths 


Breadths 


Glabella-max 


188 ? Frontal min 


Metopo-inial 


178 Stephanie 


Glabello-inial 


178 Zygomatic 


Ophryo-inial 


! Auricular 


Facial 


69 Maximum 


Do. 


120 Mastoid 




Astevial 




Bigonial 


Arcs 


Ear-height 


Circumf.-horiz 


530 ? central 



94 
118 
128 
107? 
136 
120 
113 
113 
114 




Plate I. — Objects from Casterley Camp — r- 





Plate II. — Objects from Casterley Camp — f. 




ft 

s 

a 
U 






•»— » 
O 




Cu 



U 



O 



O 



Ph 




Plate V. —Pottery from Casterley Camp. 





Plate VI.— Pottery from Casterley Camp. 




Plate VII. Casterley Camp. Pottery. 




■^Sal' 





Plate VIII. Casterley Camp. Iron hammer and spear head, \ 
Sections of rims of pottery vessels, §.. 




Plate IX. Objects from Casterley Camp. } 



Han of Jn-ner Works 
ah 
(jasferleij Qam^. £ 



I Crvo-fi mf-i^tttt'tn'htr*- "'^_^ 














,S\\ 



ill-.! i 









k' 









t* 



oplti- 



l# fl - 



'fffiikhs. 

H 






\K 



-*•!?(■ 



1 > 



V. 



^--ff^S* 



N x/// - 

' ' Bitch 9. 



""---X."-"?-'' 



<• 



, . , /£- 



--«.;-_x-> 



ft 



Plate X. Casterley Camp. Sketch key plan and enlargement of inner works. The capital letters on the key refer to sections on Plate XII. ; 

the Roman numerals on the enlargement to sections on Plate XIII. 



ScaJc abl- cloches ho Oneftyleji 







I t 1 j i 

Stimulus 


- -^* Tumuli j,*' y 

~*~z~ /? 


' 


1 iv 

y / 


i 


ra: .../ .J^f"^::^. 










Plate XI. Casterley Camp. 



><i 



>K5/; 



V*v 







aa 



+■6.6 




/do -^3.?^-%?-%- /so -jf-k. no— v 



ss- 



cc 




xTJ. 



+■ at).* 



irofe 0/" ,£<•/- 




Plate XII. Casterley Camp. Sections of outer entrenchment as shown by letters on key plan, and details of the southern 

entrance at " G " on key plan (Plate X.). 






%is£ 




Plate XIII. Casterley Camp. Sections of ditches of the inner works as shown by Roman numerals on key 
(Plate X.)i and details of entrance to rectilinear enclosure. 





Seefio n of Pit- \ UecAh n #/). 



/cet-\ I > I I i 



Junction offlik/i 6 and 
OuJiraitchiS. c 






lo 
Ror i t 



^0 



^k 



K 



/%" of Firepfaee 




S.O 

Section af 8 a/cng centre cftf/frA 6 
across Hie fy Oitch Ao sm-ader ailck of 
cu/ir Rarnp art. 




A»A- 1 ii ii i_ 



Plate XIV. Casterley Camp. Plans and sections of 
pit-dwelling, of the T~ sna P e d fire-place, and details of 
junction of ditches at " B " on sketch key plan (Plate X.). 










i 



JectionS. W- 



E F 



c h i*- 7 : o -H 



ik *£'<>"« 



t- M if- &'j" +■ 7^ ' + 4.3* -3l 




/Terr? o/ /n fefjec/ien 
vfSvnktn fibad* fx/erna/ fltfth 



^\ ,^^\. /nlersecAon offunbc^ 

^J> \^\s- foad* Cx/trnal ffitcli. 






^M 



-ji/rt 



cN 



-•Ml\\V l 



*ftw 



3* 






4£0 






— U-J.O- 



10 

Ulllllllll 



C ~D ~ *fet- >JK 

" C faftudnal&chon a/ Sunken, faacf 




-i scale of reeT 



A[WjB 



_~~" iff ? 

^ ~" L M 



Plate XV. Casterley Camp. Plans and sections of sunken road. 



By Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cunniuyton. 



97 



Sagittal Frontal 


135 


German way 


113 


To Inial 


330? 


Orbital 


40—33 


— Opisthion 378 


Nasal 


48—22 


Transverse 


313 


Palatal 


45—41 


German way 


316 


Mandible 








Chinheight 


32 






Length 


90 






Ramus 


60 


Indices 




Capacity 




Cranial Long ? 


72.66 


Pearson & Lee') 
(diametral) J 




Nasal 


45.8 


1380 


Orbital 


82.5 


Pelletier (do) 


1383 






Beddoe (peripheral) 


1487 






Pearson & Lee (do.) 


1494 



Femora 



Humeri 



Right and Left 436, Oblique Length 437 
Circumf. of midshaft, Right 92, Left 90 



Right 325, Left, 320. Circumf. 68 & 64 
Ulna 254, Radius 238. Clavicles 154 & 152 
Stature by Manouvrier, mean of 2 femora 1627=64 inches 
mean of 4 bones 1630=64.2 „ 
„ „ Beddoe, from femora only 1638=64.5 „ 

This is a masculine skull of fair size and regular form, oval in the norma 
verticalis and slightly flattened in the lateral and occipital ones. The subject 
was probably in the flower of his age ; all the teeth have erupted, but are 
little worn ; there is no caries. The glabella and brow-ridges are prominent, 
the orbits square, the nose long, narrow, and aquiline. The skull has been 
well pieced, but is imperfect in several points, and the basio-bregmatic 
height and maximum length are both rather uncertain. I should put the 
probable capacity at 1450. The skull may or may not be " late Celtic." 



DESCRIPTON OF BLATES. 

Plate I. 

1 — 2 Two bronze earpicks found with fragments of Samian bowls of 
forms 29 and 30 and a coin of Nero ; 4 — 5ft. deep in ditch at entrance 
to rectilinear enclosure. 

3 Bronze pin of Roman type. Surface of ditch No. 2. 

4 Bronze brooch, made of one piece of metal, spiral spring, bow flat with 

slight ornament of pounced oblong dots ; 4ft. deep, ditch No. 4, 
with bead rim bowl pottery, and a baked clay sling bullet. Length 
2in. 
VOL. XXXVIII. — NO. CXIX. H 



98 Casterley Camp Excavations. 

5 Bronze button, with hank, raised mouldings and central boss. A 

practically identical button is figured by Evans, Bronze Implements 
(Fig. 499). The type seems to date back to the end of the Bronze 
Age, or to the Hallstatt period, but as far as the association of this 
one goes it might be Roman ; 4ft. deep in ditch No. 1. 

6 Bronze tag found associated with Roman pottery 2ft. deep in burnt 

layer at entrance to rectilinear enclosure. 

7 Bronze tweezers, plain ; 2ft. deep, ditch No. 6. 

8 Bronze fragment ; 7ft. deep with bead rim bowl pottery, ditch No. 1. 

9 Piece of ornamental bronze — a necklet 1 Little collars of bronze are 

clamped on to it at regular intervals giving it a beaded appearance ; 
the space between the collars is engraved with transverse lines. 
Surface trench in irregular enclosure A. 

10 Bronze tweezers, plain and strong ; hut site at la. 

11 Bronze " viper " ring, 2 — 3ft. deep in burnt layer at entrance to rectili- 

near enclosure. 

12 Coiled iron ring, it is much rusted but seems to have terminated in the 

likeness of an animal's head. Hut site at la. Several similar rings 
were found. 

13 Bronze tag ; 3ft. deep, cutting 2, ditch No. 1. 

14 Bone counter with eight-rayed cross scratched on one face. Found in 

heap of rubbish in praefurnium of T-shaped fire place ; ditch No. 6. 

15 Bone button; bottom of pit No. 1. 

16 Similar bone button. Surface trench in irregular enclosure A. 

Plate II. 

1 Iron object, plated with tin, of unknown use. The under side and the 
two sections of the bar connecting the terminals are not plated. It 
would seem, therefore, to have been intended to show only the 
upper surface, and to have had bands or rings of some kind round 
these portions of the bar ; the plating on the inner edges of the 
terminals is more worn than that on the outer edges ; 1ft. deep, 
ditch No. 1. Late-Celtic or Roman 1 A similar obJBct, but in 
bronze, was found at Cirencester, and is now in the Corinium 
Museum ; another, also in bronze, in the British Museum, was found 
at Polden Hill, Somerset, with Late-Celtic remains, and others have 
been found in Late-Celtic association. It is thought that they are 
connected with horse harness or trappings. 

■2 Iron hinge pin brooch ; hut site at la. 

3, 5, 7, 8 Iron cleats for clamping wood or leather ; Figs. 3, 5, 7, were 
found in heap of rubbish in praefurnium of T-shaped fire place ; 
Fig. 8 was found together with nine hob nails, and had doubtless 
been attached with them to the sole of a boot ; 2ft. deep, ditch No. 5. 

4 Iron chisel ; surface of ditch No. 2. 

6 Iron knife blade ; 4ft. deep in ditch No. 1. 

9 Iron object resembling a modern horseshoe nail, 2ft. deep in ditch 
No. 1 ; cutting 1. 
10 Iron stylus with fan shaped eraser ; found in burnt layer at entrance 
to rectilinear enclosure. 






By Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cuunington. 99 

Plate III. 
1 — 6 Iron horse shoes, sinuous edged and thin, with T-shaped nails ; 
Fig. 1, 2ft. deep in ditch No. 2 ; Fig. 4, 2— 3ft. deep, ditch No 6 ; 
Fig. 5, 3ft. deep in ditch No. 9 ; Figs. 2, 3, 6, surface. 
We were told by old labourers that they used constantly to plough up 
f old spearheads, coins, vandyked horse shoes, and odd pieces of metal " in 
the camp ; the horse shoes were sometimes nailed to the barn doors, and 
these three (Figs. 2, 3, 6) were actually obtained from the barn doors where 
they had been hung. The period to which this type of shoe belonged has 
been disputed. On the one hand, the type is said to date back to the Late- 
Celtic period, and on the other, there is evidence of their use in late Norman 
times, and they have recently (1911) been found at Old Sarum. Their 
occurrence at Casterley in the silt of ditches, proves they are here at least 
as early as the Roman period, and it is noteworthy that Fig. I. was found 
deeper than any other Roman object in ditch No. 2. 

7 Iron hob nails. Similar nails were found in the praefurnium in ditch 

No. 6, the burnt layer ditch No. 1, ditch No. 5, &c. 

8 Iron hooks (two were found) to carry hinge of a door ; 2 — 3ft. deep, 

ditch 9. Similar hooks were found by General Pitt- Rivers at 
Bokerley, Woodcuts, and Kotherley. {Excavations, III., p. 102, Fig. 
24). 

9 Piece of the blade of a saw with rivet hole for attachment to handle. 

A similar saw from Hambledon Hill, Dorset, is in the British 
Museum. 

10 Iron awls (three were found) ; 3ft. deep, ditch 6. 

11 Iron flesh fork. Praefurnium in ditch No. 6. 

12 Blade of iron shears ; hut site at la. 

13 Iron axe head ; 1ft. deep, ditch No. 6. 

14 Iron punch (two were found). Similar punches were found at New- 

stead (Roman Frontier Post, PI. lxvi., Fig. 20). 

15 Small iron spearhead ; surface of irregular enclosure A. 

16 Pin of stout iron wire, one end curled over to form the head. Found 

in association with bead-rim pottery at bottom of ditch No. 6. 

17 Bronze wire, the ends tapering and twisted round each other, a separate 

spiral twist of bronze wire loosely coiled round it— a necklet 1 Late- 
Celtic or Roman 1 Found in surface trench at back of T-shaped 
fire place. 

In the Morel Collection in the British Museum there are several 
armlets of similarly twisted bronze wire, one having a bead as well 
as a coil of wire loosely threaded on it. 

18-19 Spindle whorls of pottery ; surface of ditch No. 2. 

i 20 Piece of a rib bone ornamented ; bottom of pit No. 1. 

21 Disc of chalk resembling a large spindle whorl, with central hole worn 
to an oval, and with a smaller hole on one side of it.; 6ft. deep, ditch 
No. 1. 

1 22 Foot of a tripod vessel of pottery ; 5 — 6ft. deep, ditch No. 1. General 
Pitt-Rivers found similar objects. (Excavations II., 159, Fig. 6). 

23, 24 Spindle whorls of pottery ; found in praefurnium in ditch No. 6, and 
6ft.— 7ft. deep in ditch No. 7. 

H 2 



100 Casterley Camp Excavations. 






25, 26 Iron objects— a hasp of a lock ? and binding of small casket 1 Found 
in burnt layer at entrance to rectilinear enclosure. 

27 Iron object of doubtful use ; found in praefurnium in ditch No. 6. 

28 Iron object of doubtful use ; found in burnt layer at entrance to 

rectilinear enclosure. 

29 Iron object of doubtful use found 2ft. deep in ditch No. 2. 

30 — 35 Iron nails. A large number of iron nails of various shapes and 
sizes were found in the upper strata of the ditches only, and on the 
surface. These include mushroom-headed hob-nails (Fig. 7), flat- 
headed ( Figs. 30, 33, 34), triangular-headed (Fig. 32), and round- 
headed nails (Fig. 31). Fig. 33 has been bent intentionally, and may 
have been used as a key. 

36 Iron knife blade ; found on surface of ditch No. 2. 

Plate IV. 

1 Jar of brown ware, with polished " leathery " surface. It has six holes 

drilled through the side after baking. Height lOfin., rim diam. 
4fin., base 4jin. Found in fragments scattered at the bottom of 
ditch No. 2. 

It has been suggested that this vessel, and others that have been 
found with holes in their sides, may have been used as bee-hives. In 
Kashmir and other parts of India earthenware vessels are used as 
such ; they are inserted from the inside of the huts into the walls 
made of mud, or of sun-dried bricks — and only the few small holes 
made in the vessels for the bees to pass in and out of are visible from 
the outside. It is the only suggestion that seems to explain at all 
the use of holes in this position through the sides of vessels. 

2 Jar of grey ware (base missing), surface slightly polished ; ornamented 

with waved line round the shoulder faintly impressed with a blunt 
tool. Height about 10in., rim diam. Sin. Found in fragments 
scattered in the bottom of ditch No. 2. 

3 — 4 " Bead- rim" bowl of brownish grey ware, surface polished from rim 
to shoulder, rough below. There are four holes through the base, 
bored after baking. Height 8in, rim diam. 6jin., base 3f in. Found 
in fragments scattered in the bottom of ditch No. 2. 

A good many of the bases, or fragments of bases found at Casterle 
had holes through them. It is said that they served as strainers 
separate honey from the comb. The "beehive pot" (Fig. 1) if 
such it is, is interesting therefore as evidence that the inhabitants | 
were not entirely dependant on wild bees for their honey. 

5 " Bead-rim " bowl (imperfect) of polished ware, the paste black through- 
out and full of particles of white flint. Height, 8|in., rim diam. 5in.,J 
base 4£in. Found in fragments in the bottom of ditch No. 2. 

It is noticeable that the blackest of the " bead-rim " pottery is often; 
freely mixed with particles of flint, etc., and it seems that the) 
presence of the grains may make the paste more porous and thus 
more readily acted upon by the fuming or dipping process, by 
which the ware was rendered black. 



By Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington. 101 

" Bead-rim " bowl (imperfect) of brownish grey ware, the surface 
polished. Height 5^in., rim diam., 6in., base 3in. Found scattered 
in fragments in the bottom of ditch No. 2. 

Bowl of fine grey ware, with flanged overhanging rim. Height 4in., 
rim diam. 10in., base 6in. Found broken among the stones in the 
T-shaped fireplace in ditch No. 6. 

Part of " Cooking Pot " of coarse hand-made, soft, sandy,ware, reddish- 
brown in colour ; the surface is striated. Rim diam. about Sin- 
Found broken among the bones of one of the skeletons in the 
" annex " part of the big dwelling-pit No. 2. 

Part of a bowl of polished brown ware, with a hollow moulding below 
the shoulder. Rim diam., 7fin. Found at the bottom of ditch No. 6 
(below floor of praefurnium). The iron pin (Fig. 16, PI. III.) and 
fragments of red Belgic ware were found with it. 

" Bead-rim " bowl, black polislied surface from rim to shoulder, reddish 
brown and rough below. Height 5^in., rim. diam. 5|in.(base missing). 
Found in fragments at bottom of ditch No. 2. 

Fragment of '" bead-rim" bowl, of light grey ware, with bold cordon, or 
moulding round the shoulder. 

Part of bowl with straight rim, of soft hand-made pottery. Rim. 
diam., about llin. Found in fragments at bottom of pit No. I. 

Plate V. 

Fragment of a vessel of very fine cream-coloured ware, resembling un- 
glazed china, in parts not more than 1/I0th of an inch thick. It is 
ornamented with a sharply incised feathered zig-zag pattern ; the 
exterior is coated with a brown colour, and the part without orna- 
ment is polished ; on the inside it is coated red. The greatest 
diameter of the vessel could not have been less than 6in., and 
probably it was quite a foot high. Found in fragments scattered at 
the bottom of ditch No. 2. 

Fragment of a vessel of similar ware and ornamentation, but not quite 
so thin ; on the inside and on the unornamented part of the outside 
it is coated with a bright red colour, the ornamented parts being left 
white. Found in scattered pieces in the bottom of ditch No. 2. 
Ware of similar quality and ornamentation has been found in graves 
of the Early Empire in the Rhineland district in Germany. (See 
Gefasskunde in den Rheinlander plates 10 — 1 1 , Koenen.) 

Fragment of fine red " Belgic " ware, with polished surface, ornamented 
with lattice pattern formed by sharply incised lines arranged in 
groups of three. Found in ditch No. 7, 6ft. deep. This sharply 
incised technique, produced by a tool with several teeth (in this case 
three) is said to be characteristic of these early Belgic wares. The 
chief centre of both the red and black Belgic ware is believed to 
have been at Trier, where kilns have been found with black and red 
ware in the same kiln, with the same potter's stamps on both. The 
light red ware, sometimes known as " false Samian " lacks the 



102 Casterlcy Camp Excavations. 

lustrous sheen of the true Samian. The polished surface of the 
black ware is said to have been produced by steaming in smoke and 
polishing, not by a laid-on glaze as the later black Boman wares. 

These Belgic wares seem to represent a transition between the 
native local wares and the later provincial Samian, and to be closely 
allied in form and ornamentation to the pottery of the native La 
Tene culture, but they betray foreign influence, and some of their 
forms are actually Roman. They have been called " Belgic," be- 
cause they were produced in Gallia Belgica ; their distribution 
seems to have been very limited and they are rarely found in 
Britain. The black and the characteristic red wares do not seem to 
have been made after 60 A.U. (see Walters " Ancient Pottery " and 
Dragendorf). Several pieces of these wares were found in the lower 
strata of ditches Nos. 1, 2, 6, and 7. 

4 Fragment of red Belgic ware with plain polished surface. Found in 

ditch No. 1, 8ft. deep. 

5 Fragment of red Belgic ware with incised lines in groups of four, found 

in surface trenching. 

Part of a dish with low foot rim of red Belgic ware stamped with 
the maker's name, was found in surface trenching over ditch No. 2. ; 
the stamp unfortunately is illegible, but appears to read AI - - SSV. 
6 — 7 — 8. Fragments of a cream coloured, rather soft ware, ornamented 
with hatchings. It all seems to belong to vessels of one form, 
ornamented with hatched patterns alternating with plain zones or 
bands. The quality of this ware varied from a very fine thin white 
ware not more than l/10th of an inch thick, with hatchings delicately 
executed, to a coarser greyish ware, Jin. thick, not always perfectly 
baked, with hatching roughly executed. A few fragments of fine 
red pottery were similarly ornamented. These wares were found in 
the lower strata of ditches Nos. 1, 2, 6, 7, and in the bottom of the 
outer ditch at D— D. 
9 Piece of a moulded rim of white ware ; found in ditch No. 1, 8ft. deep. 

10 — 11 Fragments of two bowls of Samian ware, Form 30; found 4— 5ft. 
deep in ditch No. 1. 

12 Fragment of bowl of Samian ware, Form 29 ; found with Figs. 10—11. 



Plate VI. 

Part of a vessel of very fine ware, ornamented with " engine-turned " 
or hatched pattern, alternating with plain polished zones or bands. 
The ware is only 1/10 of an inch thick, very fine, and hard 
baked, and rings with a sound like that of china. The outer surface 
is a pale brown, having been apparently coated with some colouring 
material, but the interior and the paste itself is a very pale grey. The i 
plain zones are highly polished, and there are faint red lines running 
round the upper part of the vessel. The, pattern seems to have been 



By Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington. 103 

moulded, not incised. When complete the vessel must have stood 
from 12in. to I5in. in height. Found in small fragments at the 
bottom of ditch No. 1. 

2 Base of grey ware with a cross sharply incised upon it, the cross being 

encircled by lines less sharply incised ; all the lines were drawn before 
baking. Diameter about 3in. Found at the bottom of ditch No. 2. 

3 Base of brown ware, with moulded foot-ring, within the ring is the figure 

of a cross impressed with a blunt tool before baking. Diameter of 
base, 3in. Found within a few feet of Fig. 2 at bottom of ditch No. 2. 

4 Fragment of a dish of fine red ware, coated with mica. Ditch No. 6, 

5ft. deep. 

5 Fragment of a vessel with moulded foot-ring, of black ware ornamented 

with lustrous tooled lines drawn round its girth at intervals of about 
half-an-inch ; the vessel was pierced after baking with holes in its 
side as well as in its base. Found at the bottom of ditch No. 2. 

Plate VII. 

Types of vessels found in association with " bead-rim " bowls. 
Not numbered. Vessel of grey ware with slight ornament of incised 
lines round shoulder. 4ft. deep in ditch of outer entrenchment at 
D — D. Height, 9in. ; rim diam., 4fin. ; base, 3in. 

1 Small bowl or cup of grey ware. 

2 Small bowl or cup of grey ware, with cordon. 

3 Flat dish of polished brownish ware. 

4 Cover of black ware. 

Plate VIII. 

1 Iron hammerhead, in excellent preservation. Length, 5in. Found 

with ashes and pieces of iron slag at bottom of ditch No. 8a within a 
few feet of the end of the ditch. 

2 Small narrow iron spear-head, with strong midrib. Length, 4iin. Found 

in surface trenching. 
1 — 15 Sections of flanged rims. 
16 — 27 Sections of bead-rims. 
28 — 30 Sections of flat dishes. 
31 — 32 Sections of flat dishes of black Belgic or "terra nigra" ware ; the 

ware is very fine, of a pale grey colour with black highly-polished 

surface. (See note to Fig. 3, PI. V.) Found at bottom of ditches 

Nos. 1 and 2. 

Plate IX. 

1 Bronze brooch, spiral spring, bow flat with slight notches engraved on 

its edges ; the bow spring and pin was originally all in one piece but 
the spring had been broken and as a repair the pin was hinged on to 
an iron rivet passed through the coils of the spring. Length 2in. 
Found 18in. deep in ditch No. 8. 

2 Bronze brooch, hinge pin, T-shaped head ; very solid, and appears to 

have been silvered. Length 2in. Found 2ft. deep at lower angle of 
ditch No. 11. 



104 Casterley Camp Excavations. 

3 Pin and coiled spring of a bronze brooch, bow missing. Length 3in. 

Found 4ft. deep in ditch No. 8, in the same cutting as Figs. 4 and 5. 

4 Iron brooch, pin missing ; bow, coils of spring, and pin originally all 

one piece of metal ; bow plain and slightly flattened. Length, 3in. 
Found 4ft. deep in ditch No. 8., in the same cutting as Figs. 3 and 5. 

5 Small bronze ring. Found 3ft. deep in ditch No. 8, in the same cut- 

ting as Figs. 3 and 4. 

6 Bronze octagonal finger ring. Found 2ft. deep in ditch No. 10. 

7 Perforated tooth. Surface trenching. 

8 Small iron sickle-shaped key, handle end broken off. Found 6ft, deep 

in ditch No. 11. 

9 Iron object, probably an ox-goad with the point missing; Fig. 10 

shows a similar object with point intact found on the site of a 
" British Village " near Knook Castle. Pitt- Rivers illustrates some- 
what similar "ox-goads" found at Rotherley, Woodcuts, and Wood- 
yates {Excavations I, 90 ; II, 136—7 ; III., 137). Found in ditch 
No. 8, depth uncertain. 
11 Tanged iron knife blade. Length, 2§in. Surface trenching. 
12—13 Two iron awls 1 Lengths 2|in. and 4in. Found 6ft. deep in ditch 
No. 11. 

Plate X. 
Sketch key plan of Casterley Camp with contour lines. The letters refer 
to sections, &c, on PI. XII. 

Enlarged plan of inner works as shown on key plan. The Roman 
numerals refer to sections, &c, on PI. XIII. 

Plate XI. 
General site plan. 

Plate XII. 
Sections through outer rampart and ditch as shown by letters on 
sketch key plan, PI. X. 
Detail and sections of southern entrance at G on sketch key plan. 

Plate XIII. 

Sections through ditches of inner works as shown by Roman numerals on 
enlarged plan, PI. X. 

Plan of entrance to rectilinear enclosure with sections. 

Plate XIV. 

Plan and sections of the pit dwelling (Pit 2) found in the enclosure "A." 
Plan and section showing junction of ditch 6 and outer ditches at the 
point marked " B " on sketch key plan, PI. X. 

Plan and section of T-shaped fireplace found at the side of ditch 6. 

Plate XV. 

Plan and sections of the sunken road forming the western entrance tc 
the Camp. 



By Mr. and Mrs. B. H Cunnington. 105 

In addition to those illustrated the following objects were found : — 

Six sling bullets— one of chalk in Pit I ; one with the bronze brooch, 
fig. 4, PL I. ; one in the bottom of ditch No. 1 in the cutting at the 
entrance ; and two and a piece of one in bottom of ditch No. 2 : 
all these latter of baked clay. 

Three loom weights of chalk — one in pit 2 ; one (broken) forming part 
of the rough paving over section X, ditch No. 6 ; one, broken, 7ft- 
deep in ditch No. 1 ; one of baked clay, triangular shaped, found in 
fragments 8ft. deep in ditch No. 1. 

Several spindle whorls and pieces of whorls, of chalk and of pottery. 

Several pieces of querns (all of the flat type) and of mealing stones, or 
saddle querns, of millstone grit and of sarsen stone ; one whole 
saddle quern was used in the rough paving over ditch 6 at section X . 
All the rest from surface trenching, or superficial layers of the ditches, 
with the exception of two pieces of querns found in the T-shaped 
fireplace in ditch No. 6. 

Three beads of blue glass, all found in surface trenching. 

Various small fragments of glass vessels, in surface trenching. 

Part of rim of a vessel of Kimmeridge shale, surface trenching. 

Iron slag and scoriae, surface trenching and in ditch No. 8a. 

A number of pottery discs or roundels. These may have been used as 
pot covers ; similar objects have been found serving as such at 
Caer went 'and elsewhere; the smaller roundels may have been used 
as counters in games. 

Eight hones, or sharpening stones, surface or superficial layers only. 

Hammerstones of flint and sarsen ; various pebbles showing signs of use. 

Fragments of concrete flooring in the burnt stratum at the junction of 
ditches 1 and 7 ; fragments of wall daub 1 

Fragments of tiles of baked clay and of sandstone ; pieces of brick, and 
one tessera of baked clay on the surface in the rectillinear enclosure. 

Pieces of a human skull, 2ft. deep in ditch No. 7, and in the outer ditch 
at the northern entrance at K (see key plan). The bones of an 
infant, 5ft. deep in section XL, in ditch No. 7. 

Oyster shells were constantly turned up in surface trenching and in the 
upper strata of the ditches ; the deepest find of oyster shells was 
from 4ft. to 5ft. deep in ditch No. 1. A few mussel and cockle shells 
were found in the fire-hole in ditch No. 6 and on the hut site in the 
rectilinear enclosure, and two whelk shells on the surface of ditch 
No 2. 

[Mrs.] M. E. Cunnington. 



106 



NOTES. 

Dinosaurian Spine from Swindon. In November, 1905, 
workmen splitting up the higher beds of Portland Rock on the extreme 
south-western corner of Swindon Hill, by a lucky chance broke a large 
slab in such a way that the enclosed fossil fell out uninjured. On ex- 
amination it proved to be a caudal spine, one of a pair from some large 
reptile. 

It is highly cellular in texture, much like the horn core of a modern 
ruminant, but in proportion to its length of much stronger build. 

It measures 7in. in length, while the articulating surface is 5in. across. 
When clothed in its horny sheath it would, of course, have been con- 
siderably longer. 

It was seen later by Dr. A. Smith- Woodward, F.R.S., and the late 
Prof. Seeley, F.R.S., who agreed in the opinion that it belongs to an 
unknown Dinosaur, traces of which have been found at Aylesbury. 

A cast of this specimen has been placed in the Society's Museum at 
Devizes. 

The original is in my collection. A. D. Passmoee. 

Interment near Old Shepherd's Shore. In November, 

1912, we were told by a shepherd that men digging chalk on the down 
near Old Shepherd's Shore (at a spot not far from the barrow marked 
" f " on the Rev. A. C. Smith's " Map," B. VII.) had come upon a burial. 
On going to the place we found the bones of a skeleton broken up and 
lying on the bank where they had been thrown by the men. The re- 
mains of the cist, or grave in which they had lain could still be seen on 
the face of the diggings ; fortunately the useful chalk had run out in 
that direction and that part of the quarry had been left undisturbed 
since the discovery of the burial. The grave was only about 18in. deep 
under the turf, and some 3ft. in length, so it would appear that the 
skeleton must have lain in a contracted position. There was no ap- 
pearance that there had ever been a barrow over it. 

Among the loose soil that had come from the cist we found a pointed 
bone implement (Fig 3 on plate, p. 110), and lying with the bones were 
two rough worn hammerstones of sarsen that the shepherd said had been 
found with the bones. The bones unfortunately had been broken and 
scattered and were too incomplete to admit of measurement. The bone 
implement, the hammerstones, and part of the skull and lower jaw have 
been placed in the Museum. [Mrs.] M. E. Cunnington. 

Coin of Alexander the Great found at Tilshead. 

A small silver coin of Alexander the Great, described by the authorities 
of the British Museum thus : — 

Ob. Head of Heracles in lion skin, 

Rev. Zeus seated holding eagle, 
was dug up in an allotment at Tilshead some little time ago. It has 



Notes. 107 

been given to the Society's Museum. Mr. W. J. Andrew, F.S.A., 
writes with regard to it : — " Coins of Alexander the Great are not in- 
frequently found in this country. Although called coins of Alexander 
the Great the type in question was struck after his death, in memory 
of him and had a long and prolific issue." The British Museum 
authorities put the date at circa 300 B.C. Mr. Andrew mentions an 
example found in Surrey, and 1 know of another found in the Isle of 
Wight about twenty years ago. No doubt their presence is due to trade 
with Gaul in Fre-Boman times. [Mrs.] M. E. Cunnington. 

Black Redstart in Wilts. The Bev. T. J. Woodall, Vicar of 
Britford, writing on December 3rd, 1912, says : — " I saw on November 
6th, on the old Shaftesbury road, a Black Bedstart. I have never 
before seen one in England, but have watched them closely in Bavaria. 
I was within 5 yards of it, and it is a particularly striking bird and 
catches your attention at once, so there can be no mistake." 

The Bev. A. 0. Smith in his Birds of Wiltshire records only two 
instances of the occurrence of this bird (Phcenicura titys) in Wilts. 

The Old Wiltshire Horned Sheep. The head of a large 

ram, with Boman nose and very large and heavy curling horns, which has 
hung for many years past on the wall of the Natural History Boom at 
the Museum, unfortunately without any label, has now been taken 
down and placed in a glass case for more careful preservation. It is 
believed that this is the head mentioned in Wilts Arch. Mag., I. 63, as 
exhibited in the temporary museum at the first meeting of the society 
at Devizes, October 12th, 1853. " By Mr. G. Brown, Avebury— Pre- 
served Head of the Old Wiltshire Horned Sheep, bred by the late Mr. 
John Nalder, of Berwick Bassett." Probably even at that date the 
breed was extinct, and it is doubtful whether any other head is at 
present in existence. It is therefore well to call attention to the 
presence of this example at Devizes. From the MS. " Gift Book " at 
the Museum it appears that Mr. Brown gave this head and also another 
pair of horns in 1874. As there are no other heads or horns at the 
Museum to which this entry could refer it seems certain that the head 
now placed in a case, and the skull and horns still at the Museum are 
the specimens referred to in 1853 and 1874. The breed was quite distinct 
from any of the existing breeds of sheep. E. H. Coddard. 

Drawings of Lacock and Malmesbury by Carter. 

The Bev. W. G. Clark Maxwell writing June 25th, 1912, says : " I saw 
yesterday in Ludlow a book of great interest to Wilts, a large folio 
volume of original washed drawings by John Carter, of Malmesbury 
and Lacock, in 1801, executed for Sir B. C. Hoare, who has appended 
a note to that effect and that it cost him ^6189 odd, so I suppose it 
came from Stourhead. It belonged to a Mr. Sykes recently deceased, 
and is to be sold next mo-nth, I believe at Puttick & Simpson's. Some 
of the drawings of Lacock have been reproduced (including a plan) in 
Bowles and Nicholls, but not all." 



108 



Notes. 



Skull fOUUd at Loilgleat. Mr. H. St. G. Gray, of Taunton 
Museum, wrote, on Oct. 2nd, 1912, that a fragment of a skull had been 
found at Longleat during some repairs. Lord Bath, writing Sept. 30th, 
described the spot thus : — " The cranium was found about 6ft. below 
the surface, just outside the house, when repairing a culvert. The 
culvert has now been closed up, and is above the place where the cranium 
was found. I am told that there was nothing else found." There seems 
no evidence as to the date of the skull fragment. 

Dwelling Pits on Winterbourne Monkton Down. 

At the end of December, 1912, a large rectangular excavation for a 
reservoir 42ft. X 21ft. was made on the slope of Monkton Down, and 
two " Dwelling Pits " were cut through, one on each of the longer sides 
of the reservoir. Unfortunately nothing was known of the work until 
it had been completed, when Mr. and Mrs. Cunnington visited the spot 
and secured the pottery fragments, &c, for the Museum. From their 
notes and from notes and sketches made by the Rev. H. G. O. Kendall, 
F.S.A., these particulars are compiled. The pit 3ft. from S.W. corner 
of the reservoir was almost cut away. It was apparently about 4ft. 6in- 




Section through Dwelling Pit on Winterbourne Monktou Down. 



deep with a diameter of about 3ft. 6ins. Of the other pit 10ft. 6ins. 
from iS.E. corner, rather more than half remained. It was about 
5ft. 5in. in depth from the surface, the upper 2ft. being humus, and the 




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1. Bronze buckle, 12th century, Beckhampton. 2. Bronze object, 
portion of chape of sword, late Celtic, Beckhampton. 3. Bone 
implement found with interment near Old Shepherd's 
Shore. 4. Portion of small crucible from dwelling 
pits, Winterbourne Monkton. 5. Bone implement from same 
pits. 6. Roman iron key, Beckhampton. § 



Notes. 



109 



lower 3ft. 5ins. solid chalk in which the pit was cut, widening out at 
the bottom, the diameter at the upper edge of the chalk being 3ft. and 
that on the more or less flat floor, 3ft. 9ins. The pits were apparently 
carefully dug, and one of them the men said had a ring of stones round 
the top "like round the top of a well." Mrs. Cunnington writes " the 
flat bone implement 3ins. in length (No. 5 on Plate) seems to have been 
found in the same pit as the crucible and the two restored pots 
(illustrated). The most perfect of these pots is 9jins. high, the diameter 
at the rim being 8 Jin., and at the base 5f in. The other has no actual 
rim left, but as it now stands is lOJin high, and the diameter of the 
base is 6ins. The paste of the first was mixed with fossil shell ; the 
second was sooty on the inside. They are both imperfectly baked, the 
paste being black in the interior part, and dull red outside. There 
were in the pits other fragments of similar ware, bones of animals 
(pig, sheep, and ox), flint flakes, and two scrapers, all very fresh and 
sharp to the touch, a disc of chalk roughly circular with nearly flat top 
and bottom 2^in. to 2fin. in diameter and If in. thick. It has no per- 
foration and weighs T^ozs. There was a considerable quantity of wood 
ashes amongst the dark soil filling the pits. One of the men had dug 
for Mr. Gray, at Avebury, and had some idea that the things might be 
of some value, so he took them home with him and kept them until we 
bought them from him, otherwise no doubt they would ail have been 
lost. There was amongst the pottery one piece of a Romano- British 
mortarium with grains of grit. In all probability this came from the 
surface and not really from the pit. There is quite a lot of Eoman 
pottery on the surface about the spot." 

The most interesting find was the half of a small earthenware crucible 
(No. 4 on Plate) for melting bronze, found in the same pit with the two 
" Cooking Pots " here illustrated, which have been so carefully restored 
from a great number of fragments by Mrs. Cunnington. When perfect 
this crucible was of triangular shape with a lip at each corner. It still 




Section through terrace below the reservoir on Winterbourne 
Monkton Down. 



retains a stain of bronze on the edge. It measures now 2in. in height 
by 2|in. in width. A considerable number of similar, small crucibles 
were found in the Glastonbury Lake Village, and are fully described 
and illustrated in the very interesting chapter on this subject by Mr. 
H. St. G. Gray in The Glastonbury Lake Village,\o\. L, p. 300 — 309, in 
which a list is given of crucibles found elsewhere. Most of these are 



110 Notes. 

of the Late Celtic period, to which also no doubt the Monkton Pits 
belonged. Gen. Pitt-Rivers found a single example in each of the 
Romano-British Villages of Rotherley and Woodcuts. 

Mr. Kendall notes that in the trench from the reservoir down the 
hill, animal bones and bits of pottery showed in two places, and the 
workmen said that two Roman coins had been found at one spot where 
pottery fragments were visible. Just over the first fence below the 
reservoir is a terrace, of which a section is here given, showing about 
Sin. of deep brown humus, 6in. to 2ft. of pale soil (chalk and soil 
mixed ?), and in the line marked X blue or bluish-white flint flakes, &c. 
In other places below the humus is a reddish slightly clayey soil with 
naturally-broken blue flints. In one place a large sarsen lay in a pit of 
the reddish soil. Mr. Kendall believes that some of the sarsens in the 
bottom of the valley have been arranged in two parallel rows. He also 
writes: "On the spur of the hill they have found 12ft. (it may prove 
to be more) of sand in a fault (?) in the chalk, 4ft. wide or more, with 
big chalk lumps and natural flints in the sand. The Director of the 
Geological Museum, Jermyn Street, admits that if the sand in the 
chalk fault (?) be Eocene it would mean that the escarpment was 
formed in pre-Eocene times. He does not, however, think this likely. 
"On the other hand," he says, "the possibility of the sand being 
Pliocene must be borne in mind." Nothing has been found to prove 
the age of the sand, but it has the appearance to my eye of being the 
same material as that of which many of the sarsens are formed." 

Mr. Edgar Barclay's Paintings of Stonehenge. The 

late Mr. Edgar Barclay, author of the well-known book, Stone kenge and 
its Earthworks, published in 1895, an artist of no small capacity, 
painted in the years 1890 — 91 a series of oil paintings, twenty-seven in 
number, of Stonehenge and its surroundings. This collection of 
framed pictures was most generously offered as a gift to our Society, 
after his death, by his sister, Mrs. Florence Belt Irving, " on condition 
that the collection be exhibited complete at the Museum Library." 
Unfortunately want of wall space at the Museum made it impossible 
for the Society to accept this interesting and valuable gift, and the 
Hon. Secretary whilst expressing his regret to Mrs. Belt Irving 
ventured to suggest to her that the Corporation of Salisbury would 
doubtless be only too glad to find space for the pictures in the new 
Picture Gallery recently added to the Public Library by the munificence 
of the late Mr. Young. Mrs. Belt Irving thereupon offered the 
collection to the Corporation, and this valuable series of paintings 
thus finds a permanent home in Wiltshire. 

The Rev. A. P. Morres' Collection of Birds. On 

June 27th, 1913, Messrs. Waters & Rawlence sold by auction at Salis- 
bury the collection of birds formed by the late Rev. A. P. Morres, 
Vicar of Britford, 1868 — 94, and chaplain of St. Nicholas Hospital, 
1894 — 1900 (cf. W.A.M., xxxi., 245). After his death his collection was 
purchased by the late Mr. Harcourt Coates, by whose widow it has now 



Notes. Ill 

been sold again. There were some thirty-seven cases containing Wilt- 
shire specimens, including Dunlin, Merlin, Montagu's Harrier, Hooded 
Crow, Spotted Crake, Tufted Duck, Golden Eye, Brambling, Sclavo- 
nian Grebe, Ring Ouzel, Tree Sparrow, Sandpiper, Pochard, Great 
Grey Shrike, Quail, Golden Plover, Short-eared Owl, and Crossbill- 
The whole collection was purchased in one lot for £125 by Mr. E. B. 
Maton, of Enford, who intends to build a special room to contain it. 

Objects recently found and here illustrated. 

No. 1, Bronze buckle obtained from a labourer who found it near Beck- 
hampton recently. It is heavily and solidly made. The bar to which 
the pin is attached is held in the mouths of two rude animals' heads, 
the pin itself being ornamented in the same way, the point projecting 
like a tongue from a similar head. The point of the pin fits into a small 
slot in the ring, and there is a solid projection here of J-inch in length, 
beyond the ring. The buckle measures l|in. both ways. I have not 
been able to find a similar example. It appears to be Norman of the 
12th century. This opinion has been confirmed by Mr. Reginald Smith, 
F.S.A., of the British Museum. Presented to the Society's Museum 
by Mr. and Mrs. Cunnington. 

No. 2, Bronze object found casually near Beckhampton. It measures 
lflin. X Jin. It is evidently an ornament and apparently of Late 
Celtic date, but for what purpose 1 It is an entire object showing no 
sign of break, except in one of the openwork divisions in the centre. 
At first sight it suggests something in the way of a chape attachment 
to a Late Celtic Sword, but the engraved ornament on the semi- circular 
portion is only on one side, and the other is perfectly flat, showing that 
only the upper side was intended to be seen, as is proved also by 
the socket at the end of the projection evidently intended to contain 
a setting, propably of coral or enamel. This like the engraved lines 
only exists on one side. It is clear that it was intended to fit on to the 
side of some rounded object, as the inner edge is groved and fits a 
slender pencil or penholder. It must have been tied in place by a 
fastening round the projecting arm. There seems to be nothing quite 
like it elsewhere, so far as I have been able to discover. It has been 
submitted to Mr. Reginald Smith, F.S.A., who writes that it " may very 
well be half a Chape of a somewhat sophisticated type, say of the early 
1st century. The evolution of the Chape seems to be clear and the last 
stage is probably that at which the wings are affixed to the bronze 
binding of the sheath instead of being the comtinuation of the point 
turned back on itself. The dagger sheath was normally made to be 
seen from one side only." Presented to the Society's Museum by Mr. 
and Mrs. Cunnington. 

No. 3. Implement of pointed bone found with a skeleton near Old Shep- 
herd's shore, 1912. Given to the Museum by Mr. and Mrs. Cunnington. 
(see page 106). 

No. 6. Roman iron key with wards of somewhat unusual shape, and flat 
handle with ring for suspension. Length, 4fin. Found near Beck- 
hampton. Given to the Museum by Mr. and Mrs. Cunnington. 

[Nos. 4 and 5 are described in the note on the Dwelling Pit at 
Winterbourne Monkton.] E. H. Goddard. 



112 Notes. 

The Marlborough Castle Mound. It may or may not be 

generally known among archaeologists that, since this historic monu- 
ment, second only in interest among its kind to Silbury Hill, passed 
just seventy years ago into the possession of the Council of Marl- 
borough College, it has been made to serve the purpose of a water- 
tower. In the course of alterations made during the summer of 1912, 
it was found necessary to remove a portion of the base of the mound 
on the west side and excavate an inclined channel, some six or seven 
feet deep, from the base to the summit. It would serve no purpose 
to comment here upon these and similar acts of vandalism. 
Corporations, we are frequently reminded, have no consciences, and the 
mound has endured other indignities in its day. We must confine 
ourselves to a very brief statement of the archaeological results of these 
operations so far as untrained observers could note them. 

The digging at the base revealed the original ground level. The 
slope of this dipped gently from the north to south in accordance with 
the general slope of the Kennet Valley at this spot- An area, extend- 
ing at its widest some fourteen feet into the mound, was cleared, and 
a thin layer of black substance, proved by subsequent analysis to be 
charcoal, was found to cover the alluvial surface. This in turn was 
covered by another layer of reddish clay, containing a few broken 
flints, showing surface exposure, and some tertiary flint gravel pebbles. 
Each of these two deposits averaged half an inch in thickness, with a 
tendency, most clearly marked in the charcoal, to deepen towards the 
interior of the mound. It seems probable, though further excavation 
would be necessary to test the assumption, that these strata of 
charcoal and clay cover the whole area of the mound, intervening 
between the old ground level and the chalk of which the pile consists. 
The interpretation, however, seems by no means clear. 

Nothing else of moment turned up at this level, but the further 
operations disclosed something equally, if not more, interesting. Some 
six fragments of red-deer antler were found together, about half-way 
up the mound and several feet below the present surface mould. 
Three of these fragments consist of the burr and broken brow-tine, 
and two others seem to be consecutive portions of the beam of the 
antler to which one of the brow-tines belonged. The largest fragment 
measured 246 millimetres (about 9^ inches) in circumference just above 
the burr. It seemed to the last degree unlikely that the fragments, 
which were thoroughly impregnated with chalk, could have been buried 
in that position at any date subsequent to the erection of the mound, 
and it is thought that their discovery may possibly throw some light 
on the question of the date of that work. 

The various finds, including some of less importance which need not 
be detailed here, are now in the College Museum. A fuller account, 
with a tentative discussion of their value, will be found in the Report 
of the Marlborough College Natural History Society for the year 1912. 

H. C. Brentnall. 



Notes. 



113 



Roman Sculpture recently found at Nettleton Scrub. 

"On the occasion of the visit of the Bath Branch to Castle Combe in 
September the members were invited to the Manor by Sir John Gorst 
to inspect some carved masonry recently discovered on his estate. 
Miss Eva Gorst explained to the members that whilst quarrying for 
stone close to the Fosse Way at Nettleton Scrub, situated about a mile 
and a half from the Manor House (Castle Combe), what appeared to 
be the foundation wall of a building was uncovered, and the fragments 




of sculpture they were now looking at probably formed part of the wall. 
The sculpture, which was fragmentary owing to its being broken by 
roots of trees getting into the stone, consisted of a dog's head with 
collar round the neck, probably representing a greyhound, parts of the 
legs and paws, also some portions of drapery, probably belonging to 
the statue of a Eoman deity. Owing to pressure of time we were 
unable to examine the masonry closely, but a week later I paid another 
visit to the Manor in order to take photographs and measurements. 
The stonework measured 2|ft. long x l^ft. high and 1ft. thick. 

Miss Gorst had kindly made arrangements for me to visit the site at 
Nettleton Scrub with the workman who actually discovered and re- 
moved the masonry. He informed me during our walk there that a 
lime-kiln had been erected on the spot, and that it was quite by accident 
that the old foundations, together with what appeared to be the rough 
pennant floor of a building, were brought to light. He also mentioned 
that fragments of pottery, tiles, and bones, and a fine iron door key, 
VOL. XXXVIII. — NO. CXIX. I 






1 14 Notes. 

which is now preserved at the Manor, and which was shown to me, 
were thrown up during digging operations for the foundations of thelime- 
kiln. On arrival at the site, which was situated in a very picturesque 
sheltered valley with a trout stream running through it, and barely a 
hundred yards from the Fosse Way, the exact spot was pointed out 
where the sculptured stone was found built into the foundation wall. 
Unfortunately only the north side of this wall remains, as the south side 
has been destroyed by the new brick wall of the lime-kiln. The 
workman informed me that the rough pennant flooring occupied the 
exact area of the lime-kiln. I found strewn among the debris round 
the site portions of grey pottery, pennant slabs, red tiles, and fused 
glass, which formed strong proof that a building of Roman origin 
formerly existed on this spot." 

This note by Mr. Gerald J. Grey, of Bath, is reprinted from Proc. 
of the Bath and District Branch of the Somerset Arch, and Nat. Hist. 
Soc, 1912, pp. 177 — 179. It was also printed in Report on the Lansdown 
Exploitations and Discoveries in Bath and Vicinity, 1912, pp. 132 — 134. 
Dr. Thomas Ashby, writing to Mr. Grey from the British School in 
Rome, Jan. 20th, 1913, says : " Mrs. Story tells me that the relief is 
probably of a fairly early period (Augustine to Flavian) and represents 
a goddess, probably Artemis, with her dog. The latter certainly shows 
Roman characteristics. If the other pieces could be found it would be 
most interesting, good reliefs are none too common in Britain." 

We are indebted to the Somerset Society for the loan of the block 
illustrating the sculpture. 

Iiizard Orchis (0. hircina). For the third time within the last few 
years this rare plant has appeared in Wiltshire, this time near Winter- 
bourne Bassett, where it was found by the Rev. H. G. O. Kendall in 
June, 1913, and was not picked but left to seed. It was only a single 
plant. For previous occurences c.f. W.A.M., xxxv., 318, 508. 

E. H. Goddard. 

Rillg" Ouzel (Turdus torquatus). This bird of the moor and the 
mountain is only occasionally seen in Wiltshire. A specimen was 
shot at Clyffe Pypard on March 16th, 1913, under the impression that 
it was a Pied Blackbird. The bird was secured for the Museum, but 
was unfortunately destroyed accidentally before it could be stuffed. 

E. H. Goddard. 

Hilicloil Token (unpublished). Mr. George Watts, of Bur- 
combe, has recentlygiven to the Museum a 17th century Halfpenny Token 
which appears to be undescribed by Williamson, who gives no tokens 
of any place named Hindon. 

THOMAS • SHERGOLD =( Device not decipherable). 
• OF • HINDON -1669 = TS in monogram. 

Presumably as this token comes from S. Wilts it belongs to the Wiltshire 
Hindon. 



Notes. 115 

Eronze Implements found in barrows at Amesbury, 

1770. 1 am indebted to Mr. O. G. S. Crawford, F.S.A., for the 
following notice of the contents of two barrows at Amesbury, which 
are apparently quite unknown to writers on Wiltshire antiquities. Mr. 
Crawford writes on June 29th, 1913 : "I am sending you the enclosed 
tracings, which may be of interest to you. I found the originals from 
which they are copied in Cough's copy of Horsley's " Brit. Romana," 
now in the Bodleian. They are drawn upon a piece of note paper 
(presumably by Cough), which is tacked into the volume. The reference 
No. is Qough Gen. Top., 128. They are said to have been found in 
1770. I have not ever come across any mention of them and fancy the 
find must be hitherto unknown." 

The drawings, which are apparently of the full size of the objects, 
show a fine bronze dagger, which has apparently had two large rivets, 
one of which has been broken away, whilst the other is shown in the 
drawing. The blade is more or less leaf -shaped and has parallel en- 
graved lines, and is apparently of the type of the finer, thicker, and 
stronger daggers of which several are in the Stourhead Collection from 
the barrows in the neighbourhood. It is 8|in. in length, and if one 
corner of the handle end had not been broken away, it would be about 
2|in. broad at that point. Accompanying this blade is a long straight 
pin with a curious head, which may be meant for a cratch head such 
as those of two or three others in the Stourhead Collection, somewhat 
bent out of shape, or possibly, part of a ring head. Its total length 
is 5|in. It is called " Brass pin." As to the dagger blade it is noted 
" the rivet but half an inch," and below the two drawings is written : 
"This and the pin with ashes in the large barrow." 

The other drawing is apparently less carefully done. It shows a 
roughly straight-sided pointed bronze blade 4 Jin. long, by lfin. broad 
at the butt end, with two rivets. No markings are shown on the blade 
beyond the mark of the handle across the butt end, and the blade is 
presumably plain and flat. Underneath is written : " Found in the 
lesser of the two barrows in that part of Old Ambresbury called 
Vespasian's Camp." 

This seems clearly to imply that both the above-mentioned barrows 
were within Vespasian's Camp. Hoare, in his map of the barrows 
round Stonehenge shows none within the camp. He shows two close 
together (Nos. 126, 127), which he did not open, just N.E, of the 
northern point of the camp, but it does not seem likely that these can 
be the barrows in question. 

Mr. Crawford's discovery is an interesting one, and the tracings, which 
he has so kindly sent, have been placed for preservation and reference 
amongst the Society's drawings and prints. 

Mr. Crawford also calls attention to a bronze implement not recorded 
in the List of Wiltshire Bronzes ( W.A.M., xxxvii,, 117 — 158), a " winged 
Celt " found on Sidbury Hill. Proa. Soc. Ant. Lond., 2nd Ser., IX., 227. 

E. H. CODDARD. 

I 2 



116 



WILTS OBITUARY. 

Lt. -Col. David Archer, of Lushill House, died November, 1912, 
aged 76. Buried at Castle Eaton. Born 1836, s. of John Archer, of 
Lushill, joined the 62nd or Wiltshire Regiment, at 17. On leaving the 
army he joined the Wiltshire Militia, retiring in 1879 with the rank of 
Lt.-Colonel. He married, first, Sept. 21st, 1865, Margaret d. of John 
Ormrod, of Ralliwell Lodge, Lanes., by whom he had one son, 
who was drowned at the age of 18. He married, secondly, 1899, Maud, 
d. of Edward Hanbury, formerly of Eastrop Grange, Highworth. On 
the death of his uncle, David Archer, in 1895, he inherited the Kingsdown 
House property, and in 1898, on the death of his father, the Castle 
Eaton estate, of which he farmed 1500 acres. As J. P. for Wilts and 
Gloucestershire he was for some years chairman of the Cricklade and 
Fairford benches. He was also for some years a member of the Wilts 
County Council. He was a strong Unionist and churchman, and last 
year added a chancel to Upper Stratton Church. His nephew, Capt. 
A. T. S. Alderson, Royal Artillery, succeeds him in the estates. The 
funeral was largely attended, the coffin being conveyed on one of the 
estate waggons, attended by men in smock frocks. 

Obit, notice, Wilts and Gloucester Standard, reprinted in Wiltshire 
Gazette, Nov. 28th, 1912. 

Canon Henry Rudge Hayward, died at Bournemouth Dec. 7th, 
1912, aged 81. Fellow of Pemb. Coll., Oxen, B.A., 1853 ; M.A., 1856. 
Deacon 1855, priest 1856 (Oxon). Curate of Lamborne (Berks), 1855—62 ; 
Great Marlow, 1862—64 ; Rector of Lydiard Millicent, 1864—81 ; Vicar 
of Cirencester, 1881—1908; Proctor in Convocation, 1873 — 83; Arch- 
deacon of Cirencester, 1882 — 1908; Residentiary Canon of Gloucester, 
1898 until his death. He married, 1864, Isabella Elizabeth, d. of Pev. 
E. H. Bucknall-Estcourt, Rector of Eckington (Derby). 

Sir Charles Henry Stuart Rich, F.S.A., fourth barcnet 

of Shirley (Hants), died January 2nd, 1912. Buried at Holy Trinity 
Churchyard, Calne. Born March 7th, 1859, eldest s. of third baronet, 
Sir Charles Henry John and Harriet Theodosia, d. and coheir of John 
Stuart Sullivan. Succeeded to the baronetcy when 7 years old. Edu- 
cated at Harrow and Jesus Coll., Camb. Married, 1881, Fanny, d. of 
Rev. Joseph Page, of Little Bromley, Essex. J.P. for Wilts, 1904. The 
baronetcy dates from 1791, and now passes to Almeric Edmund Frederic 
Rich, his cousin, the grandson of the second baronet. Sir Charles 
bought Devizes Castle from the late Mr. Leach, who built the existing 
castellated house on the site of the Castle. Sir Charles spent much i 
money on alterations to the house, but only lived there for the last nine * 
years. He leaves a widow and one daughter. He was the founder , 
of the " Standing Council of the Baronetage." He took no part in 
public matters or in the life of Devizes. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Jan. 2nd, 1913. 



Wilts Obituary. 11? 

George Christopher Tayler, M.D., of Lovemead House, 

Trowbridge, died November 23rd, 1912, aged 67. Buried at Trowbridge 
Cemetery. Born at Trowbridge. Son of Christopher Tayler, M.D., 
M.R.C.S., 1866 ; M.D.,1871. He lived and practised in the Trowbridge 
neighbourhood all his life. A most earnest Churchman, for thirty-two 
years he was churchwarden of St. Thomas' Church, of which he was 
the most generous supporter. His charity and kindness to the poor 
were great. " Dr. Tayler was an exceedingly good man who did good 
work in the town without anybody knowing it." " A man who was 
honoured and highly respected by everybody in the town." " Trow- 
bridge and the neighbourhood mourns a good man dead." " There was 
no one who had done so mnch quiet good in the town as Dr. Tayler." 
He married first Miss Clark, and secondly Miss Rodway, both of well- 
known Trowbridge families. 

Long obit, notices and appreciations, Wiltshire Gazette, Nov. 28th ; 
Wiltshire Times, Nov. 30th ; portrait, Wiltshire News^ov. 30th, 1912. 

Francis Hobsoil, died Jan. 1st, 1913. Buried at Sheffield. He came 
to Trowbridge from Sheffield in 1900 and purchased " Prospect," a 
house on the Hilperton Road, where he lived until his death. He was 
a very generous supporter of all charitable institutions connected with 
Trowbridge, and was a prominent and diligent member of committee 
of the Nursing Association, the Cottage Hospital, and Winsley Sana- 
torium. To the latter he gave £250 two years ago. A Conservative 
and Churchman of the Evangelical School, he had been churchwarden 
of the Parish Church since 1911, and gave £1000 for the augmentation 
of the living, and bore the expense of the restoration of the north 
porch and parvise some years ago. He leaves a widow and two 
daughters. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Jan. 2nd ; Wiltshire Times, Jan, 4th, 
1913. 

Rev. John Henry Ellis, died Nov. 21st, 1912, aged 72. Trin. 
Coll., Camb., B.A. (Sen. Opt.), 1862; M.A., 1865; Deacon, 1863; 
Priest, 1864 (Cant.). Curate of Lyminge (Kent), 1863—65 ; Leyton, 
Essex, 1866 ; Vicar of Brill (Bucks), 1866—73 ; Rector of Stourton, 
(Wilts), 1874 — 87; when he resigned and retired to live in London. 
He left by his will £10,000 each to the Bp. of London's Fund, the Bp. 
of St. Albans' Fund, and the East London Church Fund, and the 
residue of his property (not less than £90,000), subject to his wife's 
life interest, to Cambridge University, " to be enjoyed and applied 
both out of capital and income by them for the general purposes of 
the University, in such manner as they may think fit." He was a life 
member of the Wilts Arch. Soc. 

Canon George Charles Bell, died Jan. 6th, 1913, aged 80. 
Buried at Preshute. Born at Streatham, July, 1832, s. of George Bell, 
shipowner and banker. Educated Christ's Hospital, scholar Line. 



118 Wilts Obituary. 

Coll., Oxon, 1851 ; Foundation Scholar, Wore. Coll., Oxon, 1852 ; 1st 
Class Mods., 1852 ; Lit. Hum., 1854 ; Math., 1855 ; Senior University- 
Math. Scholar and Fellow of Wore. Coll., 1857. B.A., 1855 ; M.A., 
1857 ; Deacon, 1859; Priest, 1869 (Oxon). Second Master of Dulwich 
College, 1865—68. Head Master at Christ's Hospital, 1868—76, where 
he had much to do with the scheme of reorganisation of the school 
and its removal to the country. Head Master of Marlborough College, 
1876— 1903, when he resigned. Non-residentiary Canon of Salisbury, 
1887 ; Examining Chaplain to Bp. of Salisbury, 1903 ; Bector of St. 
Michael's, Cornhill, London, 1906, until his death. Principal of 
Queen's Coll., London, 1903-1910. He married, 1870, Eliz., d. of 
Edward Milner, and had one son (Bev. G. M. Bell, Vicar of Bomford, 
Essex) and three daughters, one of whom, Olive Dade Bell, died in 
Aug., 1912, leaving behind her " the memory of a singularly sweet and 
thoughtful character, with abilities which might have accomplished 
much." The Times, Jan. 8th, 1913, in the course of a long obit, notice 
says " During the years that he was Master (of Marlborough) a num- 
ber of new buildings of which the Chapel is the most important were 
put up, and the playing fields were also extended. Mr. Bell was not 
so successful as some headmasters in gaining scholarships, but his 
interests were wide and he succeeded in imparting to those who came 
under his personal tuition a high level of general knowledge. In his 
choice of masters Mr. Bell was especially successful, as was shown by 
the large number of appointments to headmasterships which have 
been gained by members of his staff. With the boys Mr. Bell was 
quite popular, and the best testimony to their regard for him was the 
close friendship which many of them maintained with him after they 
had left the school. He made a study of secondary education in all 
the phases through which it has passed in recent years and his book 
on Religious Teaching in Secondary Schools (1897; 2nd edition 1898) 
had a distinct success. He took a great part in the establishment of 
the Headmasters' Conference." 

Obit, notices, Times, Jan. 8th ; Wiltshire Gazette, Jan. 16th, 1913. 

Rt. Hon. Horatio, 3rd Earl NelsOU, died at Trafalgar, Feb. 
25th, 1912, aged 89. Buried at Standlynch. Born at Brickworth Park, 
Whiteparish, Aug. 7th, 1823. He was the great nephew of the Admiral, 
the grandson of his sister Susannah, wife of Thomas Bolton of Wells, 
Norfolk. His father, Thomas Bolton, 2nd Earl Nelson, assumed in 
lieu of his own name the name and arms of Nelson in accordance with 
the Act for securing the Nelson annuity, and married Frances Elizabeth, 
daughter and heiress of John Maurice Eyre, of Landford and Brick- 
worth, Wilts. The late Earl succeeded his father in the title at the 
age of 12, and was present at the funeral of Will. III. as a Peer. Edu- 
cated at Eton and Trin. Coll., Camb., he took his seat in the House of 
Lords, of which he lived to be the " Father," in 1845. He married, 
1845, Lady Mary Jane Diana Agar, only daughter of the 2nd Earl of 
Normanton, by whom he had five sons and four daughters. She died 



Wilts Obituary. 119 

1904. The eldest son, Viscount Trafalgar, died 1905 ; the second, 
Charles Horatio, in 1900 ; the third, Thomas Horatio Viscount Merton, 
succeeds to the title and is unmarried. The fourth son, the Hon. Edward 
Agar Horatio Nelson, was born 1860. He was a strong Conservative in 
politics, but before all things from his Cambridge days onwards he was 
a churchman, much interested in the Tractarian movement, a member 
of the Camden Society, an ardent advocate of free and open Churches, 
and of the cause of Home Be-union, which was very near to his heart 
all his life, contributing many articles on the subject to the Guardian. 
From 1865 onwards he was a regular attendant and speaker at the 
annual Church Congresses. A strong High Churchman himself, the 
good relations of Church and Dissent and the possibility of working 
with Nonconformists was one of the things that appealed to him most. 
He was especially interested in the Foreign Missions of the Church 
and often acted as a " Deputation " at meetings, in earlier days. In the 
Diocese of Salisbury he was undoubtedly the leading lay churchman. 
In 1857 he, in association with Keble, compiled a Hymn Book for use 
in the Diocese, '* The Salisbury Hymn Book," which in many ways 
anticipated Hymns Ancient and Modern. From the institution of the 
Diocesan Synod by Bishop Moberly, in 1871, he was a constant atten- 
dant and speaker, his strong voice even in the Synod of last year being 
heard in the difficult Chapter House as that of very few younger 
speakers could be. He long acted as Chairman of the organising 
committee which fixes the agenda. He was a very active supporter 
of Church schools, of the Queen Victoria Clergy Fund, and of many 
other diocesan organizations. The Guardian says of him : " The 
Diocese of Salisbury has long been conspicuous for unity of feeling and 
co-operation. . . . Few, if any, have done more than Lord Nelson 
in promoting this — by his loyal support of Bishop after Bishop, and the 
manifest singleness of all his aims. For his position he was far from 
wealthy, but his standard of generosity was very high. He was most 
liberal as a landlord and anxious almost to excess — if that were possible 
— to promote the well-being of all upon his estate. In private life he 
was thoroughly consistent with the principles he publicly advocated. 
. . . His private charity was great." He read the lessons regularly 
at both the Sunday services and sat with the choir in his parish Church. 
" Earl Nelson," says the Wiltshire Gazette, " will be generally remem- 
bered for his long and close connection with the Wiltshire Friendly 
Society," of which he was the president from 1876 until his death. He 
had been a J.P. for Wilts since 1845. He retained his vigour of mind 
and voice in a wonderful degree to the end of his life. The large 
assemblage at his funeral testified to the widespread esteem in which 
he was held. 

Obit, notices. The Gua.rdian, Feb. 28th, had a three column notice 
with portraits ; Times, Feb. 26th ; Wiltshire Gazette, Feb. 27th ; 
Salisbury Journal, March 1st & 8th ; Salisbury Diocesan Gazette, April, 
1913. Small photo portraits, Daily Mail, Daily Mirror, and Daily 
Sketch, Feb. 26th ; Sphere, March Hth, 1913. 



120 Wilts Obituary. 

Canon John Rich, died March 18th, 1913, aged 86. Buried at 
West Tytherton. Born May 24th, 1826. Eldest s. of Rev. John Bostock 
liich, of Ivinghoe, Bucks. Educated at a private school at Hampton 
Wick, 1834 ; Scholar of Westminster, 1838, and as such was present at 
the coronation of Q. Victoria ; Student of Ch. Ch., Oxon, 1844 ; B.A., 
1848; M.A., 1851. Deacon 1851, priest 1856 (Chich.). Hon. Fellow 
of St. Michael's Coll., Tenbury, 1856. Curate of Newtimber, Sussex, 
1856 — 61. Vicar of Chippenham with Tytherton Lucas, 1861 until he 
resigned in 1904. He was also Bector of Tytherton Kelloways, 1884 
until his death. Hon. Canon of Bristol, 1882. Rural Dean of Chip- 
penham, 1883 — 99. During his long tenure of the living the Parish 
Church was well restored at a cost of £11,719, a new Church was built 
at Lowden, both the Tytherton Churches were restored, and a new 
Church school was built at Lowden. He married, 1861, Clara, d. of 
Thomas Holmes Bosworth, of Westerham, Kent, who died in 191 1. He 
leaves one son, Capt. Charles Rich, Governor of Northampton Prison, 
and four daughters. In 1904, when he resigned the living of Chippenham, 
he still continued to live in the town at Lowden Lodge. He possessed 
considerable musical ability. He was for over thirty years hon. chaplain 
to the 2nd Batt. Wilts Volunteers. He was greatly respected and 
esteemed by all classes at Chippenham. 

Obit, notices, Times, March 20th ; Wiltshire Gazette, March 20th ; 
Wiltshire Times, with a good portrait, March 22nd, 1913. 

Thomas Samuel Hill, died March 23rd, 1913, aged 69. Buried 
at Holy Trinity, Trowbridge. Born, 1843, at Potterne, where his father 
was a schoolmaster. Entered office of Messrs. Clark & Collins, solicitors, 
Trowbridge, became assistant clerk to the Local Board, and assistant 
magistrates' clerk. Became clerk to the Local Board, 1884, and to 
its successor, the Urban Council, 1894, holding this important office 
until his death. He was a prominent Freemason, but was best known 
as a Volunteer, in which capacity he held the unique position of having 
served during the whole existence of the force under that name from 
1859 to 1908. He held the rank of captain. He possessed musical 
abilities and was for twenty-six years choirmaster of North Bradley 
Church. An earnest Churchman, he was greatly esteemed in Trow- 
bridge, as the unusual demonstration of general respect at his funeral 
showed. 

Obit, notices, Wiltshire Gazette, March 27th ; Wiltshire Times, with 
portrait, March 29th ; Wilts News, with portrait, March 28th, 1913. 

Sidney Herbert, 14th Earl of Pembroke and 11th 
Earl of Montgomery, P.C.j G.C.V.O., died suddenly, 
March 30th, 1913, in Italy. Buried at Wilton. Born 1853, second 
son of Sidney Herbert, Lord Herbert of Lea, Secretary for War 
in the Palmerston Administration of 1859. Educated at Eton and 
Christ Church, Oxon. Married 1877, Lady Beatrix Louisa Lambton, 
eldest daughter of 2nd Earl of Durham. As Sidney Herbert he 



Wilts Obituary. 121 

represented Wilton in Parliament 1877 — 1885, and Croydon 1886—95. 
A junior Lord of the Treasury, 1885 — 92. He succeeded his brother 
(13th Earl) in the Peerage, 1895, and was appointed Lord Steward 
of the Household, holding that office until 1905. Captain in Wilts 
Yeomanry, 1876 — 80. He leaves two sons and two daughters, Reginald, 
Lord Herbert, Captain in the Royal Horse Guards and A.D.C. to 
Sir H. Paget, Commanding in Chief in Ireland, who succeeds to the 
Peerage, Lady Beatrix Wilkinson, Lady Muriel Herbert, and the 
Hon. George Sidney Herbert. Lord Pembroke was the largest 
landowner in the county, owning some 60,000 acres in South Wilts, 
as well as large estates in Dublin and the neighbourhood. He 
was president of the South Wilts Constitutional Association and 
president of the Wilts Archaeological Society, 1906—8. In county 
matters he took a very prominent part. He was a constant attendant 
at the meetings of the County Council, and was chairman of the 
Standing Joint Committee. His fine presence, and always courteous 
manners, his wide knowledge of men and affairs, and his practical 
wisdom, apart from the position which he occupied in the county, gave 
him a place in public business among men of all classes and opinions 
that will be hard to fill. As a landlord he carried on the excellent 
traditions of the Pembroke estate, than which there is none better 
managed in the county. 

Obit notices, Times, March 31st ; Wiltshire Gazette, April 3rd ; 
Wiltshire limes, with portrait and cuts of Wilton House and Bridge, 
April 5th ; appreciation by Chairman of Quarter Sessions, Wiltshire 
Times, April 12th; portrait, Sphere, April 5th; portrait, Salisbury 
Journal, April 5th, 1913. 

Edwin Young, died March, 1913, age 82. Born, lived, and died at 
Salisbury. He was a painter of considerable ability and a short 
time ago gave a collection of his paintings, and a gallery to contain 
them, together with four houses in Elm Grove, as an endowment for 
maintenance, to the city of Salisbury. This gallery, next to the Free 
Library, is now nearing completion. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, April 3rd, 1913. 

Major Campbell Macgill, died March 12th, 1913, aged 64. 
Buried at Stratford-sub- Castle. Son of Rev. Thomas Macgill, of 
Clapham, came to Salisbury, 1881, and took over the business of Messrs. 
Large & Co. Was for some time churchwarden of St. Edmund's. Re- 
moved to Stratford-sub-Castle, 1888, where, as churchwarden for ten 
years, he was largely instrumental in carrying out the restoration of the 
Church. Joined the Salisbury Volunteers, 1881, and was in command 
of the detachment for six years, retiring with rank of major, 1903. . 
Obit, notice, Salisbury Journal, March 15th, 1913. 

Lord Avebury, died May 28th, 1913 ; buried at Farnborough, Kent. 
John Lubbock, born April 30th, 1834, eldest son of Sir John William 
Lubbock, 3rd Baronet, and Harriet, daughter of Lieut.-Col. George 
Hotham. Educated at Eton, on leaving Eton he went into his 



122 Wilts Obituary. 

father's bank. Succeeded to Baronetcy 1865. Published " Prehistoric 
Times," 1869, which at once attracted wide attention. In 1874 he 
published "Origin and Metamorphoses of Insects," and in 1882 "Ants, 
Bees, and Wasps." This last was the work by which the public knew 
him best, and Punch, August 19th, 1882, gave a portrait of him as " The 
Banking Busy Bee." Liberal M.P. for Maidstone, 1870—80, and 
London University, 1880—86 (and as Liberal Unionist) 1886—1900. 
Vice-Chancellor of London University 1872—80. " He was an ideal 
university member." His untiring work in Parliament on behalf of 
shop assistants will be gratefully remembered. The Bank Holiday Act 
of 1871, Shop Hours Regulation Act of 1886, and Shop Hours Act of 
1904 were chiefly due to his persistent efforts. He sat on several 
Koyal and on innumerable Departmental Committees. As the head of 
Robarts, Lubbock, & Co., he held an important position in the city, 
and was the first President of the Institute of Bankers. He was 
President of the London Chamber of Commerce, 1888 to 1893, Chair- 
man of the Corporation of Foreign Bondholders, Vice- Chairman of the 
London County Council 1889-90, and Chairman 1890 — 92. He was a 
member of the Legion of Honour, and held the Prussian Order Pour 
le Merite. Raised to the peerage in 1900 he took his title from the 
land at Avebury which he had bought to save the circle from the 
speculative builder. He had been President of very many scientific 
and learned societies. He was a Life Member and Vice-President of our 
own Wiltshire [Society. He married, first, 1856, Ellen, daughter of Rev. 
Peter Hordern, and secondly 1884, Alice Augusta Laurentia, daughter 
of Lieut.-General A. A. Lane Fox Pitt Rivers, who survives him. His 
eldest son by the first marriage, Hon. John Birkbeck Lubbock, succeeds 
to the title. " Few Englishmen have lived a fuller or busier life than Lord 
Avebury. The range of the operation of his energies was so wide and 
multifarious and so eminently conducive to the public weal that he 
won, and deserved, a higher place in the estimation of his fellow 
citizens than many men of greater powers of mind. In industry and 
capacity for giving attention to a variety of interests simultaneously 
he has not been often equalled. . . . He was a practised entomo- 
logical observer. . . . An anthropologist, an ethnologist and a 
botanist. ... A great student of geology." Times, May 29th, in 
a long obituary article. Portraits in Sphere, May 31st ; Queen, June 
7th, 1913. 

Rev. Thomas Scudamore Cunningham, died May 30th, 

1913, aged 59, Buried at Chirton. S. of Thomas John Mackay 
Cunningham, capt. in Madras Native Infantry. Born at Cheltenham, 
June 13th, 1854. Educated at Clapham Grammar School and St. Bees 
Theological Coll., 1875. Deacon 1877, priest 1878 (Oxford). Curate 
of Newton Blossomville 1877-80; Burwell, Cambs., 1880-82; 
Felpham, Sussex, 1882; Pakenham, Suffolk, 1883—84; Perpetual 
Curate of Scilly Isles, 1885—88 ; Vicar of St. Feock, Corn., 1888—91 ; 
Chaplain at Ghent, 1891—92; Vicar of Christ Church, Whitehaven, 



Wilts OUtuary. 123 

1892—98 ; Vicar of Chirton and Marden, 1898 until his death. He 
wrote many poems, several of which were published in the Argosy. 
He was very popular in his parishes and beyond their limits was best 
known as an uncompromising politician on the Unionist side, his 
somewhat violent letters and speeches earning him the title of " The 
Fighting Parson." His widow and four sons survive him. 
Long obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, June 5th, 1913. 

Rt. Hon. George Wyndham, died suddenly in Paris, June 8th, 
1913, aged 50. Buried at East Knoyle. Born 1863, s. of Percy Wyndham, 
who died 1911. Educated at Eton, entered Coldstream Guards and 
served in Suakim campaign. He left the army and became private sec- 
retary to Mr. A. J. Balfour, then Chief Secretary for Ireland. M.P. for 
Dover, 1889 until his death. Under Secretary for War, 1898. Chief Sec- 
retary for Ireland, 1900, he was the author of the Land Purchase Act of 
1903. He was in favour of woman's suffrage, and a strong Protectionist. 
Lord Rector of Glasgow University, 1902, and of Edinburgh, 1908. Hon. 
U.C.L. of Oxford and Hon. LL.D. .of Edinburgh. " A keen yeomanry 
officer and above all a man of exquisite taste and wide knowledge." He 
was " a first-class man of letters as well as a distinguished politician," 
and was especially at home in the literature and history of the sixteenth 
century. " Wherever the writings of George Wyndham are read there 
will be found in them a very noble and sincere attachment for some of 
the noblest things ; something like the mind of Sir Philip Sidney, as 
thorough in devotion as in criticism and controversy " {Times). He 
married, 1887, the widow of Lord Grosvenor, who survives him. His 
son, Percy Wyndham, married, 1913, Diana, d. of Lord Ribblesdale. 

Long obit, notice. Times, June 10th; portraits, Sphere and Queen, 
June 14th, 1913. 



124 



RECENT WILTSHIRE BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, 
ARTICLES, &c. 

[N.B. — This list does not claim to be in any way exhaustive. The Editor 
appeals to all authors and publishers of pamphlets, books, or views, in 
any way connected with the county to send him copies of their works, 
and to editors of papers and members of the Society generally to send 
him copies of articles, views, or portraits, appearing in the newspapers.] 

Salisbury Plain its Stones, Cathedral City, Villages 
and Polk. By Ella Noyes, illustrated by Dora 

Noyes, 1913. London & Toronto : J. M. Dent & Sons, Limited. 
New York : E. P. Dutton & Co. 

Linen, 9in. X 6Jin., pp. including title, xii + 320, 10s. 6d. net. Six- 
teen coloured illustrations and forty-one line illustrations in text from 
pen drawings, and a sufficient index. Many of the coloured illustrations 
are very charming, indeed only two of them, Old Sarum and Wilton 
House, are otherwise than successful. Salisbury Spire ; High Street, 
Salisbury ; Salisbury Cathedral ; The Cloisters ; Butcher Row 
(quaintly misprinted in the list of illustrations as " Butcher Boy ") ; 
Heytesbury ; The River Wylye at Wishford ; and an Old House at 
Imber are particularly pleasing. Some of the line illustrations seem 
to be a little pale and indistinct, as though the paper had not taken 
the ink properly, but many of them are very pleasant little impres- 
sions of the various houses or villages which they illustrate. Among 
them are Stonehenge ; Salisbury from Old Sarum ; St. Anne's Gate ; 
Tomb of William Longespee ; The Market Place ; and Old House, High 
Street, Salisbury.; Fittleton Church; Upavon ; Enford ; Amesbury 
Church ; Lake House ; Heale House ; Battlesbury ; Longbridge 
Deverill Almshouses; 14 Vicarage Street, Warminster; . Knook 
Manor ; Boyton Manor ; Codford St. Peter, Cross Shaft ; Stockton 
House and Village; Little Langford Church, Doorway; Stapleford 
Church and Street ; Fisherton de la Mere ; Bringing the Boughs 
from Groveley ; Chirton Font ; and Mere Church. 

Miss Noyes has interpreted " Salisbury Plain " in a liberal sense, 
and the villages of the Avon and Wylye Valleys take up a larger 
portion of the book than the Plain itself. 

Salisbury too, the Cathedral, the city, the houses in the close, and 
the 18th century life of the place is dealt with at some length, and the 
descriptions both of the Cathedral and of the architecture of the 
various village Churches round the Plain are for the most part 
knowledgeable and scholarly. Moreover they are in most cases well 
up-to-date. The screen and the font for instance at Amesbury are 
both back in their places. There is no attempt at a full description of 
the Churches, but their leading features of interest and the general 
character of their architecture is happily hit off in a few words. Of 



Bccent Wiltshire Books. Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 1 25 

the Down Country the authoress writes " Perhaps one must be bred 
so to speak of the chalk, have its thin blood in one's veins, to feel the 
peculiar appeal of this country," and the whole book gives the 
impression that the writer has been so bred and knows that of which 
she writes — not as having " got up " the local colour for literary 
purposes — but because she is of the " Winterbourn " herself. Of 
course in a book covering so wide a space and touching lightly on so 
many subjects, history, legend, architecture, archaeology — it is inevitable 
that there should be inaccuracies — and they are not absent here. Yarn- 
bury Castle for instance has not " a single rampart," The Bustard Inn 
has not been transformed into Racing Stables, The Muniment Room 
of the Cathedral is hardly " Brick vaulted," the contents of the Upton 
Lovell " Gold Barrow " are at Devizes and not in the British Museum, 
the two stones of Stonehenge which fell in 1900 have not been set up 
again, and the House at Amesbury was not " completely re-built " in 
1824. On archaeology she touches lightly but for the most part soundly 
— though it is not correct to say that there are " abundant traces of 
the Late Celtic period in the contents of the Barrows," at least if 
" Late Celtic " bears the meaning usually attached to it, nor is the 
later pottery of the Bronze Age better than the earlier. But in a book 
of this kind the ordinary reader does not expect or desire minute 
archaeological or architectural detail. What he wishes for, if he is 
sensible, and what he will find in these pages, is a characterisation of 
the various places described, set full in admirable style and taste, 
without any pretentiousness of word painting, but with a knowledge 
of history and literary reference, always at hand where it is needed to 
give interest, but never thrust forward in undue display. A book that 
South Wilts folk will like to have on their shelves and to give to their 
friends. Noticed, Times Lit. Suppt., May 8th; Salisbury Journal, 
May 10th, 1913. 

Leopards of England and other Papers on Heraldry. 
By E. E Dorlingr, M.A., ISA. London : Constable 
& Company, 1912. 

Cloth, 9in. x 5 fin., pp. viii. + 136. 7s. 6 d. net. Printed by Butler 
& Tanner, Frome and London. Nine coloured plates, fifteen half-tone 
plates, and twenty-seven cuts in text. 

This book contains seven papers, four of which are reprinted from 
the Ancestor. Of these two deal with Wiltshire matters. "Armorial 
Glass in Salisbury Cathedral," pp. 57 — 72, describes six shields of the 
latter half of the thirteenth century, formerly in the Chapter House, 
and now in the west window of the Cathedral. 

They are (1) Gold three cheverons gules. Gilbert of Clare, 3rd Earl 
of Gloucester and Hertford, 1262. 

(2) Paly gules and gold of eight pieces, a variant of the arms of the 
Kings of Aragon borne by the Counts of Provence from 1166 ; to 1245. 
Eleanor, Q. of Hen. III., was one of the daughters of Raimond 
Berenger IV., the last Aragonese Count. 

(3) Azure powdered with fleurs-de-lis gold. Old France (there are 
ten whole lilies on the shield). This shield is to be ascribed to Louis 
IX., brother-in-law of Hen. III., 1226—70. 



] 26 Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 

(4) Gules three leopards, gold. Henry III. 

(5) Silver a lion gules with a crown gold in a border sable bezant]/. 
Richard, Earl of Cornwall, second son of King John and brother 
of Hen. III. 

(6) Gold a cross gules. Roger Bigod, fourth Earl of Norfolk, 1225 
—70. 

In addition there is a seventh shield of the same size and shape — a 
field of white glass with a green demon and a blue border with bezant- 
like discs of yellow glass. The demon is apparently sixteenth century 
glass, the blue border modern, the white glass and the yellow discs 
appear to be of the thirteenth century, possibly once belonging to a 
second escutcheon of Cornwall referring to Henry, son of the King of 
the Romans, who went on crusade in 1268. Carter, in his plate of the 
Chapter House windows, shows part of a checkered shield, of this 
series, which has now disappeared. Mr. Dorling suggests that it was 
that of John de Warrenne, Earl of Surrey, who married the elder Alice 
de Lusignan and died in 1305. Mr. Uorling ingeniously argues that 
the date of this series of shields must lie between 1262 and 1270, and 
that the eighth Crusade in 1268, in which most of the persons whose 
arms they contain were concerned, was the occasion of their painting. 
Why they were set up at Salisbury cannot be said, but if this date 
is correct they could not have been originally in the Chapter House, 
for that was not built until the reign of Edward I. Nos. 4 and 5 of 
the above shields are illustrated in colours in the frontispiece, the others 
from careful drawings. 

The other Wiltshire article," Two Nevill Shields at Salisbury," pp.79— 
88, with two illustrations from draAvings, deals with glass in the windows 
of " The Hall of John Hall," built in 1470, the glass being contemporary. 
The first of these contains, 1 and 4, quarterly, Montagu and Monthermer, 
2 and 3, Nevill differenced with the Gobony label of silver and azure, for 
Richard Nevill the elder, b. 1400, Earl of Salisbury in right of his wife, 
Eleanor Montagu, only daughter and heiress of Thomas, fourth Earl of 
Salisbury. The second shield displays seven coats arranged in three 
columns, Beauchamp, Nevill, Monthermer, Despencer, Montagu, Clare, 
and Newburgh (of which the Despencer coat is modern glass by Pugin), 
for Richard Nevill the younger, only son of the Earl of Salisbury, b. 
1428, who in right of his wife, Anne Beauchamp, sister and heir of 
Henry, Duke of Warwick, became Earl of Warwick as well as Salisbury. 
Both these papers are reprinted from the Ancestor. The other papers 
are " Leopards of England," " The King's Beasts at Hampton Court," 
" A Montagu Shield at Hazelbury Bryan," " The Heraldry of the Font 
at Holt" (Denbighs.), "Canting Arms in the Zurich Roll." It is 
needless to say that Mr. Dorling's drawings are excellent. Reviewed, 
Antiquary, March, 1913, pp. 119—120. 

The Parish Church of Melksham. Plymouth, Seward 

Mitchell & Co., Printers and Publishers, Buckland Hall, 1912. 

9in. X 6in., pp. 38 + 2, title unnumbered. 20 illustrations, portrait of 
Canon Wyld, (Vicar) ; Church in 1844, from a drawing ; Norman arch 



Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 127 

at E. End ; old Key of N. Door ; Lady Chapel ; Nave, interior ; Bells, 
on the ground ; Parvise and old books ; First pages of old Church- 
wardens' Book ; Begisters (2) ; Church Plate ; Pulpit ; six Clerestory- 
windows ; Church, exterior from N.E. 

This is a very useful and nicely illustrated popular handbook to the 
Church and its history. A few words by way of introduction remind 
us that ecclesiastically Melksham formerly included Seend, Erlestoke, 
and Shaw, the first being made a separate parish in 1873, and Erlestoke 
in 1877. Shaw, separated ecclesiastically in 1838, is still part of the 
civil parisb of Melksham. Beanacre Church, built in 1886, is not 
consecrated. The architecture of the Church is described in very 
simple language, but with considerable exactness. In 1845 — 47 the 
Church was delivered into the hands of Wyatt, who pulled down the 
central Perpendicular Tower with its finely panelled belfry stage and 
rebuilt it, more or less on the same lines, but by no means exactly, at 
the west end. A not very exact sketch gives an idea of the appearance 
of the Church before this alteration. Canon Wyld gives from the 
Churchwardens' Account Books, (of which there are three preserved, 
1574—1672, 1740—1798, 1799—1896,) the principal alterations and 
repairs to which the building has been subjected since the Beformation, 
and in more detail describes the many additions made to its furniture 
and decorations of late years, which have converted it during his own 
incumbency from a somewhat commonplace interior, to one of the 
richest and most tastefully decorated Churches in the county. It is 
now particularly notable for good modern woodwork and glass ; indeed 
few Churches have so many good modern windows and what is the 
more remarkable, perhaps, no really bad ones. The glass of the six 
windows of the clerestory, illustrating the early history of Christianity 
in Britain and Wessex, by Messrs. Powell, are a recent and striking 
embellishment due, as were many other things in the Church, to the 
generosity of the late Mr. White, of Whitley. A full account of the 
subjects of these windows is given. Canon Wyld reproduces the Bow 
Street notice of £40 reward offered by the churchwardens, for the 
conviction of the thieves who on May 31st, 1803, broke open the Church 
and carried away the Communion Plate : — 

" One large Silver Flaggon, Inscribed 'The Gift of Ellen Long to the Parish Church of 
Melksham, dated (sic) 1734,' one large silver Salver, one small silver Salver, and one Silver 
Cup." 

The inscriptions on the eight bells, (two new ones were added 1896), 
a list of the vicars, and some account of the chief monuments are given. 
Among the vermin for the destruction of which the churchwardens 
paid, were martincats and whoops (bullfinches). 

little Ridge, Wiltshire, a seat of Mr. Hugh Morrison. An 
illustrated article in Country Life, October 26th, 1912. When Mr. 
Hugh Morrison decided on building a house in the extreme corner of 
Fonthill Park he employed Mr. Detmar Blow to remove to that site 
the old Manor House of Berwick St. Leonard, some three miles off. 
The writer of the article says that this house " certainly had three 



128 Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 

gables on each of its two sides, and was probably in plan something 
between Boyton and the larger Fonthill house of P^lizabethan days, 
which the picture now above the library chimney-piece at Little Ridge 
shows to have been a long building with a recessed centre and 
projecting wings." When Sir R. C. Hoare published a plate of 
Berwick St. Leonard House in 1829, it was in fairly good condition, 
though even then used only as a barn, " but in 1905 it stood gaunt, 
roofless, and derelict, merely an outside shell, and even part of that was 
fallen, and all decayed." " It was therefore decided that the remnant 
should form part of the new building and be the model for the rest. 
The most accurate measured drawings were first taken of the 
irregularity of the old mason's work in order that this might lie 
retained. Then each stone was taken down, labelled, penned in 
hurdles, removed to the new site and set up again in complete 
harmony with its former position and appearance." Such details as 
the finials on the gables, and the ornamental parapets surmounting the 
bay windows, which appear in Hoare's illustration, had apparently 
disappeared and have not been reproduced in the re-erected building, 
the whole of the interior of which is new. The excellent illustrations 
are : " Entrance Front," " The Wing from the Bowling Green," a 
reproduction of Hoare's plate of Berwick St. Leonard Manor, " The 
S.W. Front," " The Lily Pool in the Flower Garden," " The Flower 
Garden from the Bastion," " The Garden Entrance from the High 
Terrace," " Plans of the First and Ground Floors," " From within the 
Garden House," "In the Library," "The Garden Room," "Plaster 
Work " (mantelpiece), " In the Dining Room," " The first flight of the 
Staircase." The letterpress was reprinted in Salisbury Journal, 
October 26th, 1912. 

Wiltshire Parish Registers. Marriages. London : 
Phillimore & Co. Vol. XII. 1912. 8vo. pp. viii., + 147. 

Price 10s. 6d. Contains the marriage registers down to 1837, of Bratton, 
transcribed by the Rev. J. Gofton ; Kington St. Michael, by the Rev. 
A. H. W. Adrian, and the Rev. F. P. Synge ; Fugglestone and Bemerton, 
by the Rev. W. Symonds ; Boyton and Sherington, by J. J. Hammond ; 
Latton, by A. H. W. Fynmore ; and Collingbourne Ducis, by the Rev. 
R. G. Bartelot and the Rev. G. F. Tanner. 

Vol. XIII. Edited by John Sadler. 1913. Linen. 8vo. 

pp. vii., -+- 146. This volume is entirely taken up with the marriages 
of St. Edmund's, Salisbury, and contains those from 1559 to 1741 , copied 
by the Rev. A. R. Thurlow and Mr. James Parsons. The remainder will 
be printed in the next volume. The marriages of seventy-three 
Wiltshire Parish Reisters have now been printed in this series. The 
editor appeals for further offers of help in the transcription of Wiltshire 
registers. The series can only be continued if such voluntary help is 
given. Anyone willing to transcribe the marriage registers of any 
parish not yet dealt with should communicate with Mr. J. Sadler, 
124, Chancery Lane, London. 



Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 129 

StOlielieng e and Avebury are dealt with in Chap. II., pp. 15—29, 
of " Rough Stone Monuments and their Builders, by T. Eric Peet. 
Harper, London and New York." 1912. 7in. X 4jin., pp. xii. + 172. 
Cloth. 2/6 net. 

This book, one of the series of " Harper's Library of Living Thought," 
aims at giving in a short compass " a complete though brief sketch of 
our present knowledge of the Megalithic Monuments " of the world. 
It is a useful little conspectus of the subject, but its usefulness would 
have been increased if the accuracy of its statements had been always 
more evident. Weyland Smith's Cave is spoken of in one passage as 
in Buckinghamshire, and Merivale Bridge on Dartmoor and its Rude 
Stone Monuments as in Somerset. The account of Stonehenge and 
Avebury again has slips that might easily have been avoided. The 
Vallum of the Earth Circle is "several feet high." The Friar's Heel 
Stone is "nearly at the extremity of the avenue" "still 1200 feet in 
length." " Between the horseshoe and the outer circle another circle of 
diabase stones is sometimes said to have existed, but very little of it 
now remains." Of "Avebury and the Kennett Avenue" a very small 
plan is given, which is said to be " after Sir R. Colt Iloare," but neither 
Hoare nor anybody else ever gave a plan at all like this. The centre of 
the northern circle is said to have been occupied by " a cover slab 
supported on three uprights." The author does not seem to have known 
of the recent excavations in the ditch, <fec. Two good photographs of 
Stonehenge " from the S. W." and " from the S.E." are given, together 
with a very poor plan. The various theories, astronomical and other- 
wise, of the date of the structure are shortly and clearly stated, and, as 
a rule, both here and elsewhere in the book, the reader is left impar- 
tially to take his choice. 

Some Notes on the Ancient Church of St. Leonard , 
Stanton Fitzwarren, Wilts ; and otherwise. By 
W. Caldwell Masters, MA, Saint Mary Mag- 
dalene College, Oxford ; Hon. Canon of Bristol 
Cathedral. Printed by A. R. Mowbray & Co., 
Ltd., London and Oxford, 1913. 

Linen, lO^in. X 7|in., pp. viii. + 49 + 1 page appendix. 4s. 6d. net, 
5 illustrations, Interior General View ; the Font with New Cover, and 
Panelling; the Altar, Reredos and Sanctuary Screen; "The Pugin 
Feretrum at Magdalene College, Oxford. The above are good photos, 
there is also a plate from the Builder, 1844, showing the font on its 
14th century base as then existing. This Church is remarkable 
amongst all the Churches of the county for the wealth of modern 
carved oak work, roofs, screens, reredos, panelling, &c, that it contains, 
a large proportion of it executed in the course of a long series of years 
by the present Rector and author of this book. Heraldry and 
symbolism, in which the arms and the lilies of Magdalene College 
are prominent, are lavishly scattered over all this carving — and in the 
pages of this book its meaning is expounded and the author indulges 

i'OL. XXXVIII. — NO. CXIX. K 



130 Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 

in various digressions on the subjects which it opens up. There are, 
for instance, many notes on points of mediaeval ritual and Church 
history, and customs. The use of the " low side window " is discussed at 
length, and the reader is given the choice of very many of the fifteen 
theories which have been invented to explain this most inexplicable 
feature of mediaeval ecclesiastical architecture. King Charles the 
martyr is dwelt upon at some length. The figure of St. George in a 
window by Kempe gives occasion for much somewhat savage criticism 
of the representation of that saint upon our coinage, and Pugin is 
extolled as the greatest Christian architect since the middle ages. 

Amongst interesting points which are not mentioned in Mr. Ponting's 
notes on the Church ( W.A.M., xxx., 182 — 186), are the following : — 

A fine Caroline Door originally in Winchester Cathedral has been 
placed in the N. doorway. " A bowl or piscina " near the font came 
from Cirencester. A German wooden panel with a carving of the 
Adoration of the Magi, bearing the date 1587, probably came from 
Diessen, in Hanover. The new chancel roof has been largely made up 
of good perpendicular woodwork " from a private chapel in the N. or 
Midland counties " bought from a dealer (Mr. Little) of Bristol. 

A list of the Rectors from 1299, extracted from Philipps's Wilts 
Institutions is printed. 

One serious omission there is. The Rector gives the names of the 
designer and sculptor of all the woodwork, ifec, except of those pieces, 
— and they are many — which he has wrought himself. Of the author- 
ship of these not one word is said. Surely this silence is a little hard 
on the next generation, for whose behoof as well as for that of the 
present generation presumably the book is published. Indeed, if one 
did not already know it, one would never find out from this book that 
the Rector was a wood carver at all, or that any of the decoration of 
the Church was due to his own hand. The description of the chalice 
is misleading, and it seems to imply that the base and stem may be of 
15th century date. As a matter of fact the base and stem are quite 
nice Elizabethan work, and the bowl appeal's to be later, probably of 
the date engraved on the foot of the paten cover, 1698. 

Wiltshire Notes and Queries, No. 79, Sept., 1912. 

Daniel Whitby, S.T.P., 1638—1726, Precentor of Salisbury, with a 
portrait and his will, is the subject of a note by Mr. A Schomberg. 
" Notes on the Family of Jason of Broad Somerford," " Sherston Manor 
Rolls," "The Wiltshire Protestation Returns of 1641— 2," "Calendar 
of Feet of Fines for Wiltshire," " Marriage Bonds of the Peculiar Court 
of the Dean and Chapter of Sarum," and " Steeple Ashton Church- 
wardens' Accounts," are continued from previous numbers. Mr. E. Kite 
begins an account of " Drew, of Southbroom," the name appearing first 
in the parish of Bishops Cannings about 1498. Notes on Blunsdon 
St. Andrew are chiefly concerned with Sir Anthony Keck, who purchased 
the manor in 1695, and the descent of his property. Mr. J. J. Hammond 
has a note on "Goldston, of Alderbury, " and' on a shield of arms in 
that Church which differs much now from the account given of it in 



Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 131 

Hoare's Modern Wilts. Mr. T. H. Baker prints three " Licences to Eat 
Flesh in Lent " granted by Peter Thacher, Parson of St. Edmund's, 
Salisbury, in 1633. Canon Wordsworth gives a list of twenty-seven 
Church Houses in existence in Wiltshire, about 1670, from the Notitia 
of Bishop Seth Ward. 

NO. 80, Dec, 1912, " The Washington Memorials 

at Garsdon " is continued, with an account by Mr. H. Brakspear of 
the old Manor House, great part of which was pulled down about fifty 
years ago, and the remains adapted to farmhouse use. Much of 
interest however remains, including the original 14th century roof 
of the hall, and a beautiful Elizabethan stone mantelpiece, both 
of which are here illustrated by admirable photographs. The 
Wiltshire Protestation Returns of 1641 — 2 ; Marriage Bonds of the 
Peculiar Court of the Dean and Chapter of Sarum ; Wiltshire 
Wills proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, 1584 — 1604 ; 
Notes on the Family of Jason, of Broad Somerford ; Notes on 
Blunsdon St. Andrew ; Sherston Manor Rolls ; Steeple Ashton Church- 
wardens' Accounts, are all continued. There are also Notes on the 
Hydes of Wilts and Cheshire by J. J. Hammond, and the Family of 
Tyse by A. Schomberg. 

NO. 81, March, 1913. The number begins 
with a notice of the life of Tobias Crisp, D.D., with a reproduction 
of the engraved portrait by A. Soly, 1690. He was born in London, 
1660, was Bector of Brinkworth 1629—1642, and died Feb. 27th, 1642-3. 
A beginning is made with the Records of Marden, prefaced by some 
account of the place by the Rector, the Rev. T. S. Cunningham, who 
tells us that there is still a tradition that " a great battle had been 
fought ages ago on Marden Down between men with red heads and 
men with black heads, and that the red-headed men won . . . that 
the dead were buried in a large cave on the clown, and that nobody had 
ever dared to enter it." Notes on the Family of Jason, of Broad 
Somerford, with abstracts of several Jason wills ; Sherston Manor 
Rolls ; Marriage Bonds of the Peculiar Court of the Dean and 
Chapter of Sarum ; a Calendar of Feet of Fines for Wiltshire ; and 
Wiltshire Protestation Returns of 1641 — 2 ; are continued. The will 
of John Banninge, of Burbage, 1579, and that of John Ludlow, 1519, 
are printed, and Mr. Talbot has a note on the existence in 1776 of a 
" Church House over which is Vestrey Room & Hall, where is keept 
y e Court Baron and Leet, for the Mannor of Lacock" just adjoining 
the west side of the churchyard. It seems to have been demolished 
shortly afterwards. Some Briefs in the Registers of Long Newnton 
and Codford St. Peter are given. 

Salisbury Cathedral occupies pp. 38—49 in " English and Welsh 
Cathedrals by Thomas Dinham Atkinson, with twenty illustrations in 
colour by Walter Dexter, R.B.A. . . . Methuen & Co., London, 
1912." 8vo. The feature of the book is the presence of the, in many 

K 2 



132 Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 

cases, really beautiful water-colour drawings admirably reproduced in 
colour.- "Salisbury from the North- West" is not one of the most 
successful of these, however. A ground plan in the text is also given. 
The letterpress contains a short history of the foundation and building 
of the Cathedral, with some notes on the architecture and monuments 
of a sketchy character. 

Cricklade. A good article in Wilts and Gloucestershire Standard, 
April 5th, 1912, by J. Lee Osborn, with photos of the two Churches 
and crosses. The history of the place and the architecture of the 
Churches is carefully described. Among other points of interest it is 
noted that the Town Hall erected in 1569 and demolished early in the 
19th century stood on 10 columns and was of similar character to that 
still existing at Wootton Bassett. " A free school founded by Robert 
Jennor, a London goldsmith, who lived in 1651, still stands close by 
St. Sampson's." 

Dauntsey with photos of the Church and " Old Schools and 
Almshouses," article by J. Lee Osborne in Wilts and Gloucestershire 
Standard, Nov. 2nd, 1912. A useful short account of the descent of the 
manor, through Stradling and Danvers, and the Earl of Peterborough, 
of whose military exploits some account is given. The architecture and 
monuments of the Church are dealt with in some detail, together with 
the Doom painting once in the chancel and now at the west end of the 
north aisle. 

Draycot Cerne and Sutton Benger. A similar article by 

the same author in Wilts and Gloucestershire Standard, Feb. 8th, 
1913, with a view of Old Draycot House and Church from Aubrey 
and also of Sutton Benger village and Church. The history of-" 
Draycot and of the Long family is dealt with, and the principal 
points of the two Churches are described. 

Lydiard Tregoze and Lydiard Millicent. Another of Mr. 

J. Lee Osborn's good articles in theWilts and Gloucestershire Standard, 
May 17th, 1913, with photos of the exterior of both the Churches. He 
traces shortly the descent of Lydiard Ewyas or Tregoze from the Ewyas 
of the Conquest period to St. John, dwells on the career, character, and 
writings of the one St. John known to fame, Henry St. John, Viscount 
Bolingbroke, and describes the Church shortly, the monuments and 
the heraldry of which do not meet his approval. Indeed he seems 
curiously indifferent to their great interest, and prefers Lydiard 
Millicent Church, which he also describes, apparently on the ground 
that " there are no monuments and not a single coat of arms." The 
descent of the Manor is given, and the stories connected with the Manor 
House of Lydiard Millicent are touched on — and the Wordale at 
Midgehall described. 



Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 133 

Wessex Printed by Walter Tyndale, described by 

Clive Holland. Published by Adam and Charles Black, 
London, mcmcvi. Second Edition, 1912. 8vo., pp. xii. + 280. The 
Wessex is the "Wessex" of Thomas Hardy and therefore chiefly 
Dorset, but there are the following coloured illustrations of Wiltshire 
places, some of them quite nice drawings. West wood Manor House ; 
Bradford-on-Avon Saxon Church, interior ; Corsham Almshouses ; 
Woodlands, Mere ; Mere, Dean's Orchard ; Castlecombe. 

Rural Rides by William Cobbett. [" Everyman's Library."] 
London : Published by J. M. Dent & Sons, Ltd., and in New York by 
E. P. Dutton & Co. Cr. 8vo, cloth. Two vols., Is. per vol. With an 
introduction by Edward Thomas. 

Vol. II., pp. VII. -f- 335, contains the Wiltshire portion. "Down 
the Vale of Avon in Wiltshire " ; " From Salisbury to Warminster, 
from Warminster to Frome, from Frome to Devizes, and from Devizes 
to Highworth " ; " From Highworth to Cricklade and thence to 
Malmesbury " ; " From Malmesbury in Wiltshire, through Gloucester- 
shire, Herefordshire, and Worcestershire/' pp. 34 — 100. 

Bishops Cannings Church Bells. The eight bells were 

originally set up in 1602 when George Ferrabe was Vicar, and William 
Eatwell, of Horton, and Thomas Sloper, of Cannings, were church- 
wardens. They were cast by John Wallis, of Salisbury. The treble 
was added or cast in 1607, unless " 7 " was a mistake for " 2 " in the 
moulding. This bell has now been recast with the old inscription and 
the addition " H. Herbert Mogg, Vicar, A. J. Combes, J. H. Pottenger, 
Churchwardens, 1912." The tenor bell was apparently recast in 1626, 
cracked 1893, and has since been recast, the 4th and 7th were recast by 
Mears in 1840. There is in addition apriest's bell by James Burroughs, 
of Devizes, 1738. The whole peal has been recently renovated and re- 
set. The inscriptions are given in Wiltshire Gazette, Jan. 2nd, 1913. 

Enfbrd Church Bells. The five bells at Enford have recently 
been retuned and rehung with the addition of a sixth the inscription 
on which reads "To the Glory of God, and in loving memory of Adelaide 
and Lillian Frances Cusse. A.M.J. M.G.W. O.F.W. 1912." 

An account of the work and of the dedication ceremony on Dec. 24th 
1912, together with the inscriptions on the bells, is given in Wiltshire 
Gazette, Jan. 2nd, 1913. 

King Alfred and Pewsey. An article by Alfred Cook in the 
Wiltshire Gazette, December 24th, 1912, being notes of an address 
advocating the erection of a statue to King Alfred at Pewsey as a 
Coronation memorial. After the battle of Ashdown, when Ethelred 
and Alfred defeated the Danes, the latter obtained a victory at 
Basing, and again fought at Meretun, which the author of the paper, 
following other authorities identifies with Marton in Bedwyn. Here 
Ethelred was wounded and the author believes died at Pewsey, and 



134 Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 

was buried at Wimborne. The author regards it as certain that Alfred 
must have been at Pewsey at the time of his brother's death, and he 
goes on to derive Raf en in Pewsey from the raven banner of the Danes, 
and reconstructs in fancy the course of the battle at a spot unnamed 
by the chroniclers, as taking place here. 

Salisbury Cathedral. "The Parthenon of England " is the title 
of an important article in The Building News, Dec. 13th, 1912, pp. 
820—825, with four illustrations from Bond's Cathedrals of England 
and Wales, viz., West Front, Nave looking W. by W.N.W. ; Across 
the Greater Transepts to N. ; and Chapter House Interior. It is the 
full report of a lecture delivered to the Society of Architects by E. W. 
Harvey Piper. The whole building is systematically examined and 
criticised from an architectural point of view, the actual description of 
the various parts being only such as is necessary for this purpose. In 
this way the article rather stands alone among the hundreds of de- 
scriptions of the building. The exterior meets with almost unlimited 
praise from the author, as the title of the article sufficiently declares, 
but as to the interior he is fain to confess that " our first impression on 
descending into the nave was one of chilling disappointment, the interior 
seems so bare, so uniform, so correctly monotonous." " By degrees," 
however, " interest is awakened in the purity of the mouldings, &c." 
There is a curious slip in describing the wooden table of the Chapter 
House, as a "circular stone seat carried on slender columns." The 
article wasireprinted in Salisbury Journal, Dec. 21st, Wiltshire Gazette, 
Dec. 24th, and Wiltshire Times', Y>ec. 28th, 1912. 

Broillliam and Tom Moore. Article by J. Lee Osborn in 
Wiltshire Times, December 28th, 1912, with two photo illustrations, 
Sloperton Cottage, and Celtic Cross in Bromham churchyard. A 
well-written three column article giving the main facts of Moore's life, 
with an account of the present condition of Sloperton Cottage, and a 
description of Bromham Church. 

" Right Hon W. H Long, MP, Character Sketch, 

an Honest Tory." Article in Daily News, reprinted in Wilt- 
shire Times, December 28th, 1912, with portrait, cut of Bood Ashton, 
and two columns of letterpress of appreciation from the superior 
Badical point of view. 

The Centenary of Isaac Pitman, January 4th, 1912, 

by Arthur Reynolds. Article in The Treasury, January, 1913, pp. 
398—403. A good portrait from a photo taken in 1868 when he was 55, 
and photos of the title and a page of " Stenographic Sound Hand" are 
given. Another article in the Times, Jan. 4th, 1913, on the history of 
Shorthand, and Pitman's life and industry. Another article in Wiltshire 
Times, Dec. 28th, 1912, giving some account of Pitman's life with ai 
good portrait, and an illustration of the school formerly standing in 
Trowbridge churchyard where he received his early education. 



Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 135 

S. Wilts — Local Events in 1912. Salisbury Journal, Dec. 
28th, 1912. 

Alton Barnes and Alton Priors, Augustus Hare and " The 
Memorials of a Quiet Life." Article in Wiltshire Times, Nov. 30th, 1912, 
by J. Lee Osborn, with photos of the Eectory and the Interior of the 
Church at Alton Barnes. The Churches and the place and Augustus 
Hare's life and work there are described sympathetically. 

Edmund Fallen, of Cricklade, grazier, received a patent in 
1714 for an invention whereby water mills of all sorts could " worke as 
much or more than such mills now can with less water." Wiltshire 
Times, Jan. 18th, 1913. 

Mr. Long and Miss Linley. The circumstances of the breaking 
off of the engagement between Miss Linley (afterwards Mrs. Sheridan) 
aged 17, and Mr. Long, a bachelor aged 60, and the very chivalrous 
conduct of the latter in the matter, are detailed in Wiltshire Times, 
January 18th, 1913. 

John Carpenter, of Chapmanslade (Corsley), husbandman. 

His will dated December 10th, 1617, is printed in Wiltshire Times, 
January 4th, 1913. He leaves " One heyffer bullocke called Cherrye " 
and " one cowe called Collye." 

The Story Of Goody Orchard, of Malmesbury, who bewitched 
a young maid of Burbage, in 1685, is printed in Wiltshire Times, 
January 4th, 1913. 

Report of Excursion to Dinton, Chilmark and the 
Vale of Wardour, Saturday, July 15th, 1911. 

By Dr. Theophilus Ord, F.G.S., and T. W. Reader, F.G.S., pp. 148- 
157, Geologists Association. 

Illustrated by sketch map of the Vale of Wardour ; section of Oolitic 
strata, Vale of Wardour ; and four photos of " Junction of middle and 
lower Purbeck beds, Teffont Evias (limekiln pit) " ; " Lower Purbeck 
resting on Portland bed, Teffont side of Chilmark Ravine " ; " Chalky 
series of Portland beds, Chilmark Ravine " ; " Middle Purbeck beds 
showing action of the infiltration of surface water in removing 
calcareous matter ; Ladydown, near Tisbury." 

Great Chalfield, Broughton G-ifford, and Westwood 

An excursion on April 15th, 1912, of the Bath and District Branch of 
the Somerset Archaeological Society to these places is described in The 
Proceedings of the branch for 1912, pp. 135 — 142, with photos of Great 
Chalfield House and Church, and Broughton Gifford Church, and short 
notes on Great Chalfield House by Mr. A. W. N. Burder ; on Broughton 
Gifford Manor House, built in 1622 by Sir John Horton, by Mr. Clifford 
Bax ; on Broughton Gifford Church, by the Vicar, the Rev. Roland 
Davis ; and on Westwood Church,by the Vicar, the Rev. G. H. Kirkham ; 
form the bulk of the report. 



136 Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 

IiOUgleat. An excursion of the same society to Frome and Longleat on 
June 10th, 1912, is described in The Proceedings, pp. 146 — 151, Longleat 
occupying pp. 148 — 151, a list of the most notable portraits being given. 

Colerne, North Wraxall, and Castle Combe, a. third 

excursion on Sept. 20th, 1912, is reported in the same number of the 
Proceedings, pp. 157 — 164, with photos of Colerne Church and Castle 
Combe Market Cross. The Rev. H. Hippisley Stephens, Vicar, gives 
some notes on Colerne Church, and a short note on the Manor House 
follows ; the Rev. John Langley, rector, has a few words on the archi- 
tecture of North Wraxall Church. Castle Combe Church is described 
by Mr. H. H. Scott in more detail, and there is some account of the site 
of the castle and its earthworks. 

AshtOU Keynes. " Particulars of the Cove House Estate, Ashton 
Keynes. . . . Messrs. Whatley, Wing, & Co. . . . February 
3rd, 1913, at the King's Head Hotel, Cirencester." Folio, pp. 41. Two 
folding plans, a reduction from the ordnance survey on the cover and 
good photos of Waterhay Farm ; Kent End Farm ; Cove House ; Cove 
House stables ; North End Farm ; The Old Manor Farm ; Dairy Farm ; 
Manor or Coppice Farm. .The same photos of a reduced size also 
appeared in the advertisement Supplement to Country Life, January 
11th and 18th, 1913. 

Maud Heath's Causey, by H. G. Archer, an illustrated article in 
The Queen, March 15th, 1913. There are five nice photo process views 
of " Maud Heath's reputed tomb in the tower of Langley Burrell 
Church," " The column on Bremhill Wick Hill, crowned by effigy of 
Maud Heath," " The Road and Causey where they cross the perilous 
flat," " The pillar and sundial at the Avon Bridge," "The old Moravian 
settlement at Tytherton Kellaways." This is quite a good article, 
founded, as the author states, largely on Canon Jackson's paper 
W.A.M. i. 251. He points out however that whereas Canon Jackson 
speaks of her as a spinster the inscription on the Avon pillar of 1698 
calls her " widow." The tomb at Langley Burrell is of course, as the 
writer states, of much earlier date than Maud Heath, " and the 
attributing of it to her is due to a statement of Aubrey's. The Heath 
or Hethe family seem to have occupied a position during the 15th 
century at Bremhill, above that of the yeoman class to which Maud is 
traditionally held to have belonged. 

The Church and Dr. Sacheverell. A good article by E. Her- 
mitage Day, F.S.A., in The Treasury, March, 1913, pp. 584—590, 
with portrait from print, bringing out the fact that Sacheverell has 
been undeservedly abused by Whig historians. 

Sir Thomas Lawrence. By Sir Walter Armstrong. Wide royal 
8vo. Frontispiece and forty other illustrations. 21s. net. Methuen, 
1913. 



Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 137 

Salisbury St. Edmund's Bells and the fall of the tower on 

June 26th, 1653, are the subject of an article in Wiltshire News, Feb. 
14th, 1913. 
John Hungerford Pollen. By Anne Pollen. 1912. A long 
review of this book appeared in Church Times, Oct. 11th, 1912. 

" A Wiltshire Village " by Alfred Williams. A long 

and interesting notice of this book comparing the optimistic view of 
Wiltshire country life taken by the author with tbe pessimistic view 
taken by Mrs. Ottley in " A Modern Boeotia," appeared in tbe Wilt- 
shire Gazette, Dec. 5th, 1912. 

Salisbury. Some interesting details of boarding schools in Salisbury 
in the reign of Q. Anne for young ladies of large fortunes (£1000 to 
£10,000), and of the cost of their " boarding, breeding, and educating " 
up to the age of 17 or 18, which seems to have varied from £12 to £16 a 
year, £22 a year being thought " a great oppression," are given in Wilt- 
shire Times, Nov. 23rd, 1912. 

Edward Slow, the Wiltshire Dialect Poet. Art by 

Alfred Williams in British Workman, March, 1913, with portrait and 
view of his home at Wilton. 

The Icknield Way. By Edward Thomas, with 

illustrations by A. L. Collins. London: Constable and 
Company, Ltd., 1913. 7s. 6d. net. 

Cloth, 8fin. + 5|in., pp. xv. + 320, eight illustrations in colour, 
fifty-one line illustrations in text, with folding map. 

The author begins with a discursive essay on old roads in general, fol- 
lowing for awhile as an example the Ox Drove " through Selwood Forest 
by Maiden Bradley, over Whitesheet Hill," and the "London Drove 
Road," by old Willoughby Hedge along the edge of Groveley Woods to 
Salisbury. He mentions, too, another " Ox Drove " running some four 
miles south of Salisbury by Winklebury to Shaftesbury. Coming to 
the Icknield Way, he will not have it that its derivation has anything 
to do with the Iceni, and after giving a selection of absurd guesses at 
the etymology by various learned antiquaries, wisely concludes " and 
still nobody knows or believes that anybody else knows." He then 
reviews the various irreconcileable statements of the writers who 
mention the road from the twelfth century downwards, the " Laws of 
Edward the Confessor," Geoffrey of Monmouth, Henry of Huntingdon, 
Holingshed, down to Drayton, Plot, and Camden's Britannia, showing 
how the " Rycknield " and the " Icknield " ways are confused by the 
earlier writers, and concludes that " Icknield Way (or Street) is the 
name of two apparently distinct roads ; one with a Roman look running 
north and south through Worcestershire and Warwickshire, the other 
winding with the chalk hills, through Suffolk, Cambridgeshire, Hert- 
fordshire, Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Berkshire, and 
Wiltshire." It is with this last that the author is concerned. 



138 Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 

Camden shows the Icknield Way going west from Royston through 
Dunstable, Wendover, Princes Risborough, to cross the Thames at 
Goring. Wise (1697 — 1767) traces it from Streatley through Berks to 
Blewbury and Harwell where it is called the " Portway ;" whilst another 
road near Lockinge is called " Icelston Meer" and " Icleton Way," 
under Whitehorsehill to Bishopstone. Lysons describes this " Ickleton 
Way " from Streatley to Wanborough. 

John Bennett, Bishop of Cloyne (1794—1820), says the "Ickeneld" 
Way enters Berks at Streatley and divides into two branches, one, the 
Ridgeway, goes by White Horse Hill into Wilts,the other, by Hampstead 
and Hermitage to Newbury, &c. This apparently is the authority for 
the name " Icknield Way," given by the Ordnance Survey to the 
Ridgeway. Edwin Quest, in 1856, writing a long account of the Icknield 
Way, thinks it joins the Ridgeway east of Avebury and continues west 
along jts course. There are in fact endless theories, all the roads in 
this part of the country having apparently been pressed into the service 
as portions of the Icknield Way by one writer or another. 

Mr. Thomas argues that a line of road running just below the escarp- 
ment of the downs can be traced with few gaps from Newmarket, 
Royston, and Dunstable, into Wiltshire. It is mentioned in Bucks in 
903. It crossed the Thames at Goring and Streatley and follows the 
Reading and Wantage Road. An alternative short cut may have 
crossed the Thames at Wallingford. In a charter of 903 at Harwell, 
the Ridgeway and the " Icenhilde " Way are distinguished as separate, 
one above the escarpment and the other below it. So, too, at Compton 
Beauchamp in 955. At Wanborough a grant of lands by ^Ethelwulf 
in 854 to Winchester mentions the Icknield Way, and Mr. Harold Peake 
believes that the road crosed the parish very near the course of the 
modern road bearing the name on the Ordnance Survey. "Thus the 
road from Newmarket — or at least from Royston — by Streatley to 
Wanborough parish is a venerable and continuous one, which bore 
almost the same name at its extremities— Ykenilde-weie at Newmarket 
in the time of Hen. III. Icenhilde Weg at Wanborough in 854. That 
it is Icknield Street, one of the 'four royal roads,' is proved only by 
its coming out of the east and going westward, and by its crossing 
Watling Street at Dunstable, as does the Ykenieldstrete of the thirteenth 
century map." Unlike the other three roads, the Icknield Way ap- 
pears not to have been Romanized at any point. " It seems probable 
that Icknield, like Watling and Ermine, was a generic name for a road." 
The author shortly describes the other " Icknield," or " Rikenild," or 
" Hickling " Ways, and after tracing the course of his own Icknield 
Way from Thetford to Wanborough, in Wilts, as he followed it himself 
on foot, comes to the conclusion that " beyond Wanborough there is so 
far no sufficient evidence for tracing the course of the Icknield Way. 
. . . It is possible that as the Ridgeway in Berkshire has been 
mistakenly called the Icknield Way, so the lower part of what is now 
called the Ridgeway in Wiltshire may be the Icknield Way." 

But the whole book gives one the impression rather that the research 
as to the course of the road is only an excuse really for writing a book 



Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c. 139 

about a walking tour, and describing the daily incidents that beset the 
walker, the people he met, especially the landlords and landladies of 
tb.3 inns, the frequenters of their bars, and what they talked about and 
how he answered them, and what manner of pictures decorated the 
walls of the bedrooms where he slept. 
Noticed, Times Literary Supplement, May 8th, 1913. 

The Registers of the Parish of Wylye in the County 
of Wilts. Published by the Rev. G. R. Hadow, 
IKE. A., from Transcripts made by T. H. Baker 
and J. J. Hammond. Devizes : printed by Geo. Simpson, 1913. 

Linen, lOjin. X 7in., pp. x (including titles) + 4 (unnumbered, title 
of register and notes) + 252 + 1 (page of errata unnumbered). Price, 
10s. Qd. 

The Rev. G. R. Hadow, when leaving Wylye Rectory, has put his 
former parishioners and his successor in the parsonage under an obli- 
gation to himself by providing an edition of the parish registers of 
marriages, baptisms, and burials, from the middle of the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth down to the first year of Queen Victoria. It is an attractive 
looking volume, both outside and within, and does credit to Mr. 
Simpson's press. 

The index to the Wylye Registers is an admirable piece of work. 
Where I have tested the references I have found them perfectly 
accurate. Two or three minor references to place-names may have 
escaped, but the array of Christian names as well as surnames is very 
legibly set out in print. The Christian names themselves would make 
an inviting study. For the work of transcription Mr. Hadow has been 
fortunate in securing the services of Mr. Baker, who has already put 
us under obligation by his labours expended on several volumes in 
Messrs. Phillimore & Sadler's series of marriage registers, and by several 
useful pieces of work, and he has found in the instance before us a keen 
coadjutor in Mr. J. J. Hammond. The editors have given us a list of 
incumbents and patrons of the benefice and a record of the plate and 
bells, and of the charities, as well as the monumental inscriptions in 
Church and churchyard at Wylye. Fifty-six pages of the book, com- 
prising the registers from 1581 to 1643, are (for the most part) expressed 
in the diffuse latinity of the Rev. T. Crockford, a schoolmaster at 
Stockton, who served as a coadjutor to the Rectors of Wylye from 
about 1618 to 1629, and from the less scholarly pens of certain others 
of the clerical staff. Some errors in expanding or printing the contracted 
Latin on these early pages of a faded register will be condoned by the 
reader, as a page of errata is being issued by the publisher. 

The illiterate entries on pp. 61, 70, indicate that occasionally the 
dignified rectors of the Restoration period employed a parish clerk or 
sexton to write up the register. The loquacious Georgian incumbents 
have left many characteristic annotations in the Church books. As 
Mr. Crockford the latinist held the vicarage of Fisherton-de-la-Mere in 
1613 — 34 we venture to express a hope that at some not far distant 



140 Books and Articles by Wiltshire Authors. 

date an opportunity may be found for printing the registers of that 
parish with as complete an index as has been given in the case of Wylye. 
The note printed on p. xiv. reminds us that according to the list 
given by Dr. Cox in his entertaining volume on The Parish Registers 
of England (Methuen's Antiquary's Books, 1910) Wilts possesses 
registers, dating from Thomas Cromwell's unpopular order 1538 — 1539, 
for the parishes of : — 

Heddington 

Highworth 

Knoyle (East) 

Manningford Abbas 

Marston (South) 



Ashton (Steeple) 

Broad Chalke 

Calne 

Compton Chamberlayne 

Dean (West) 



Milston 

Ogbourne St. George 

Sevenhampton 

Trowbridge 

Woodford. 



Richard Jefferies. Etude D'une Personnalite. Par 

Clinton Joseph Masseck, A.B. Tufts College. A.M. Univ. Harvard. 
Doctor de L'Universite de Paris. Paris: E'mile Larose, Libraire- 
Editeur. Rue Victor Cousin 11, 1913. 
Paper cover, lOin. x 6£in., pp., including title, iv. + 266. 



BOOKS AND ARTICLES BY WILTSHIRE AUTHORS. 

Lord LansdOWlie. The preface to " Bights of Citizenship : a 
Survey of Safeguards for the People " by eight authors. Warne & Co., 

1912. Is. net. 

Prof. Henry Newtaolt. "Poems, new and old." Murray, 1912. 
5s. net. 

" Kipling the Poet," article in the Book Monthly, January, 

1913. 

Maurice Hewlett (of Broad Chalke). " Mrs. Lancelot, a comedy of 
assumptions. Macmillan & Co., St. Martin's Street, London, 1912. 
Linen, 7£ in. X 5in., pp. vi. + 339. A novel. 

" Helen Redeemed, and other Poems." London: Macmillan 

1913. Cr. 8vo. 4s.6cZ.net. 

John Wordsworth, D.D., Bishop of Salisbury. 

" Sermons preached in Salisbury Cathedral Church and elsewhere . 
. . . together with selected Prayers composed by him." Longmans. 
London. 1913. 

Cloth, 7^in. X 5in., pp. xviii. + 307. The portrait is a photo of the 
work of Sir George Beid at the Palace. There are twenty-nine sermons 
preached at various dates from 1886 to 1911, of which twenty-two were 
preached in the Cathedral, and most of them were printed in the 
Salisbury Diocesan Gazette. The preface is signed by his widow, Mary 
A. F. Wordsworth, and the prayers have been edited by his brother 
Sub-Dean Wordsworth. 

Noticed Wiltshire Gazette, Jan. 30th ; Salisbury Journal, Feb. 1st, 
1913. 



Books and Articles by Wiltshire Authors. 141 

Rev. E. H, GrOddard. Assize sermon preached at St. John's, 
Devizes, on Sunday, January 12th, 1913. Printed in full in Wiltshire 
Gazette, Jan, 16th, 1913. 

P. E. Ridgway, D.D , Bp. of Salisbury. "New Year's 

Letter." Salisbury Diocesan Gazette, Jan., 1913; Salisbury Journal, 
Dec. 28th, 1912. 

Sermon in Cathedral at annual Salisbury Schools Service. 

Salisbury Journal, Nov. 2nd, 1912. 

" Address to the Diocesan Synod." Printed in full, Wilt- 
shire Gazette, April 3rd, 1913. 

John AyscOUgh. " Liberalism and Catholics." Art. in British 
Review, April, 1913. 

Will. Page Roberts, D.D., Dean of Salisbury " Heaven 

and the Heavenly Reward." Sermon preached before the University 
of Cambridge. Text, Isaiah xl., 10. Salisbury Journal, Nov. 9th, 1912. 

Sermon preached in Salisbury Cathedral, Christmas Day, 

1912. Salisbury Journal, Dec. 28th, 1912. 

Lecture on " Khartoum and the White Nile," at M aundrell 

Hall, Salisbury. Printed in Salisbury Journal, Nov. 9th, 1912. 

[William Beckford].' " The origin of ' Vathek,' " article in Black- 
wood's Magazine, May, 1912, p.' 700 et seq. 

GanOU Douglas Macleane. Sermon at Salisbury Cathedral 
Commemoration. Text, II. Kings, xiii., 17. Salisbury Journal, Nov. 
9th, 1912. 

Marquis Of Ailesbury, D.S.O. " The Real Obstacle to Military 
Reform." Article in Nineteenth Century, March, 1913. 

Mrs. Arnold Porster. A supplementary chapter to a new edition 
of " A History of England " by H. O. Arnold Forster, Cassell & Co., 
1913 ; price 5s. : bringing it up to date. 

Ven. E. J. BodingtOn, Archdeacon of Wilts. Address at induction 
of Rev. I. G. Cameron, at Woodborough. Printed in full, Wiltshire 
Gazette, March 6th, 1913. 

Charge delivered at Devizes and Marlborough. Wiltshire 

Gazette, June 26th, 1913. 

Clive Bell. (Arthur C. Bell, son of W. Heward Bell, of Cleeve House, 
Seend) article on " The English -Group " in the Introduction to the 
Catalogue of the Second Post Impressionist Exhibition. Grajton 
Galleries, 1913. 7£in. X 4|in., pp. 21—24. Sets forth what "Post 
Impressionism " aims at. 

Miss B. Hunt, of LacOCk, writing as " Betty Bowden." Two 
short stories, " Elizabeth Ann " and " Miss Pentonville," the latter 
published April, 1913. 



142 



WILTSHIRE PORTRAITS. 

The Hon. Mrs. John Ward, of Chilton Foliat. Photo, Country Life, Oct. 

19th, 1912. 
Dr. Walter B. Maurice (Mayor of Marlborough) and Mrs. Maurice ; C. J. 

Barnes (Mayor of Calne) ; E. W. Cooke (Mayor of Wilton) and Mrs. 

Cooke ; J. J. Shawyer (Mayor of Swindon) ; E. Neale (Mayor of 

Chippenham) ; Superintendent John Collins, of Salisbury Division of 

Wilts Constabulary. Eight photos, Wiltshire News, Nov. 8th, 1912. 
Superintendent Hillier, of Salisbury Division of Wilts Constabulary. 

Wiltshire News, Nov. 8th, 1912. 
F. Sutton, Mayor of Salisbury, and Mrs. Sutton. Two photos. Wiltshire 

News, Nov. 15th, 1912. 
Sir Audley Neeld. Photo. Queen, Nov. 23rd, 1912. 
James Pillinger, of Swindon, Crimean veteran. Photo, Wiltshire Neivs, 

Nov. 22nd, 1912. 
George Algar, capt. of Trowbridge Football Club. Photo, Wiltshire Times, 

Dec. 14th, 1912. 
Rev. W. H. McCann Clarke, B.D., Vicar of Westbury. Photo, Wiltshire 

News, Dec. 13th, 1912. 
R. G. C. Pinfield, the Chippenham footballer. Photo, Wiltshire Neivs, 

Dec. 13th, 1912. 
Jock Walker, " Swindon's Scottish International back." Snapshot photo, 

Wiltshire News, Nov. 15th, 1912. 
Margaret, d. of Lady Charles Fitzmaurice. Photo, Queen, Dec. 21st, 1912. 
W. J. Mann, Clerk to Trowbridge Board of Guardians ; P. J. Massey, 

printer, of Trowbridge ; Rev. Guy Campbell, Rector of Wilton ; Ernest 

Spackman, of Swindon ; Colour-Sergeant E. F. Thomas, Wilts Regi- 
ment. Five photos on one sheet, Wiltshire Neivs, Dec. 20th, 1912. 
Mr. and Mrs. James Keen, of Hilperton Marsh. Photo, Wiltshire Times, 

Jan. 11th, 1913. 
John Atkinson, died Nov. 18th, 1912, aged 49, in Canada, formerly Science 

Master and Head of Pupil Teacher Centre at Devizes. Obit, notice 

and photo, Wiltshire Advertiser, Dec. 12th, 1912. 
Capt. Stewart B. Dyer, D.S.O., prospective Liberal candidate for Salisbury, 

Photo, Wiltshire Advertiser, April 25th, 1912. 
Stephen Reynolds. Photo, Wiltshire Advertiser, Aug. 29th, 1912 ; S2)here, 

Jan. 25th, 1913. 
V. I. Berry, of Manor Farm, Allington. Photo and obit, notice, Wiltshire 

Advertiser, June 20th, 1912. 
William Angell, of Chilton Foliot, Crimean veteran. Photo, Wiltshire 

Advertiser, Dec, 1912. 
Mrs. H. Lovell Hewett, of Trowbridge. Photo, Wiltshire News, Jan. 10th, 

1913. 
Police Constable Cull, of Salisbury. Photo, Wiltshire News, Jan. 3rd, 1913. 



Wiltshire Portraits. 143 

Major Jobson, Unionist Agent for North Wilts. Photo, Wiltshire News, 

Dec. 27th, 1912. 
Sir John and Lady Miller. Photo, Wiltshire News, Jan. 3rd, 1913. 
Superintendent J. Moloney, " Father of the Wilts Police." Photo, Wiltshire 

Times, Jan. 25th ; Wiltshire News, Jan. 24th, 1913. 
Eev. C. G. Hutchinson, Pastor of Emmanuel, Trowbridge. Photo, Wiltshire 

Times, Feb. 1st, 1913. 
Mr. and Mrs. Pearce, of Bradford-on-Avon, married seventy years. Photo, 

Wiltshire News, Jan. 17th, 1913. 
F. Pi. Willis, and W. N. Ledbury, of Trowbridge. Two photos, Wiltshire 

News, Jan. 17th, 1913. 
Frederick Rich, of Bradford-on-Avon. Photo, Wiltshire News, Jan. 24th, 

1913. 
Lord and Lady Ernest St. Maur. Photo, Country Life, Jan. 11th, 1913. 
Sir John Tankerville Goldney, of Monks Park, and Lady Goldney. 

Photo, Daily Graphic, Feb. 17th, 1913. 
E. W. Ewens, North Wilts Unionist agent ; Charles Scamell, Frank Baker, 

and 0. Gaisford, of Salisbury ; Sid. Cooper, Wiltshire footballer, five 

photos on one sheet, Wiltshire News, Feb. 14th, 1913. 
Rev. Ed. Collett, Vicar of Bowerchalk, printing his parish magazine. 

Photo, Daily Mirror, Jan. 14th, 1913. 
Hon. Patricia and Hon. Sidney Herbert, eldest son and daughter of Lord 

Herbert. Photo in group, Queen, Feb. 15th, 1913. 
Countess of Kerry. Photo, Queen, Mar. 1st, 1913. 
Lord Methuen and Hon. Miss Methuen, in snapshot group. Photo, Daily 

Sketch, Mar. 1st, 1913. 
Geoffrey E. Huth, of Winterslow, and Ex-Sergt.- Major Ed. Glass, of 

Alderbury. Photos, Wiltshire News, Feb. 28th, 1913. 
A collection of pictures which belonged to the Rev. E. H. Dawkins, of 

Morhanger House, Sandy, Beds., was sold at Christies' early in March, 

1913. A pastel portrait by Q. de la Tour, of Henry Dawkins of Stand- 
lynch Park, who married, 1759, Lady Juliana Colyear, second daughter 

of the Earl of Portman, made £2,226. Lady Juliana Colyear, by 

Reynolds, £2,887 10s., and Mrs. James Colyear Dawkins by the same 

painter, £l,995. 
Mrs. Walter Long and Baby, daughter-in-law of Right Hon. W. H. Long. 

Photo, Queen, March 15th, 1913. 
Lord Islington, in group of Public Service Commission at Madras. Sphere, 

March 1st, 1913. 
Col. T. C. P. Calley, Mrs. Calley, and Hannah Blake of Wilton 100 years 

old. Three photos, Wiltshire News, March 14th, 1913. 
Charles Penruddocke, High Sheriff. Photo, Wiltshire News, March 28th, 

1913. 
Police Sergeant Crouch, of Netheravon. Photo, Wiltshire Gazette, April 

3rd, 1913. 
Capt. John Spicer, Lady Margaret Spicer, and their son, Anthony Spicer. 

Three photos, Wiltshire Gazette, April 10th, 1913. 
C. R. Stevens, of Chippenham, and John Edmund Halliday, of Warminster, 

who died April 4th, 1913, aged 74. He was the litigant in the famous 



144 Wiltshire Illustrations. 

Warminster pew case in 1886, and 1887, some account of which is given 
with his portrait. Photos, Wiltshire Times, April 12th, 1913. 
The new Countess of Pembroke, Mr. and Mrs. H. L. Whytehead (s. of Rev. 
H. R. Whytehead, of Warminster). Three photos, Queen, April 12th, 
1913. 
Lord Bath. Wiltshire Times, April 26th, 1913. 
John Moulton, of Bradford, Ernest J. White, of Trowbridge, S. J. Lawrence, 

of Swindon. Photos, Wiltshire News, April 18th, 1913. 
W. H. Carey, Chairman of Westbury i Rural District Council, and W. J. 
Paine, Chairman of Warminster Urban District Council. Photos, 
Wiltshire News, May 3rd, 1913. 
Reginald, Lord Herbert, the new Earl of Pembroke. Photo, Sphere, April 

5th, 1913. 
Capt. Hbel Llewellyn, Chief Constable. Photo, Wiltshire limes, May 10th, 

1913. 
B. Weaver ; John King Harding, of Codford, donor of £500 to Warminster 
Cottage Hospital ; W. H. Cary, of Steeple Ashton Manor; and W. H. 
Laverton. Pour photos, Wiltshire News Pict. Suppt., May 2nd, 1913. 
H. R. Watts, vice-chairman of Westbury Board of Guardians ; W. H. 
Lawson, of Swindon Works ; Archie Archer, football player, of Swin- 
don. Three photos, Wiltshire News Pict. Suppt., May 9th, 1913. 
Percy L. Wyndham, s. of Rt. Hon. George Wyndham, of Clouds. Photo, 
Bystander, Feb. 26th. Mr. and Mrs. Percy Wyndham. Photos, Daily 
Mirror, April 18th; Queen, April 26th; Sphere, April 26th. Hon. 
Mrs. Percy Wyndham (Hon. Diana Lister). Photos, Bystander, Tatler, 
Sketch, Feb. 26th ; Ladies Field, March 1st ; Queen, Country Life, 
(full page), April 26th, 1913. 
Miss M. S. Mann, of Hilperton (Mrs. C Adamson). Photo, Wiltshire Times, 

May 31st, 1913. 
Miss Hilton, d. of Town Clerk of Swindon. Photo, Wiltshire News, Ma_y 

23rd, 1913. 
Hon. Christine Methuen. Photo, Queen, May 24th, 1913. 
John W. Hall, of Warminster, with account of memorial to him. Photo, 
Wiltshire Times, June 7th, 1913. 



WILTSHIRE ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Wootton Rivers Church, clock made of scrap iron. Photo, Home Words, 

Jan., 1913. 
Heale House. Photo, Architectural Supplement to Country Life, Oct. 

26th, 1912. 
Bowood. "A tame Badger (from Bowood) and his Mistress " (C. F. 

McNiven). Photo, Country Life, Oct. 12th, 1912. 
Devizes. Avon Vale Hounds, meet in Market Place. Photo, Wiltshire 

Gazette, Nov. 14th, 1912. 



Wiltshire Illustrations. 145 

Swindon, meet of the V.W.H. Hounds, three photos. Melksham, opening 

meet of the Avon Vale Hounds at the King's Arms. Salisbury, 

funeral of Charles Frampton, Crimean veteran who fired the first shot 

at Inkerman. Wiltshire News, Nov. 8th, 1912. 
Ogbourne Ploughing Match. The judges, Team of oxen owned by Col. 

T. C. P. Calley. Two photos, Wiltshire News, Nov. 15th, 1912. 
Maiden Bradley. Class of boys of elementary school making beehive, and 

laying a drain. Three photos, Wiltshire Times, Nov. 23rd, 1912. 
Swindon. Mayor's Sunday and farewell presentation to a Swindonian. 

Four bad photos, Wiltshire Neios, Nov. 22nd, 1912. 
Corsley School Garden Trophy Group, Wiltshire News, Nov. 22nd, 1912. 
Old Sarum excavations. General view, chimney, museum, gargoyles, Lt.- 

Col. Hawley. Five photos, Wiltshire News, Nov. 22nd, 1912. 
Trowbridge. Meet of Avon Vale Hounds. Two photos, Wiltshire News 

Nov. 22nd, 1912. 
Westbury Church, Baptistry. Photo, Wiltshire Neius, Nov. 29th and Dec. 

13th, 1912. 
Salisbury, Engine accident on Amesbury road. Two photos, Wiltshire 

News, Nov. 29th, 1912. 
Swindon, snapshots at the Xmas Cattle Show (three), The Show Officials 

(group), Ambulance Competition. Photos, Wiltshire News, Dec. 13th, 

1912. 
; Salisbury Xmas Market. Two photos, Wiltshire News, Dec. 13th, 1912. 
Salisbury New Rugby Football Team, Wilts Hockey Team, Marlborough 

Boy Scout's Funeral (portrait and two photos), Floods in Swindon, 

Trowbridge Cattle Market (two). Eight photos on one page, Wiltshire 

Times, Dec. 6th, 1912. 
Sdington Church ; Cottages at Edington ; Bratton, Church and Downs ; 

Cottage at Bratton ; Keevil, Talboys ; Cottages at Keevil. Six cuts, 

Wiltshire Times,- July 20th, 1912. 
)evizes Castle and St. John's Church, two cuts ; Silbury Hill, photo, 

Wiltshire Times, July 13th, 1912. 
Vilts Education Committee's Elementary Schools Gardens Trophy. Photo, 

Wiltshire News, Nov. 22nd, 1912. Agricultural Education. Three 

photos, Wiltshire News, Nov. 29th, 1913. 
Salisbury Skew Bridge motor fatality. Photo, Wiltshire News, Nov. 15th, 

1912. 
Swindon, Mayor-making at. Photo, Wiltshire News Nov. 15th, 1912. 
larlboroughChristmas Fat Stock Show (two) ; Corporation Dinner toWilton 

Territorials ; Salisbury, play at the Picturedrome ; Mr. J. Creighton's 

prize heifers ; Wilts Regiment tragedy in S. Africa, Private Waite 

seated in the dock (two) ; Trowbridge v. Barrow, football (three). Ten 

photos on one sheet, Wiltshire News, Dec. 20th, 1912. 
tavizes, Town Criers' Competition. Five photos on one sheet, and second 

sheet of photos of all the criers. Wiltshire Advertiser, Feb. 29th, 1912. 
alisbury Cathedral, old quire screen, the choir of angels, c. 1260. Photo, 

Antiquary, Jan., 1913. 
windon Carnival, children taking part in. Four photo groups, Wiltshire 

News, Jan. 3rd, 1913. 
0L. XXXVIII. — NO. CXIX. L 



146 Wiltshire Illustrations. 

Rood Ashton, recent visit of Mr. Bonar Law to (group) ; Trowbridgd 

Christmas Pantomine (group). Photos, Wiltshire News, Jan. 10th 

1913 
The Pitman Centenary. Portraits of Sir Isaac, Alfred, and Ernest Pitman 

and eleven cuts of places connected with the former's life at Trowbridgn 

and Bath, on one sheet with letterpress. Wiltshire News, Jan. 10th 

1913. 
Wilton House, Meet of the Wilton Hunt at, three photos ; Swindon'ij 

match with Brighton on the County Ground, Swindon. Three photosl 

Wiltshire News, Dec. 27th, 1912. 
Salisbury Eyesore (Telephone post) removed. Photo, Wiltshire News\ 

Jan. 3rd, 1913. 
[Trowbridge, Emmanuel Church, interior] cut, Wiltshire Times, Feb. 1st 

1913. 
Swindon Cup Tie (Football) Team, group. Wiltshire News, Jan. 17th, 19131 
Purton Shooting Tragedy, two photos , Westbury Unionist Meeting, photo 

Trowbridge Christmas Pantomime, group, photo ; Wiltshire Newsl 

Jan. 17th, 1913. 
Swindon, R.A.O.B. Treat to Poor Children, three photos ; Hockey Clulj 

Dance, two photos ; Trowbridge Children's Christmas Tree Party 

Corsley Children's Entertainment ; Westbury, amateur dramatics 

Photos. Wiltshire News, Jan. 24th, 1913. 
Bradford Amateur Theatricals (two) ; Fairy Play at Stratton St. Margaret! 

Wilts Farriery School ; Warminster Council at Dinner ; Group d 

Trowbridge Schoolboys ; Christening Salisbury's new Motor Firj 

Engine (three). Photos on one sheet, Wiltshire News, Jan. 31st, 1912f 
Swindon Amateur Theatricals ; Swindon and District League Footballl 

Trowbridge Schoolboys, group ; Melksham Dramatic Club ; .Salisbury! 

scene of drowning fatality ; Melksham, long service group. Six photo I 

on one sheet. Wiltshire News, Feb. 7th, 1913. 
Swindon Football Teams ; G.W.R. Managers' visit to Swindon ; Avoi 1 

Vale Hounds at Yarnbrook ; Trowbridge Schoolboys; Salisbury St! I 

Edmund's Bellringers. Five photos on one sheet. Wiltshire Newi% 

Feb. 14th, 1913. 
Reception of 1st Batt. Wiltshire Regiment at Devizes on its return fron 

Foreign Service. Reception in the Market Place, and Luncheon iij I 

the Corn Exchinge. Photos, Wiltshire Gazette, March 6th ; JFiYisAmll 

Times, March 8th, 1913, with letterpress. 
Swindon Fancy Dress Carnival at Skating Rink (two) ; Swindon, Amateu I 

Theatricals (two) ; Salisbury, distribution of Soup (two) ; Sarun|l| 

Wanderers ; Salisbury Church Lads' Brigade (three). Photos on onj 

sheet, Wiltshire News, Feb. 28th, 1913. 
Trowbridgians in Winnipeg (group). Photo, Wiltshire Times, March 22nd i 

1913. 
Amesbury Abbey. Two good photos of front of house. Country Lin 

Advertisement, March 8th, 1913. 
Wiltshiremen's Dinner at the Holborn Restaurant. Trowbridge Soujj 

Kitchen. Swindon Women's Unionist Entertainment. Four photo 

Wiltshire News, March 14th, 1913. 



Wiltshire Illustrations. 147 

Swindon, Wedding of Miss Poppy Pakeman ; An egg within an egg, 
Melksham ; Salisbury Football Tournament. Four photos, Wiltshire 
News, March 28th, 1913. 
Hungerford, Hocktide Kisses. Photo, Daily Mail, April 4th, 1913. 
Z!hiseldon House and Carriage Drive (two) ; The Orchards, Eodborne ; and 
Southbroom House. Four photos, Supplement to Country Life, Mar. 
15th, 1913. 
imesbury, New Police Station. Photo, Wiltshire Gazette, April 10th, 1913. 
3ox Church. Cut. Wiltshire Times, April 19th, 1913. 
Lnford, Cottage of Police Sergeant Crouch, with portraits of Crouch, and 
Capt. Lewellyn (four photos) ; Children's Cinderella, and Workhouse 
Children's Home, Swindon (three plates). Wiltshire News, April 4th, 
1913. 
Spittleborough. Snapshots taken at the V. W. H. (Cricklade) Point-to-Point 

Paces. Six photos on one sheet. Wiltshire Neivs, April 11th, 1913. 
yharlton Links, snapshots (five) : Salisbury, Hamilton Athletic Football 

Club. Photos, Wiltshire News, April 18th, 1913. 
'Vestbury Carnival. Two photos, Wiltshire Times, May 17th, 1913. 
i windon, Messrs. Knox & Sadler's premises, Eeopening of Weslecott 
Bowling Green (four) ; Junior Cup Finalists (two) ; Baby Show Prize 
Winners ; Bradford and Shaw Football Teams (two) ; Broad Town 
Comic Football Match ; Warminster, Lambourne Girls' School 
Group ; Bradford Skittle Players. Photos, Wiltshire News Pictorial 
Supplement, May 2nd, 1913. 
windon, Re-opening of Bowling Green (five) ; Dinner Hour at the Works ; 
Bands of Hope (three). Melksham, Avon Rubber Works Employes. 
Warminster, Girls' Club Group. Trowbridge, Adcroft School Group. 
Photos, Wiltshire News Pictorial Supplement, May 9th, 1913. 
/ilts Yeomanry in Camp (four). Burderop, Unionist Fete (five). Photos, 

Wiltshire Neivs Pictorial Supplement, May 16th, 1913. 
attery of Hon. Artillery Company moving across Salisbury Plain. Photo, 

Graphic, May 17th, 1913. 
ittle Park, Wootton Bassett. Interior of pannelled bedroom. Photo 

Country Life Advertisement, May 10th, 1913. 
rowbridge, " The Prospect " house. Photo, Country Life, Advertisement, 

May 10th, 1913. 
•auntsey House. Photo, Country Life Advertisement, May 3rd, 1913. 
windon Elementary School Sports (four). Photos, Wiltshire Neivs, May 
23rd ; Swindon National Reservists ; Cricket Team ; V.W.H. Polo 
Match ; W. J. G. Popjoy, postman naturalist. Five photos, Wiltshire 
Neivs, May 30th, 1913. 
windon Agricultural Show. Photos, Daily Mail, June 5th, 1913. 
r. Walter Long presented with his portrait. Photo, Daily Mail, June 

6th, 1913. 
festwood, Mansion burnt by Suffragettes. Photo, Wiltshire Times, June 

7th, 1913. 
I'ilton Men in Ontario. Photo group, Wiltshire Times, July 5th, 1913. 
windon, Wilts Agricultural Show (10) ; Highworth Unionists ; Westwood, 
Elms Cross burned down by Suffragists. Photos, Wiltshire News 
Pict. Supp., June 6th, 1913. 

L 2 



148 



ADDITIONS TO MUSEUM AND LIBRARY. 

Museum. 

Presented by Rev. G R. Hadow : Red Throated Diver, found injured 

from flying against telegraph wires at Wylye, Feb., 1909. 

See W.A.M., xxxvi., 140. 
,, „ Rev. H. G. O. Kendall : A series of Neolithic Flints from 

Golden Ball Hill, and others. 
, „ Rev. G. V. Goddard : A large round stone " Palette " or 

Rubbing Stone, and Conical Stone Rubber, formerly used 

by house painters to rub down their colours, from Fovant. 

Two Iron Clippers or Nippers (used formerly in cloth 

manufacture), from Trowbridge. 
„ „ Me. W. Walker : A pair of Iron Shearmen's Shears, formerly 

used in the Trowbridge cloth factories, for putting a face 

on the cloth. 
, „ Mr. Young : A number of objects from two pits cut through 

in making a reservoir on Winterbourne Monkton Down, 

1913. 
„ ,, Mr. J. W. Brooke: Two Wiltshire 17th Century Tokens. 

„ ,. Mr. A. D. Passmore : Plaster Cast of Dinosaurian spine,, 

found at Swindon. 
., ., Mrs. Hony : A number of cases of Wiltshire Specimens of 1 

Birds shot at or near Baverstock. 
„ „ Admiral Sir Walter Hunt Grubbe, K.C.B. : A Pair of 

Dotterels, shot by him at Chitterne, in September, 1861.: 
„ „ Rev. E. H. Goddard : Four Birds. Red Legged Partridge, 

killed at Clyffe Pypard, 1838; Gull, found at Clyffe 

Pypard, dr. 1837 ; Cuckoo, killed at Hilmarton, 1884 I 

Goat Sucker, shot at Clyffe Pypard, cir. 1895. 
,. „ Mr. G. Watts : 17th century Hindon Token, unpublished. 



Library. 

Presented by Mr. H. E. Medlicott: "Wiltshire Gazette," "Salisbury 
Diocesan Gazette," and " North Wilts Church Magazine,^ 
for 191 2. " Dauntsey Agricultural School Mazazine," fivi 
numbers. " The Dauntsey Charity Scheme," 189 1 , anc, 
Mr. Saunders' Letters and Suggestions on the same, anc 
"Scheme of Board of Education," 1909. Six photos o, 
Tilshead Lodge, and old Windmill at Tilshead no\\ 
destroyed, taken in 1907. " Family Prayers," printed bj 
the Rev. J. H. Johnson at Tilshead, 1844. Three Wild 
Pamphlets. 



Additions to Mziseum and Library. 149 

Presented by Mr. W. Heward Bell : Journal of the Geological Society ; 

Transactions of Geologists' Association. 
„ „ Mr. North : Mounted photos of the Inscription on the 

Cross, Devizes, Ruth Pierce's House at Potterne, the 

Inquest, and the newspaper account of her death. 
„ „ Miss Dartnell : Wilts Postcards, cuttings, and scraps. 

„ Miss Milman : Wilts Postcards. 
„ „ Mr. T. S. Bush : Report of Bath Branch of Somerset Arch. 

Society, 1912. 
„ „ Messrs. Whatley & Co. : Illustrated Particulars of Sale of 

Cove House Estate, Ashton Keynes. 
„ „ Rev. C. V, Goddard : Salisbury Journal, and S. Wilts 

Church Magazine, for 1912. 
,, „ Rev. E. E. Dorling, the author : " Leopards of England 

and other Papers on Heraldry," London, 1912. 
„ „ Mrs. Wordsworth : " Sermons and Selected Prayers," by 

the late Bishop Wordsworth, 1912. 
., „ Mr. A. Schomberg : " The Registers of All Cannings and 

Etchilhampton," 1905, and " The Registers of Bishops 

Cannings, transcribed by J. H. Parry," 1906. 
„ „ C O. Gough : Three old Deeds connected with Swallow- 

field (formerly in Wilts). 
„ „ Mr. H. Cooper (through the Rev. J. F. D. Stephens) : M.S. 

Copy of the Monumental Inscriptions of the Church and 

Churchyard of Sevenhampton, and the Chapel Graveyard, 

Highworth. 
„ „ The Author (Canon W. C. Masters) : " Some Notes on the 

Ancient Church of St. Leonard, Stanton Fitzwarren, 

Wilts ; and otherwise," 1913. 
„ „ The Author (Miss Ella Noyes) : " Salisbury Plain, its 

Stones Cathedral City Villages and Folk," 1913. 
,, The Publishers (Messrs. Constable & Co.) : " The Ick- 

nield Way," by Edward Thomas, 1913. 
,, ,, Mr. A. D. Passmore : Two photos of a perfect carapace of 

Turtle from the Kimmeridge Clay, Swindon, in possession 

of the donor. 
„ „ The Rev. G. R. Hadow : " The Registers of the Parish of 

Wylye in the County of Wilts." Large 8vo. 1913. 
„ „ The Proprietors : Wiltshire Times for 1912. 

„ „ Miss Bouverie : Wiltshire Advertiser for 1912. 

„ „ Rev. A. W. Stote: Holy Trinity, Trowbridge, Parochial 

Magazine, 1908—1912. Bound. 



150 





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C, H. Woodward, Printer and Publisher, Exchange Buildings, Station Road, Devizes. 




2, 8 OCT B3» 



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No. CXX. DECEMBER, 1913. Vol. XXXVIII. 



THE 

WILTSHIEE 

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1 



WILTSHIRE 

Irrjjplogirnl null littimt! iisfonj 

MAGAZINE. 



No. CXX. DECEMBER, 1913. Vol. XXXVIII. 



Contents. page 

A List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities 
in the County of Wilts Arranged under Parishes : By 
The Rev. E. H. Goddard 153 



DEVIZES : C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Bo ad. 



THE 

WILTSHIRE MAGAZINE. 



" MUITOECIM MANIBUS GRANDE LEVATUB ONUS." — Onid. 

December, 1913. 

A LIST OF PREHISTORIC, ROMAN, AND PAGAN SAXON 

ANTIQUITIES IN THE COUNTY OF WILTS. 

ARRANGED UNDER PARISHES. 

By TnB Rev. E. H. Goddard. 

The compilation of this List has been in hand for a good many 
years It was originally begun for the purpose of the Prehistoric 
section of the Victoria History of Wiltshire, but inasmuch as there 
appears no prospect of that work seeing the light in the lifetime of 
the present generation, it has seemed worth while to put such 
material as has accumulated, into shape, and to print the list now, 
with all its imperfections, rather than to wait indefinitely in the 
hope of making it more perfect in the future. Such a list can only 
at the best be approximately complete, and the present list makes 
no claim to be even that. The section which deals with the Barrows 
is the most important and at the same time the most complete 
part of the whole, but even in the case of the barrows the difficulty 
of identifying those shown on tlie maps of Hoare's Ancient Wilts 
with those shown by other authorities, such as Dean Merewether, 
the Rev. A. C. Smith, and the Ordnance Survey Maps, is often very 
great.. A large number of barrows have disappeared since Hoare's 
time, whilst some which are shown on the modern Ordnance 6 inch 
Map, more especially in North Wilts, are not marked on Hoare's 
maps at all. On the other hand a considerable number which still 
exist have escaped the notice of the compilers of the Ordnance 

VOL. XXXVIII. — NO. CXX. M 



154 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

Survey. In the present List the barrows of each parish are numbered 
separately, and the numbers as given in theList have been marked on 
the set of 6 inch Maps of the County which have recently been pur- 
chased for the Society's Library. So that in the future any given 
barrow may be referred to as " Avebury 5," or "Bishops Cannings 
32," and its place can be found on the Ordnance Map, and the 
various references to it in the List, without further trouble. 

In the List the numbers of the barrows shown on the Ordnance 
6 inch Map are given consecutively — barrows not shown on the 
Map being distinguished by numbers with letters following within 
brackets, thus : — [5a]. 

In the matter of earthworks no attempt has been made to 
mention any but the more important Enclosures and Ditches in 
each parish, as they are shown on the 6 inch maps. A complete 
and accurate list of the ditches and minor earthworks, desirable as 
it is, would of itself be the work of many years. The inclusion of 
any earthwork in this List is meant to imply nothing as to its age. 
It is impossible without examination to say what is the age of nine 
out of ten of the earthworks of the county. Therefore except in 
the case of a few obviously medueval " moats," the greater part of 
the larger earthworks are given in the List. 

Of the casual " Finds " probably the majority of those of the 
Bronze and Late Celtic periods are here recorded. On the other 
hand it is impossible to record every find of Neolithic flints or of 
Bomano-British pottery or coins, both of which are' scattered 
broadcast over the chalk districts. 

The " British villages " of Hoare, and the Ordnance Survey, are 
entered in the List under the heading of " Boman " because there- 
mains found on these sites are largely of Bomano-British age, but 
it is highly probable that a large number of them were occupied in 
Late Celtic and Bre-Boman times. 

My thanks are due to very many who have helped me greatly 
with information — more especially to Messrs. 0. G-. S. Crawford, 
F.S.A, T. J. E. Feake, A. D. Passmore, the Bev. H. G. 0. Kendall, 
F.S.A., and E. Thurlow Leeds, F.S.A. I have also to thank the 
Society of Antiquaries for the very kind loan of the Map of Salisbury 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 155 

Plain from their Library, with the barrows &c, identified upon it. 
Above all I have to express my indebtedness to Mrs. Cunnington, 
whose wide knowledge of the earthworks and barrows has been 
ungrudgingly placed at my disposal, whilst her more detailed 
enumeration of the Long Barrows of the county will be printed as 
an Appendix to the present List. 

It may probably be objected, especially by archaeologists who do 
not know the county, that the List would have been infinitely more 
valuable if the compiler had personally visited all the Barrows and 
Earthworks, Ordnance Map in hand, and verified on the spot their 
existence and present condition. It is perfectly true that this 
would have greatly enhanced the value and authority of the List, 
but to attempt to carry it out would certainly have meant that the 
present compiler would never have printed the List at all. As it 
is, the Barrows round Stonehenge, and the whole of the Long 
Barrows have been personally visited by Mrs. Cunnington, and her 
notes on them are incorporated in the following pages. 

I have only to add that I shall be very greatly obliged to anyone 
who will send me notes of Wiltshire antiquities known to them 
which are not here recorded. 

Abbreviations used in the list : — 

O.Jf.=Ordnance Survey Map, 6 inch scale, 2nd Edition, 1900 — 1904. 

A.W.=B.oa,ve's Ancient Wilts, 1812—1821. 

Arch.= A rchcBologia. 

W.A.M.= Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine. 

Smith= British and Roman Antiquities of North Wiltshire. By the 

Rev. A. C. Smith, 1884. 
Stourhead Cat.=Catalogue of the Antiquities in the Museum at Devizes, 

Part I., 1896. 
Pro, Arch. Inst., Salisb. = Proceedings of the Archceological Institute, 

1849, Salisbury, containing Memoirs illustrative of the History and 

Antiquities of Wiltshire .... 
Soc. Ant. Map.— The 6 inch Ordnance Map, old edition, of the War 

Office land on Salisbury Plain and the surrounding district on which 

the Barrows, &c, were numbered and identified with Hoare, by A. 

H. Lyell, F.S.A., in 1901. The numbers on the map are added in 

this list. 
M.E.C. =Mrs. M. E. Cunnington, whose notes on the present condition 

of many barrows are given. 

M 2 



156 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

ALDBOURNE. 
Barrows. 

[On Sugar Hill, S. of Whitecomb plantation 4 Barrows [1 to 4] in 
line close together, opened by Canon Greenwell. O.M. 23 NE. ; 
A. W. II. 37, Stations XL, XII. ; Arch. LII. 45—49. The numbers in 
Roman numerals are those given by Canon Greenwell.] 

1. [CCLXXVI.] Northernmost of the 4. Bell-shaped, wide ditch, 

60ft. diam., lift. high. In centre a grave 1ft. 8in. long, and 2ft. 
deep, with burnt bones of adult and small cup, 7 amber beads, 
and bone pin with perforated head. Above this, on level of 
ground, many burnt bones and charcoal. On E. side of barrow, 
2ft. above surface, heap of burnt bones. 

2. [CCLXXVIL] Bell-shaped, grave in centre 2ft. deep with skeleton, 

flint arrowhead, and bronze dagger (Fig. 15). Fragment of 
greenstone ground axe in body of the mound. Arch. LXL, 119, 
Fig. 63. 

3. [CCLXXVIIL] Bell-shaped, burnt bones in cist, with bone pin. 

Flint saw, 3 scrapers, and pottery in body of the mound. 

4. [CCLXXIX.] Southernmost of the 4. Bowl-shaped, cist in centre 

1 ft. 4in. deep, with burnt bones with a single sherd of pottery 
close to them. Above the cist, ljft below the surface, were the 
bones of young pig over four sarsen stones on the top of the 
grave. Part of skull and parts of another skeleton on S. side of 
barrow. Animals bones and flint flakes in the body of the mound. 



5, 6. [CCLXXX.] 100 yds. S.W. of group of 4 barrows are 2 close 
together. O.M. 23 NE. ; A.W. II. Stations XL, XII. One of 
these opened by Canon Greenwell, 90ft. diam., 6ft. high. In 
centre a pile of sarsen stones 20ft. in diam., 5ft. high. In centre 
under them a heap of burnt bones on surface of chalk with two 
incense cups (one with cover), of a type only found in Wilts 
and the adjoining districts (Figs. 16 and 19), fragments of 
bronze knife and 2 awls, 3 cylindrical notched vitreous beads, 
2 amber and 1 lignite bead and joint of encrinite, flat ring and 
pendant of lignite (Figs. 17, 18), shale conical button, 2 arrow- 
heads, one barbed, the other triangular. Proc. Soc. Ant , 2nd 
Series, viii., Mb, figs. 

7. [CCLXXXL] f-mile on W. of the group of 4, and 1-mile N.E. of 

Warren Farm, on Sugar Hill. Opened by Canon Greenwell. 
Cist in centre, with burnt bones and flint flake. O.M. 23 NE. ; 
A.W. II. Stations XL, XII. ; Arch. LII. 53. 

8. [CCLXXXIL] i-mile N.W. of last, J-mile N. of Warren Farm, 

on Sugar Hill. Opened by Canon Greenwell. In centre a cairn 
of sarsens without earth, 12ft. diam. and 5ft. high. Under them 
a cist in the chalk 1ft. 7in. deep, with burnt bones, bronze knife- 
dagger, and bone pin. Many flint flakes in body of the mound 
O.M. 23 NE. ; A. W. II. Stations XI , XII. ; Arch. LII. 54. 



By the Rev. E. H. Gocldard. 157 

9 — 11. On Aldbourne Warren, opposite to and about f mile S.W. 
of the group of 4, a group of 3 barrows close together, the large 
one "The Giant's Grave." O.M. 23 SE. ; A.W. II. Stations 
XI., XII. Apparently this was opened by Canon Green well as No. 
COLXXXIII. Arch. LII. 55. 62ft. diam. X 8ft. high, a bell 
barrow with wide ditch. A cist in centre 3ft. 2in. long X 2ft. 
wide X 1ft. 2in. deep, containing burnt bones with bone pin 
with quatrefoil head {Fig. 20), and part of another. 6 flint 
scrapers in body of the mound. 

12. [CCLXXXIV.] Opened by Canon Greenwell. Arch. LII. 55 
56. One of 2 barrows touching each other, said by him to be 
200 yards south of the last, but really due west. The western- 
most of the two, 64ft. diam. X 8ft. high. In centre a cist 1ft. 9in, 
diam. x 1ft. 8in. deep, containing burnt bones, bone tweezers, 
bone pin with perforated head, stone wristguard, and perforated 
pendent of fiat stone {Figs. 21—23). 0. M. 23 SE. ; A. W. II. 
Stations XL, XII. 

13. [CCLXXXV.] Barrow on E. side of the last. Opened by Canon 

Greenwell. Circular cist with burnt bones, globular incense cup, 
and fragments of an " expanded " incense cup, and necklace of 
1 3 beads, 10 of bone, 1 of shell, 2 of lignite (Fig 14). O.M. 23 SE. ; 
A.W. II. Stations XL, XII. ; Arch. LII. 56. 

14. [CCLXXXVI.] About 1 mile N.W. of the last, |-mile N.W. of 

Aldbourne Warren Farm and just W. of the Swindon-Hungerford 
Rd. Opened by Canon Greenwell. 80ft. diam. X 7ft. high. 
Cist in centre with burnt bones, which had been enclosed in 
wood, and the cist filled up with ashes. A bronze knife-dagger 
on the bones. 3 flint scrapers in the mound. O.M. 23 NE. ; 
A. W. II. Stations XI, XII. 

All the objects found in the barrows above mentioned opened 
by Canon Greenwell, are in the British Museum. 

15. W. of the two barrows CCLXXXIV., CCLXXXV. O.M. 23 SE. 

shows a single barrow, not in A. W. 
16—18. 3 barrows close together just S. of road half-way between 

Dudmore Lodge and Woodsend. O.M. 23 SE ; A. W. II. 

Stations XL, XII. 
19. A barrow, 1 mile S. of Liddington Castle, near parish boundary, 

i-mile N.E. of Lower Upham, just on W. side of track. O.M. 

23 NW. ; A. W. II. 38, Stations XL, XII. 
[19a] Hoare shows W. of Peakswood, on Baydon boundary, a disc 

barrow cut by the Ermine Street. A. W. II. 36, Stations XL, 

XII. Not on O.M. 

Earthworks. 

Banks and ditches cutting across the ridge of down, noticed by Hoare 
near " Peck's Hill," or Peak's Down, apparently in Aldbourne. A. W. 
II. 36 Stations XL, XII. 



158 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities- 

Hoare notes bank and ditch on the lower slopes, following the hill from 
Church Hill in Ogbourne St. George through Aldbourne to Liddington 
Castle. O.M. 23 NW. and SW.|; A.W. II. 38, Stations XL, XII. 

On Aldbourne Chase S. of Woodsend and N. of Chase Woods, 2 circula r 
earthworks, smaller one just S. of Rd. Aldbourne to Woodsend, the 
larger one to S. of this. O.M. 23 SE. 

" Lewisham Castle " earthwork, 200 yds. S. of Stock Lane Farm. O.M. 
23 SE. 

Small circular earthwork at end of ditch which runs W. over Ogbourne 
St. George boundary to British village on Round Hill Down. Ap- 
parently this is the " religious circle " mentioned by Hoare. O.M. 
23 SW. ; A. W. II. 39. 

Finds, Neolithic. 

Great numbers of fine flint scrapers, borers, knives, chipped and ground 

flint celts and several ground celts of greenstone foreign to the 

county in A. D. Passmore's Collection. 
From Stock Lane a great number of rough and rude long narrow 

chipped flint celts and adzes and a small narrow ground flint celt. 
A large flint tanged javelin head, flint fabricators, barbed and tanged 

flint arrowheads, and many other implements in J. W. Brooke's Coll., 

with a one-sided flint arrowhead with remarkable ripple flaking from 

Stock Close Farm. 
On North Farm 19 ground flint celts and one of other stone in collection 

of W. Chandler. 
On some sites in this parish implements are found in extraordinary 

numbers. 

Finds, Bronze Age. 

Bronze awl (surface find), N. Farm. W. Chandler. W.A.M. xxxvii. 148. 
Bronze socketed looped slender spearhead, 1907, and part of socketed 

celt from Upham. A. D. Passmore. W. A. M. xxxvii. 141. 
Bronze socketed looped spearhead. Brit. Museum. W.A. M. xxxvii. 141. 
Bronze socketed gouge, 3iin. long, Upper Upham, 1911. A. D. Passmore 

W.A.M. , xxxvii., 455. 

Finds, Late Celtic. 

Upper Upham, 1907. Bronze bow brooch of " La Tene I." type. J. W. 

Brooke Coll. W.A.M. xxxv. 399,jfy. 5. 
British uninscribed silver coin, 1891. J. W. Brooke. W.A.M. xxvi. 415. 

Roman. 

Ermine Street forms boundary of Aldbourne and Baydon on N.E. 

O.M. 23 NE. 
Roman Rd. to Cunetio runs N. and S. parallel with E. side of Midland 

Railway and forms boundary of Aldbourne and Chiseldon for some 

distance. O.M. 23 NW. 



By the Rev. E. H. Godclard. 159 

Roman Well on North Farm opened by A. D. Paasmore and W. 
Chandler, 1912, to depth of 40ft. without reaching the bottom. 

Upper Upham House surrounded by enclosures and banks of a large 
" British Village." Roman buildings here. O.M. 23 NE. 

Snap Farm, just to S.W. of this, also surrounded by marks of " British 
Village." O.M. 23 SE. 

From Upham, many Roman coins, small bronzes, bracelets, iron spear- 
heads, &c, in collections of W. Chandler, J. W. Brooke, and Devizes 
Museum. W.A.M. xxx. 81 ; xxxv. 403, 504. 



ALDERBURY. 

Earthworks. In Alderbury or Standlynch? A mutilated earthwork 

of squarish form, on elevated ground to E. of rd. S. of Alderbury 

village (not in O.M). A. W. I., 230, Station VII. 
Finds, Eolithic. Flints found by Dr. H. P. Blackmore in Alderbury 

Hill gravel. Salisbury and Devizes Museums. W.A.M. xxxvi. 171. 
Finds, Neolithic. Three fine celts, one ground all over, one partly ground, 

one chipped only, found together. Blackmore Museum. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze socketed broad-bladed chisel of late and 

unusual type, and part of socketed sickle found together in a field 

beyond Mr. W. Osmond's house. 1907. Blackmore Museum. W.A.M. 

xxxvii. 139, 140 {figs.). 
Finds, Roman. Two T-headed bronze brooches, one of them enamelled. 

Salisbury ,Museum. 

ALDERTON. 

Roman. The Fosseway runnning S.W. to N.E. forms the E. boundary of 
the parish. O.M. 12 NE. & SE. 



ALL CANNINGS. 
Barrows. 

1, la. Tan Hill (St. Ann's Hill), 2 barrows just S. of Wansdyke. 

N.E. of Rybury Camp. 0. M. 35 NW. 
lb. Another a little to the S.E. on top of hill. O.M. 35 NW. Smith 
p. 115, viii. F. viii. c shows only one, the most easterly, probably 
that opened by Thurnam, containing 2 circular cists in the chalk 
filled with wood ashes, without burnt bones, with animal bones 
in the mass of the mound. W.A.M. vi. 325. 






All Cannings Down. [3 Barrows (2 — 4) some distance from each other, 
all actually on the line of Allington boundary, about | to 1 mile N. 
of Wansdyke, on W. edge of track to W. Kennett. O.M. 35 NW.] 

2. The northernmost is a very large bowl-shaped barrow with ditch, 
opened, no record. Smith p. 179. XII. G. vii. b. 



160 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

3. The middle one, a low barrow. Smith p. 113. VIII. F. vii. 1. 

4. The southernmost, a very small barrow much mutilated. Close to 

this a bowl-shaped barrow formerly existed, destroyed about 
1878. Smith p. 113. VIII. F. vii. n. m. 



5, 6. i mile to E. of No. 4 at the angle of a long ditch, 0. M. 35 NW. 
shows 2 small barrows close together. ? those shown by Smith 
p. 179. XII. G. vii. d, e. One (d) a large wide barrow probably 
opened by Dean Merewether 1849, the other (e) bowl-shaped, 
without ditch, apparently not opened. Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury 
p. 100. 

i mile S.E. of these last and J mile N. of Wansdyke O.M. 35 NW. shows 
a group of 4 small barrows combined with an irregular earth- 
work, apparently " Earthwork No. I." explored by Dean 
Merewether, with 3 barrows in the N. compartment of the 
Earthwork and a mound with 3 sarsen stones on the top of it 
at the S.W. corner. This mound contained only fragments of 
animal bones. Of the barrows 

7 — 10 the two smaller in the N.E. corner contained only fragments of 
pottery, charcoal, and animal bones. The third, a large barrow, 
had been already opened, without record. Proc. Arch. Inst. 
Salisbury, 100. O.M. 35 N.W. These maybe (?) the doubtful 
barrows shown by Smith VIII. F. viii. h, i, 1. 

11. | of a mile N.E. of these and near the Stanton boundary. 0. <1A. 
35 NW. shows 1 barrow, apparently= Smith p. 181. XII. G. 
viii. d., a bowl-shaped barrow, opened, probably by Dean 
Merewether. Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury p. 100. 

Earthworks. 

All Cannings Down. Square enclosure | mile N. of Wansdyke. O.M. 
35 NW. ; Smith p. 115. VIII. F. viii. d. 

All Cannings Down, a long ditch runs N. from Wansdyke over the down 
for | mile, then turns at right-angle to W., where Barrows 5 & 6 stand, 
turning again to N. at Allington boundary close to Barrow 2 and to 
N.W. over Allington Down. Not in Smith ? O.M. 35 NW. 

Rybury Camp. \ mile S. of Wansdyke and Tan Hill. Single vallum 
& ditch on top of circular projecting spur from Tan Hill, with 
outwork, much worn down. " Shows marks," says Hoare, " of great 
antiquity." Interior excavated for white stone. A. W.H. 12; O.M. 
35. NW. Smith p. 115. VIII. F. viii. b. A ditch runs down steep 
side on S.W., and many banks and ditches to the S. of Camp. Smith. 

Wansdyke crosses parish from W. to E. just N. of Tan Hill. 0. M. 35 
NW. 

Finds, Neolithic. 2 pieces of ground celt from site of Late Celtic settle- 
ment at Cross Farm. W.A.M. xxxvii. 538. 
2 ground flint celts. Blackmore Museum. 
Large duck-billed flint scraper. J. W. Brooke Coll. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 161 

Finds, Bronze Age. Small plain perfectly flat celt. Blackmore Museum. 

W.A.M. xxx vii. 129. 
Socketed looped celt. Blackmore Museum. W.A-M. xxxvii. 135 ; 

Evans' Bronze, 113. 
Socketed looped spear head, small, on N. side of Tan Hill, 1886. Devizes 

Museum. W.A.M. xxxvii. 141, fig. 

Late Celtic. At Cross Farm below Rybury a Late Celtic inhabited site 
excavated by B. H. and Mrs. Cunnington 1911. Over 300 flint and 
50 sarsen hammerstones or mullers found on surface of field, also 
conical quern. 9 pits found, pottery in great quantity of curious 
type, no Roman or Roman British, spindle whorls, weaving combs, 
saddle quern, fragments of crucibles, bones of Bos longifrons, sheep, 
pig, red deer, roe deer, and horse. Devizes Museum. W.A.M. 
xxxvii. 526, figs. 

ALLINGTON (PEWSEY VALE). 
Barrows. 

1. Tan Hill. A Bowl-shaped Barrow S. of Wansdyke and just W. of 

the Fair ground. M. 35 N W. ; not in Smith. 

2. To N. of Wansdyke, on E. side of track to Beckhampton. A very 

low bowl-shaped barrow. This and 3 others in this neighbour- 
hood, not to be identified, were opened by Dean Merewether in 
1849. " Two of them contained cists with burnt bones, frag- 
ments of rude unbaked pottery and bones of animals." O.M. 
35 NW. ; Smith p. 115. VIII. F. viii. g. ; Proc. Arch. Inst. 
Salisbury, 100. 
Earthworks. 

Wansdyke crosses parish at narrowest point N. of Tan Hill. O.M. 

35 NW. 
Ditch leaves S. side of Wansdyke and turns S.W. on Tan Hill with 

branches. O.M. 35 NW. 
Allington Down N. of Barrow Allcannings 2, an oblong enclosure. 
O.M. 35. NW. ? not shown by Smith. 
Finds, Bronze Age. 

A portion of a gold torque of the late Bronze Age weight 2|ozs. troy 
found by flint diggers on Allington Down 1844, in possession of 
the Earl of Ilchester. Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury, p. in. fig. 31 ; 
W.A.M. xi. 10 ; xxxvi. 435—438,^. 
Finds, Roman. 

Small bronze Penannular brooch, Devizes Museum. W-A.M. xi. 120. 
N. of Tan Hill (? what parish) Iron Spear Head, Knife, Awl, &c. 
Devizes Museum. W.A.M. xxiii. 347. 

ALTON BARNES. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow just N. of Alton White Horse, large bowl-shaped, opened, 
no record. O.M. 35 NW. ; Smith p. 113. XII. H. viii. g. 



162 List of Prehistoric, Boman,and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

Earthworks. 

Walker's Hill, says Hoare, is intersected by 2 banks each having the 

ditch to the N.W. A. W. II. 12. (? OJf.) 
Wansdyke crosses N. extremity of the parish. O.M. 35 NW. 
Just S. of Wansdyke, N.E. of White Horse, a small square enclosure 

with another rather larger to S.W. of it. O.M. 35 NW. ; Smith 

p. 183 XII. G. viii. f, n. 

Finds, Neolithic. Flint fabricator and serrated flake. J. W. Brooke 
Coll. 

Roman. Honey Street. Romano British settlement, with ditches, in- 
terments, one skeleton with hob-nailed shoes, and pottery found 
1906-1908. W.A.M. xxxvii. 205. 
Bronze tweezers, casual find, 1909, Devizes Museum. W.A.M. xxxvi. 171. 



ALTON PKIOKS. 
Barrows. 

1. On Walker's Hill, the point of down N". of village, just W. of line 

of Bidgeway, " Adam's Grave " Long Barrow, very conspicuous 
object, opened by Thurnam. O.M. 35 SW. See Appendix, 
Long Barrows. 

2, 3, 4. A little N. of this, 3 barrows close together in line N. & S., 

two of them low, flat, and wide, the other very small, all opened, 
no record. Two of them opened by Thurnam showed marks of 
cremated interments. O.M. 35 NW. ; Smith p. 182, 183, XII. 
H. viii. b, c, d ; W.A.M. vi. 325. 

5, 6. Just E. of these last and E. of the Bidgeway OM. shows a group 
resembling a long barrow with a round barrow at each end of it, 
and another small one close at the S.W. Smith and Thurnam 
speak of two bell-shaped barrows(h,i,)both opened without record, 
connected by a dyke or causeway extending 60 yds S.E. and N. W. 
O.M. 35 NW. & SW. ; W.A.M. vi. 326 ; Smith p. 183. XII. H. 
viii. h, i. 

[6a.] Thurnam opened a small barrow (No. 11) under cultivation, 1ft 
high, to W. of Walker's hill (? in Alton Priors). No trace of in- 
terment found. This has apparently disappeared. W.A.M. vi. 
325. [Not in O.M. or Smith.] 

7. The very low barrow to the S.W. (j),opened by Thurnam (No. 19), 

contained a few pieces of burnt bone and the carelessly-buried 
skeleton of an infant near the centre, and the skeleton of a woman 
at full length in a narrow grave on the W. side. Thurnam 
suggests that both infant and woman are perhaps medieval 
burials. O.M. 35. SW ; W.A.M. vi. 326; Smith p. 183. XII. 
H. viii. j. 

8. A barrow just N. of these at New Town on W. side of Bidgeway, 

and at E. end of small rectangular earthwork. 0. M. 35 N. W. 
[Not shown in Smith.] 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 163 

9. Large bowl-shaped barrow, just N. of Wansdyke at Red Shore, 
with ditch, several sarsen stones round the S. end of it. Not 
opened. O.M. 35 NW. ; Smith p. 184. XII. H. viii. m. 



At Knap Hill Camp on point of down E. of Walker's Hill 2 small 
barrows, within the camp and one outside on W. [10 — 10b.] 
O.M. 35. SW. 

lO. Small bowl- shaped barrow inside rampart on W. side, opened by 
Thurnam (No. 21), 2ft. high with slight ditch. Circular cist in 
centre 2ft. deep X 2ft. diam., containing ashes and burnt bones 
only. Animals' bones in the body of the mound. A. W. II. 11, 12 ; 
W.A.M, vi. 327 ; xxxvii. 43 ; Smith p. 184. XII. I. viii. c. 

[lOa.] The barrow inside rampart on E. side has been entirely dug 
away by flint diggers (1908). Smith p. 184. XII. I viii. d. Not 
on OM. 

[lOb.] Low bowl-shaped barrow with ditch outside camp on W. 
Opened by Thurnam (No. 20). Nothing but animals' bones 
found. Perhaps not a barrow. Smith p. 184. XII. I. viii. e ; 
W. A. M. xxxvii. 53. Not on 0. M. 

[10c] A mound just outside N.W. corner of Knap Hill Camp, opened 
by B. H. Cunnington, 1908, nothing found but a skeleton just 
below the turf . 1 a barrow. W. A . M. xxxvii. 58. Not on O.M. 

Earthworks. 

Knap Hill Camp, excavated by B. H. k Mrs. Cunnington 1908, 1909. 
Single rampart and ditch of no great strength round about half 
of the circuit, the remainder facing the precipitous descent to 
Pewsey Vale shows little or no evidence of defence, except slight 
rampart and ditch at S.E. corner. The ditch on N.W. side is not 
continuous but cut up into a number of sections of varying length by 
gangways of undisturbed chalk each 18ft. wide, corresponding with 
gaps in the rampart. What was the object of this unique arrangement 
does not appear. Pottery on floor of ditch shows that the old camp 
was made in the Bronze Age if not in Neolithic times, and the ditch 
had silted up before the triangular " plateau enclosure " was added 
to the N.E. end of the camp in the Late Celtic period. This probably 
continued in occupation throughout the Roman period. Roman pottery, 
T-shaped fireplace, &c. It was occupied again in the 17th century. 
Objects found in Devizes Museum. O.M. 35 SW. ; A. W. II. 11 ; 
W.A.M. xxxvii. 42 figs. & plans. 

A slight bank not 1ft. high leaves camp on S. side and descends the 
most precipitous part of the escarpment into Pewsey Vale, called 
" The Devil's Trackway." For what purpose ? Too steep for path. 
W.A.M. xxxvii. 46. 

A small square enclosure N. of Walker's Hill Long Barrow and just W. 
of New Town. O.M. 35 NW. Shown but not numbered, Smith XII. 
H. viii. 



164 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

Wansdyke crosses N. corner of parish running S.W. to N.E., crossing 
the Ridgeway. O.M. 35 NW. 

The Ridgeway crosses the Wansdyke at Red Shore, descends into 
Pewsey Vale between Walker's Hill and Knap Hill, passes just E. of 
Alton Priors Farm and Church, and to E. of Honeystreet, where its 
course is no longer visible. O.M. 35 NW & S\V ; A.W. II. 45. 

Finds Neolithic. Golden Ball Hill [partly in Wilcot] is strewn with 
numbers of worked flints, cores, scrapers, hollow scrapers, hammer- 
stones, &c. H. G. O. Kendall, Devizes Museum. 0-M. 35 NE. ; 
W.A.M. xxx vii. 42 ; xxxviii. 148. 

Finds, Late Celtic. Iron brooch of La Tene III. type, &c, found in ! 

Plateau enclosure of Knap Hill Camp. W.A.M. xxxvii., &l fig. 4.1 
Finds Roman, 

Pottery, Samian, &c, of 2nd century, Iron Key, Nails, &c, in Plateau 

enclosure of Knap Hill Camp. W.A.M. xxxvii. 62. figs. 

Finds, Saxon. Iron sword of 6th century 35in. long found in Plateau 
enclosure of Knap Hill Camp. Devizes Museum. W.A.M. xxxvii. 
5±fig- 

ALVEDISTON. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow just W. of road and E. of Coombe, \ mile N. W. of Church 

O.M. 69 SE. Not on A. W. I. Stations viii., ix. 

2, 3. Two Barrows close together on Trow Down N. of the Ox 

Drove. O.M. 74 NE. ; A. W. I. Stations viii., ix. 
4. Another just to the S. of the last two. O.M. 74 NE. ; A.W. I 
Stations viii. ix. 

Earthworks. 

On border of Alvediston and Ansty, N. of Crockerton Firs, a deep 
ditch cuts across the Ox Drove or liidgeway, running nearly E. & \\\, 
just S. of British Village, which has a slight entrenchment. O.M. 69 
NE. ; A.W. I. 249, Stations viii, ix. 

Another short line of ditch to S. of the last. O.M. 69 SE. 

At point of junction of Alvediston, Berwick St. John, and Ansty on 
White Sheet Hill a bank and ditch of great strength. A. W. 69 SE. ; 
A.W. I. 249, Stations viii. ix. 

AMES BURY. 

Barrows. [The second numbers in brackets thus (15) are those in 
Hoare's " Map of Stonehenge and its Environs." A. W. 1. 
170. J 
1—3. (14) Stonehenge Map shows a group of 2 larger and 6 very 
small barrows close together just on N. side of Deptford Ed. S. 
of Fargo Cottages. O.M. 54 SW. shows only the 2 larger (1 
and 2) and one small one (3) close to edge of road. These bar- 
rows were opened by Hoare 1802. The small barrow nearest 



By the Rev. E. H. Godclarcl. 165 

Amesbury, now gone, contained the " Stonehenge Urn " 22^in. 
high X 15in. diam., nearly full of burnt bones and covered with 
a large triangular stone. Devizes Museum. A. W. I. 126, PL 
xvi. ; Stourhead Cat. 257 fig ; Tumuli Wiltunenses PI. I. ; Soc. 
Ant. Map 479, 480. In another of these barrows a small sock- 
eted looped bronze spearhead was found just under the turf 
wrongly identified by Thurnam (Arch, xliii. 447) as found in 
a barrow at Wilsford. Devizes Museum. Stourhead Cat. 26 
fig. ; W.A.M. xxi. 262 ; xxxvii. 94 fig. [1 and 2 are still 
considerable, 1913, 3 shows faintly, the 5 small ones parallel 
with road are gone, all under plough, M.E.C] 



Group of B Barrows 4 — 10 (15 — 22) just W. of Stonehenge 
shown on Stonehenge Map, of these all except (15) are shown on 
O.M. 54. S W. [4 to 9 are all under plough, 1913, M.E.C] 

4. (16) Large Barrow. Cist in chalk with burnt bones, small 

bronze knife dagger and awl. Above this on floor of barrow 2 
skeletons. Probably that opened by Stukeley who found frag- 
ments of the bluestones in it [Stonehenge 46). Hoare found 
sarsen fragments from Stonehenge in the mound. O.M. 54 
SW. ; A.W. I. 127 ; Stourhead Cat. 28 ; Soc. Ant. Map. 496. 

5. (18) Opened by Hoare 1802, nothing found, had then been "in- 

jured by rabbits." O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. 1. 127 ; Soc. Ant. Map. 
497. 

6. (19) Opened probably by Ld. Pembroke or Stukeley, and by 

Hoare 1802. Grave with skeleton. O.M. 54 SW. ; A.W. I. 127 ; 
Soc. Ant. Map. 495. 

7. (21) Opened by Hoare, nothing found. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 

127 ; Soc. Ant. Map 498. 

8. (20) Opened by Hoare and previously, A skeleton. O.M, 54 

■SW. ; A.W. I. 127 ; Soc. Ant. Map. 493. 

9. (22) Opened by Hoare, nothing found, O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 

127 ; Soc. Ant. Map 494. 

10. (15) Disc barrow, opened by Hoare, burnt bones. O.M. 54 SW. ; 

A.W.I. 127; Soc. Ant. Map 499. [In good condition, 1913, 
M.E.C] 
10a. (17) " Small Long Barrow " opened by Hoare, nothing found. 
A.W. I. 127 ; not on O.M. 54 SW. 



11. (23) Bell-shaped barrow just S. of Warminster Rd., E. of Stone- 
henge, within wire enclosure. Opened twice by W. Cunnington. 
Large urn inverted over burnt bones with bone tweezers. 
O.M. 54 SW. ; A.W. I. 128 ; Stourhead Cat. IZdfig. ; Soc. Ant. 
Map 492. [Good condition 1913, M.E.C] 



166 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

[11a— lid.] (12) Group of 4 small barrows close together W. of 
Fargo Cottages and Stonehenge. One opened by Hoare con- 
tained a rude urn, burnt bones, and fragments of twisted wire 
bracelet. Devizes Museum. A.W. I. 126 : Stourhead Cat. 208. 
The other three barrows had been ploughed over in Hoare's 
time. Not on O.M. 54 SW. [No trace to be seen 1913, M.E.C.] 

[lie.] (13) Disc-shaped barrow close to Fargo Cottages, opened by 
Hoare, burnt bones only. A.W. I. 126; not on O.M. 54 SW. ; 
[No trace to be seen 1913, M.E.C.] 

12, 13. Two small barrows inside the vallum of Stonehenge, opened 
by Hoare. That on N.W. had burnt bones only, that on S.E. 
nothing. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 145 ; Soc. Ant. Map 500, 501. 

14. (165) Small Long Barrow just S. of Deptford Ed. W. of Stone- 

henge, exactly opposite Barrows 1—3. Opened by Hoare, 
nothing found. O.M. 54 SW. ; A.W. I. 206; Soc. Ant. Map 
481. [Condition good 1913, M.E.C.] 

15. (164) Finest Bell Barrow near Stonehenge, just S. of last, near 

Normanton Gorse. 145ft. diam. x 14£ft. high. Opened by 
Hoare. In a shallow cist a skeleton with head to N.E., lying on 
" a plank of Elm wood." On the left side of head a fine bronze 
dagger which had had a wooden sheath, and a small knife dag- 
ger. At the feet a richly ornamented drinking cup, and stag's 
horns at head and feet. Three pieces of oak wood had radiated 
from the skeleton to the surface of the barrow, the holes and 
remains of wood found. Devizes Museum. O.M. 54 SW. ; 
Stourhead Cat. 126; A.W. I 205, 206; Soc Ant. Map 482. 
[Much injured by rabbits, 1913, M.E.C.] 

16. (135) Barrow S.E. of Stonehenge and W. of Luxenborough. 

Opened before Hoare's time. O.M. 54 SW. ; A.W. I. 199 ; not 
in Soc. Ant. Map. 

17 [17a]. (136, 137.) Two small barrows just on Wilsford boundary 
i-mile S. of last, the easternmost of Normanton Down Group. 
O.M. 60 NW. shows only one (136). Both opened before Hoare's 
time. A.W. I. 199 ; not in Soc. Ant. Map. [Small but condition 
good, grass, 1913, M.E.O] 

18, 19 [19a] [19b]. (131—134). Group of 4 barrows near together 
shown on Stonehenge Map of which 2 only remain in Luxen- 
borough plantation. The other two not visible 1913, M.E.C- It 
cannotbe said which of Hoare's numbers still remain. O.M. 
54 SE ; A. W. I. 199 ; Soc. Ant. Map 526, 527. 

(131) Opened before Hoare's time. 

(132) Opened by Hoare, deep cist with many burnt bones, 2 
drinking cups, 2 incense cups, 2 bronze awls. A.W. I. 199 
PI. xxiv. ; Stourhead Cat. 1 23, 1 23a. 

(133) Large banow, opened by Hoare. Burnt bones in cist with 
grape cup. A.W. I. 199 PI. xxiv. ; Stourhead Cat. MS fig. 

(134) Opened before Hoare's time. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 167 

[To W. of (134) was West Amesbury Penning, of which Aubrey says 

there were 5 small barrows with stones " at the end of the Grave " 

destroyed cir. 1640. A.W.I. 198.] 
Group of 3 small barrows 20 — 22, (128—130) close together in line in 

round plantation £ mile N. of Luxenborough plantation, S. of 

Amesbury Rd. O.M. 54 SE. ; A.W.I. 199. 

20 (L28). Opened before Hoare's time. Soc. Ant. Map 524. 

21 (129). Opened by Hoare, burnt bones in cist with bronze knife 

dagger. Soc. Ant. Map. 525. 

22 (130). Opened by Hoare. Skeleton in grave 4ft. deep, which had 

been disturbed before, and bronze objects abstracted ; above this 
burnt bones ; and nearer surface on E. side 2 skeletons of infants 
each placed over the head of a cow, and the skeleton of adult with 
drinking cup. Not in Soc. Ant. Map. 



23. Coney bury Hill, " King Barrow " half-way between W. Amesbury 
and Luxenborough. Very large brass weapon like poleaxe of 
20lbs. weight said by Stukeley (Stonehenge 46) to have been found 
in it. O.M. 54 SE. ; A.W. I. 198 ; Soc. Ant. Map 528. 

[One of two bell-shaped barrows enclosed in one ditch, S. of Stonehenge 
" close upon the road from Wilton and on the east side of the 
road." Opened by Ld. Pembroke 1722. Skeleton near top. 
Stukeley Stonehenge, 44.] 

24. Large barrow in centre of Vespasian's Camp, opened 1770. Cre- 

mated interment with fine bronze dagger 8|in. long with 2 rivets, 
and bronze pin 5jin. long with crutch head (?). O.M. 54 SE ; 
A. W. I. 160. Not on Stonehenge Map. See 25. 

25. Smaller barrow to N. of last, in centre of Vespasian's Camp, cut 

through by path, opened 1770, flat bronze dagger knife 4fin. 
long. Pen sketches of objects found in 24 and 25 in Gough's 
copy of Horsley's Britannia Romana in Bodleian. O.M. 54. 
SE. ; not mentioned by Hoare, or on Stonehenge Map ; Cunnington 
MSS. II. 173. 
26 — 37. " Seven Barrows " in line S. to N. from N. side of Amesbury 
Rd. towards E. end of cursus, in plantation, called by Stukeley 
" The New King Barrows " all shown on O.M. 54. SE. [All in wood 
and thickly covered with undergrowth, 1913, M.E.C.] The line 
was continued N. towards end of Cursus by another seven called 
by Stukeley " The Old King Barrows " of which O.M. 54 SE. 
shows 5 only. All 14 were planted with trees in Hoare's day 
and were not opened by him. Aubrey says some of them had 
been opened in his day. A.W. I. 155, 157, Stonehenge Map ; 
Soc. Ant. Map 521, 520, 519, 518, 517, 516, 515, 514, 513, 399, 398, 
397. Stukeley records that in 1666 " one of the 7 barrows being 
digged up they found coals, goat's horns, and stag's horns." 
W.A.M. xvi. 147. [33 and 34 are in thick plantation ; 35— 



168 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

37 have a few trees on them but are otherwise clear. Site of 
[37a] is just traceable, in ploughed ground. Of the 7th nearest 
the Cursus, no trace visible, 1913, M.E.C.] 

38. Barrow W. of Vespasian's Camp, midway between camp and Ed. 

O.M. 54. SE. ; A. W. Stonehenge Map ; Soc. Ant. Map 531. 

[38a.] (125) Barrow in ploughed land N. of Vespasian's Camp, half- 
way between the Camp and Durrington Walls, not opened by 
Hoare. A.W. I. 170; not on O.M. 54 SE. [No trace, 1913, 
M.E.C.] 

[39 b, c] (126, 127) Two barrows close together just NE. of the N. 
point of Vespasian's Camp, not opened by Hoare. A. W. 1. 170 ; 
not on O.M. 54 SE. [No trace, 1913, M.E.C.] 

39. (26) Barrow close to N. side of Bd. just W. of "Seven Barrows " 
(26 — 37) opened by Hoare. Burnt bones, beads and buttons 
of jet and amber. O.M. 54 SE. ; A. W. I 159 ; Stourhead Cat,, 
160d— 160g ; Soc. Ant. Map. 523. [Much spread by cultivation, 
still under plough, 1913, M.E.C.] 

[39a.] (24?) Flat barrow J-mile N. of last between Avenue and 
" Seven Barrows," opened by Hoare. Skeletons of adult and 
child in grave. A.W. I. 159 ; not on O.M. 54. SE. [Not visible 
1913, M.E.C.] 

40. (25 ?) Barrow close to the last, opened by Hoare. Skeleton with 

Drinking Cup and Bone Pin. A.W. I. 159 ; O.M. 54. SE. ; Soc, 
Ant. Map 522. [Turf 1913, never ploughed, M.E.C.] 

41. (27). Barrow \ mile N.E. of 40. W. of " Old King Barrows." 

Opened by Hoare. Skeletons of two adults and 2 children. On 
arm of one adult a broad bronze bracelet. Devizes Museum. 
O.M. 54 SE. ; A.W. I 160; Arch, xliii. 469 fig. 172; Evans' 
Bronze,fig. 480 ; Stourhead Gat. 160 ; Soc. Antiq. MapblZ. [Much 
spread by cultivation, still under plough 1913, M.E.C.] 

42. The bank lying N. & S. at the E. end of the cursus, just N. of 

Barrow 37, " The Old Kings Barrows " is marked " Tumulus " 
in O.M. 54 SE, as though it was a long barrow. Hoare does not 
mark it as a barrow, but says it resembles one. A. W. I. 158 ; 
Arch. xli. 197; Soc. Ant. Map 396. [Under plough, 1913, 
M.E.C.] See Appendix, Long Barrows. 



An irregular line of 13 barrows (43 — 55) running E. & W. just S. of 
the cursus, all on O.M. 54 SW : and Stonehenge Map. 

43 (28). Opened by Ld. Pembroke 1722. A.W. I. 161; Soc. Ant. 
Map., 378. [Condition good 1913, never ploughed, M.E.C.] 

44. (29) Twin barrow, opened by Stukeley 1723. In one barrow burnt 
bones of girl of 14 in urn, numbers of cylindrical notched glass 
beads, amber plates and beads,many buttons of shale? one covered 
with thin gold, bronze knife dagger and awl. The second barrow 
enclosed in same ditch partially opened by Stukeley, again by 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. ..<<! Ij6.9 

W. Cunnington 1803, contained cist with burnt bones and 6 horn 
beads, a skeleton above this near the surface. Stukeley Stone- 
henge 44 PI. xxxii. ; A.W.I. 161, 162; W.A.M. xvi. 145; Soc. 
Ant. Map 377. [Condition good 1913, never ploughed, M.E.C.] 

45 (30). Very large bell barrow 15ft. high. Opened by Hoare. Cist 

full of wood ashes, burnt bones on floor of barrow. A- W. 1. 162 ; 
Soc. Ant. Map 376. [Condition good 1913, never ploughed, 
M.E.C.] 

46 (31). Opened by Hoare. Burnt bones on floor of barrow, small 

bronze knife dagger. Devizes Museum. A. W. 1. 162 ; Stourhead 
Cat. 129; Soc. Ant. Map. 375. [Condition good 1913, never 
ploughed M.E.C.] 

47 (32). Large bell barrow, opened by Hoare, burnt bones. A.W. I. 

162 ; Soc. Ant. Map 374:. [Condition good, 1913, never ploughed.] 

48 (33). Disc-shaped barrow, vallum outside ditch, no mound in 

centre. Opened by Hoare. Burnt bones in cist with amber, 
glass, and stone beads. A.W.I. 163 : Stourhead Cat. 160a — 160c. 
160h ; Soc. Ant. Map 373. [Condition good 1913, never ploughed. 
49,50. (34,35) Opened by Hoare, nothing found. A.W. I. 163; 
Soc. Ant. Map 336, 478. [Condition good, 1913, never ploughed.] 

51. (36) Opened by Hoare. Skeleton in grave 6ft. deep, above it 

on floor of barrow another skeleton with drinking cup, above 
this a third. Devizes Museum. A.W.I. 163 PI. xvi.; Stour- 
head Cat. 180 ; -Soc. Ant. Map 477. [Condition good, 1913, 
never ploughed, M.E.C.] 

52. (37) Barrow just on E. edge of Fargo plantation, opened by 

Hoare. Cist with ashes and burnt bones. A. W. I. 163 ; Soc. 
Ant. Map 335. [Condition good, 1913, never ploughed, M.E.C.] 

53. (38) Barrow in Fargo plantation, opened by Hoare, nothing 

found. Soc. Ant. Map 334. 

54. (39) Bowl-shaped, barrow close to S. bank of Cursus in Fargo 
plantation. Opened by Hoare. Skeleton in grave with drink- 
ing cup, flint dagger, and polished stone. Above this a skeleton 
of a woman with " a kind of bason " and quantity of beads. 
Nearer surface a third skeleton with drinking cup. Devizes 
Museum. A.W. I. 163. PL xvii. ; Evans' Stone 315 ; Stour- 
head Cat. 84— 85a, 88, 88a; Soc. Ant. Map 331. [38 and 39 
overgrown with bushes and nettles and much defaced by rabbits 
1913, MEC] 

55. (40) Largest Barrow near Stonehenge on boundary of Fargo 

plantation and parish, near the Rd. Opened by Hoare, noth- 
ing found. A. W. I. 164 ; Soc. Ant. Map 332. [Much defaced 
by rabbits, apparently never ploughed, 1913, M.E.C.] 

56. (43) Barrow inside W. end of cursus and Fargo plantation, close 
to parish boundary, just N. of the last. Opened by Hoare. 
Skeleton in shallow grave with bronze dagger and polished 
banded flint pebble. On the floor of the barrow skeleton of a 

IL. XXXVIII.— NO. CXX. N 



170 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

child, and nearer surface, skeleton of adult with drinking cup. 
O.M. 54. SW. ; A. W. I. 165 ; Evans' Stone 419 ; Stourhead Cat. 
89, 90 ; Soc. Ant. Map 330. [Much injured by rabbits, 1913, 
M.E.C.] 

[The barrow close on W. side of this is in Winterbourne 
Stoke.] 

57. Batfyn Barrow just on 1ST. side of Andover Bd., ^-mile SW. of 

Batfyn, E. of river. O.M. 54. SE. ; A. W. I. Station VI. ; Soc. 
Ant. Map 532. 

58. Barrow just on N. side of Andover Bd. lj miles from Amesbury, 

near New Barn. O.M. 54 SE. ; A.W. I. Station VI. ; Soc. Ant. 
Map. 533. 

59. A long or oval barrow 300 yds. W. of Cross Boads, N. of Andover 

Boad a little E. of 58. O.M. 55 SW ; A.W. I. Station VI 
shows this as a round barrow ; Soc. Ant. Map 561. 

60. Barrow close lat N. end of the last. O.M. 55 S.W. ; A. W. I. 

Station VI. ; Soc. Ant. Map 534. 

61. Barrow to E. of last, N. of Andover Bd. at Cross Boads. O.M. 

55 SW. ; A. W. I. Station VI. ; -Soc. Ant. Map 535. 

62. Barrow to E. of last, N. of Andover Bd. beyond Cross Boads 

O.M. 55 SW. ; A. W. I. Station VI. ; Soc. Ant. Map 536. 

63. Barrow ou N. edge of Andover Bd. partly destroyed by Bd. at 2 

miles from Amesbury. O.M. 55 S.W. ; A. W. I. Station VI. 
Soc. Ant. Map 537. 
[63a.] A. W. I. Station VI. shows a barrow a little to the N. of 63 
not in O.M. 55 SW. 

64. Barrow a little distance further E. just on N. side of Bd. and on 
parish boundary. 0. M. 55 S W. ; A. W. I. Station VI. ; Soc. Ant. 
Map 538. 

65. Barrow at Cross Boads, S. of Andover Bd. & E. of Marlborough; 

Bd. O.M. 55 SW. ; A. W.I. Station V. South ; Soc. Ant. Map 550, 
[65a.] A. W. I. Station V. South shows a second barrow here close tc 
65, not in O.M. 55 5TF. 

66. Barrow just S.'of Andover Bd. at 2 miles from Amesbury. O.M 

55 S.W. ; A.W. I. Station V. South ; Soc. Ant. Map 539. 

67—75. On Earls Farm Down S. of the line of the ditch and Andove: 
Bd., E. of the Marlborough Rd., and W. of Beacon Hill Copse 
O.JLf.55 S.W. shows a scattered group of 9 barrows. A. TF.I.Statioi 
V. South shows only 8 here ; Soc. Ant. Map. 554, 555, 551, 552 
553, 556, 558,-560, 564. (This map (O.M. 1889) shows anothe 
barrow 557 touching 72. This is not on O.M. 1900.) 

76 — 84. S. of Earls Farm Down and close to railway, W. of Boscombi 
West Down, O.M. 61 NW. and A.W. I. Station V. Soutl 
both show a group of 9 barrows close together, which the latte 
marks as " Newton Barrows." Of these 8 are N. of the railwaj 
and one just on S. edge of the line. Not in Soc. Ant. Jf<i/>. 

85. Barrow f mile S.W. of last group on boundary of Idmiston. O.M 
61 NW. ; A. W. I. Station V. South. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 171 

86, 87. Disc barrow 1 ? and a small barrow close on S.W. of it, near 
Idmiston boundary, just W. of 85. O.M. 60 NE. ; A. W. Station 
V. South shows only one here. 86 to 92 not in Soc. Ant. Map. 

88. Barrow on the ditch about \ mile N.W. of the last at 7 miles 
from Salisbury on Salisbury— Marlborough K,d., on E. side of it. 
O.M. 60 NE. ; not in A. W. Station V. South. 

89. Barrow just N.E. of the last. O.M. 60. NE. ; A. W. Station V. 
South. 

90. Barrow |-mile N. of Porton Firs, E. of Marlborough Salisbury 
B,d. at junction of track from Amesbury Workhouse. O.M. 60, 
NE. ; ? shown on A.W. Station V. South. [A.W. I. Station V. 
South shows apparently a barrow W. of Porton Firs and another 
N. of this, not on O.M. 60 NE.] 

91. Triple barrow enclosed in one ditch, J-mile S. of Old Down 

Barn. O.M. 60 NE. ; A. W. I. Station V. South. 
92 —94. Group of 3 barrows close together on Amesbury Down near 

river, opposite to Normanton Farm, 1 mile S. of W. Amesbury. 

O.M. 60. NE. ; A. W. I. Station V. South shows only 2 here. 
[94a]. A.W. Station V. South shows a barrow on S. edge of river 

opposite Vespasian's Camp. Not on O.M. 60. NE. 
[Erratum. — On p. 166 above No. 17 should be 137 of the Stone- 

henge Map not 1 36.] 



A small vessel about 3^-in, high in shape of a drinking cup, 

covered with thong ornament from " a barrow at Stonehenge." 

Salisbury Museum. 
A bronze sword said to have been found in a barrow near Stone- 
henge, and " all the bones of a horse " in a barrow " East of 

Ambersbury." Stukeley Stonehenge, 46. 
Perforated axe hammer of dense black stone " from barrow near 

Stonehenge." British Museum. Evans' Stone, 190. 
Ground celt of dark stone formerly in Leverian Museum " from 

barrow near Stonehenge." Arch, xliii. 406. 
Flint knife with ground edge "from barrow near Stonehenge.'' 

Evans' Stone, 262. 
Small narrow chipped flint celt found on barrow near Stonehenge. 

Devizes Museum Cat. II. 30a. 
Hammerstones of flint and sarsenand ground flint implement from 

site of barrows near Stonehenge. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 59, 

62. 

touehenge and its Earthworks. 

A slight earthen vallum with ditch outside it surrounds the monument 
except where the avenue of approach cuts it on the N.E. Just inside 
the vallum at N.W. and S.E. points are two stones, whilst two small 
barrows (12, 13) also just inside the vallum are near the N. and S. 
points. About 100ft. inside the ditch was an outer circle of 30 up- 
rights about 12ft. high and 4ft. apart covered with a row of 28 lintels 

N 2 



172 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

or imposts. Each upright had 2 projecting tenons at the top fitting 
into mortice holes at each end of the imposts. The ends of the im- 
posts were also morticed so as to form a kind of toggle joint with 
each other. Inside this outer circle was an inner circle of smaller 
" bluestones " composed of primary rocks foreign to Wiltshire. A 
single impost now prostrate suggests that this inner circle may also 
have had imposts. Inside this inner circle five great trilithons of 
two uprights and an impost, arranged in horseshoe fashion facing the 
N.E., the central trilithon being the highest. Inside this a series of 
" bluestones " about 8ft. high arranged also horseshoe fashion. In 
front of the central trilithon a flat recumbent stone, the altar stone. 
The axis of the structure ran through the opening of the great 
trilithon across the altar stone N.E.down the centre of the " avenue " 
over the recumbent " slaughter stone," lying in the centre of the 
avenue, and the point of the upright " Hele Stone " or " Friars Heel" 
standing in the avenue near the road. The avenue itself, formed by 
two parallel banks and ditches, runs N.E. for about 600 yards, and 
then divides into two branches, one running N. to the " Cursus " the 
other eastwards. Of the original 30 uprights and 28 lintels of the 
outer circle of sarsen stones, 17 uprights and 6 lintels remain in situ. 
Of the inner circle of " Bluestones "11 remain. Of the 5 trilithons 2 
are perfect, one stone (formerly the " Leaning Stone " but set upright 
in 1901) of the great central trilithon, and one of the northernmost 
trilithon, are standing. 
The altar stone is of micaceous sandstone, 2 of the "bluestones" of 
argillaceous sandstone, the rest chiefly of Porphyritic Diabase. It 
has been suggested that these are erratic blocks from glacial drift on 
Salisbury Plain, but no such erratic blocks have ever been found in 
Wilts, and these stones must have come from a distance, from Wales, 
Cornwall, or N. Devon possibly. The sarsens came probably from 
the Marlborough Downs, as sarsens in any number could never have 
existed on the Plain. During the excavations round the base of the 
Leaning Stone, 1901, chippings of both sarsen and bluestones were 
found together at the base of the stones, and it was found that the 
uprights of the trilithons had been set up from the inside of the 
circle. Hence sarsens and bluestones must have been erected at the 
same time, and the whole building is contemporaneous. About 100 
very rough flint implements and flint and sarsen hammerstones were, 
found, together with several large mauls of sarsen weighing from 44 ( 
to 64 lbs., used as packing round the base of the uprights. These 
were used, Dr. Gowland believes, the mauls in pounding the surface 
of the sarsens into grooves, the sarsen hammers in working down 
the surface of the sarsens, and the flints possibly in working the 
softer bluestones to a face. The whole face of the " leaning-stone " 
underground was pitted with small holes. A single stain of copper 
or bronze was found. Dr. Gowland believed that this points to the 
conclusion that the building was erected about the time of the in- 
troduction of bronze, or the end of the Neolithic period, i.e., cir. 
1800 B.C. Sir Norman Lockyer on astronomical grounds puts the 



By the Rev. E. H. Qoddard. 



173 



date at 1500 to 1900 B.C. All evidence points to its being a Sun 
Temple, the sun rises over the Hele Stone and shines directly on the 
altar stone and central trilithon on Midsummer day. Objects found 
in the excavations 1901 are deposited in Devizes Museum, Cat. II. 
p. 101. Other flint implements and piece of implement of diabase, 
Devizes Museum, Cat. II. 37 ; Arch, lviii. 1 ; W.A.M. xxxiii. 1 ; 
Lockyer's Stonehenge and other British Stone Monuments 1906; 
Barclay's Stonehenge and its Earthworks ; Petrie's Stonehenge : 
LoDg's Stonehenge and its Barrows, W.A.M. xvi. 1 ; W. J. Harrison, 
Bibliography of Stonehenge, W.A.M. xxxii. 1 ; A. W. I. 157, map 170. 

The " Cursus," an enclosure between parallel banks with rounded ends, 
extending from just over the Winterbourne Stoke border, just W. of 
Fargo plantation, eastwards to boundary of Amesbury and Durrington 
for 1 mile 5 furlongs 176 yards, with a breadth of 110 yards. At E. 
end a mound like a long barrow (42) lies just outside the rounded 
end. 825 yards W. from this are opposite entrances on each side. 
Near W. end a slight bank crosses the cursus and just within the 
end are two barrows. Use of Cursus unknown. O. M. 54 SW, SE ; 
A. W. I. 158, 159, map 170. 

[The whole of the Cursus east of the combe or valley into which it 
dips (shown by contour on O.M.) is under cultivation ; part of this 
is still traceable across the ploughed ground by a white chalky line 
marking the site of the bank, but further east and at its end we 
could see absolutely no trace at all, although the state of the ground 
was favourable for doing so. 1913. M.B.C.] 

bher Earthworks. 

Vespasian's Camp occupies apex of down with Avon river on two sides. 
Wedge shaped, pointed end to N. S. end cut off by road and 
mutilated. Single vallum, mutilated on E. side in forming 
grounds of Abbey, interior planted. Area 39 acres. OM. 54 SE. ; 
A.W. I. 160, map 170. 

West Amesbury. Aubrey, Mon. Brit, is quoted by Hoare (A. W. 1. 198,) 
as saying that " near to the Farm House of W. Amesbury is a 
great ditch" also near Barrow 17 "Normanton Ditch." Hoare 
could find no traces of either. 

Large bank and ditch running roughly parallel to S. side of Andover 
Boad for 2 miles or more and forming for a mile boundary of 
Amesbury and Bulford. " May be traced along the vale in its 
course westward down to a barn and through one large arable 
field beyond it" (Hoare) and on the East alongside the road as 
far as milestone 75, when it bends to the right (in Choldertoh ?) 
to Wilbury. O.M. 55 SW. ; A. W. I. 216, Station V. 

At 7th milestone from Salisbury, on Salisbury — Marlborough Boad, 
about 1 mile E. of Amesbury Workhouse, and E. of the rd. 
O.M. 60 NE shows a ditch running S.W. to N.E. for a short 
distance, the remains of " Two very singular banks and ditches " 
which, says Hoare, run parallel to each other over the down for 
1716ft. 97ft. apart. 



174 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

Finds, Neolithic. Fragment of ground celt of diabase, 1879, W.A.M. xxi. 

148 ; ground flint celt, Blackmore Museum ; flint celt partly 

ground with re-chipped edge, 1893, Brit. Museum ; chipped flint 

celt, A. D. Passmore ; flint arrowhead with very long barbs, 

J. W. Brooke ; all found " near Stonehenge." 
Perforated oval hammer stone made from quartzite pebble, and half of 

a perforated polished stone hammer found "near Amesbury," 

Edwards Coll., Blackmore Museum. 
Ground flint celt found built up in wall of house, Devizes Museum, 

Cat. II. 1 ; W.A.M. vii. 334. 

Tinds, Bronze Age. Flat celt said to be from " Long Barrow at Stone- 
henge," Arch. v. 136, PI. viii. 4 ; Evans' Bronze, 46. 

Socketed celt, narrow tanged chisel, and razor, 1892, " found in neigh- 
bourhood of Stonehenge," Farnham Museum. 

A plain hand-made rounded bowl about 4in. diam., found 1904 in 
making railway from Grateley to Amesbury (? in what parish), 
Blackmore Museum. 

Finds, Late Celtic (?). A dwelling pit on Salisbury Rd. \ mile from 
Amesbury, 2 urn-shaped cooking vessels. Devizes Museum, 
Cat II. 833, 834. 

Finds, Roman. Coins in New Covert E. of Workhouse, 1842. O.M. 
60 NE. 

ANSTY. 
Barrows. 

1. Long barrow on Whitesheet Hill at actual point of junction of 

Donhead St. Mary, Ansty, and Berwick St. John.— O.M. 69 SE. ; 
A. W. I. Stations VIII., IX. 

2. On White Sheet Hill a little distance E. of the last, on Berwick 

St. John boundary, W. of the ditch, a round barrow. O.M. 69 
SE. ; A. W. I. Stations VIII. IX. 

3. On Swallowcliffe boundary just N of British village, at point of 

junction of Ansty,Swallowcliffe, and Alvediston, a round barrow. 
O.M. 69 NE. ; A. W. I. Stations VIII. IX. 

Earthworks. On White Sheet Hill in S.W. corner of parish, a strong 
bank and ditch cut across the Ridgeway and the ridge, nearly 
N. & S., at point of junction of Ansty, Alvediston, and Berwick 
St. John. O.M. 69 SE. ; A. W. I, 249, Stations VIII. IX. 
On Middle Down at E. corner of parish, at point of junction with 
Alvediston a strong bank and ditch cut across the Ridgeway and 
the ridge, running nearly E. & W. O.M. 69 NE. ; A. W. I. 249, 
Stations VIII. IX. 

Roman. On Middle Down at point of junction of Ansty, Alvediston and 
Swallowcliffe, a British village with banks and ditches 
extending into Alvediston. Hoare found much rude pottery 
here but no Roman. O.M. 69 SE ; A.W. I. 249, Stations 
VIII. IX. 



By the Bev. E, H. Goddard. 175 

ASHLEY. 

The Fosseway forms the E. boundary of the parish. O.M. III. SE. 

ASHTON KEYNES. 
Earthworks. Moat round " site of nunnery " at Church Farm, and earth- 
works of doubtful age just N". W. of Kent End Farm. Medieval ? 
O.M. 4 SE. 

ATWOETH. 

earthworks. The line of Roman Road and Wansdyke combined form 
north boundary of parish throughout. O.M. 25 SE. ; A. W. II. 
16—30, 27, 79, plan. 

Roman. Coins found 1902. W.A.M. xxxiii. 169. 

AVEBUBY, 

Sarrows. [The numbers in brackets, thus (3), are those of Hoare, the 
letters, thus (c), are those of Smith.] 
1, 2 (a, c). A mile E. of Oldbury Camp on West Down 2 barrows 
close together, 1, (a), low bowl-shaped barrow with ditch, not 
opened ; 2, (c), large bowl-shaped with slight ditch, opened, no 
record. O-M. 27 SE. ; Smith p. 96, VII. E. V. a, c. 

3, [3a]. Just S.-of old Bath Rd. and W. of its junction with present 
Rd.,on Knoll Down, Smith marks 2 irregular mounds with ditches 
(v, w) of which O.M. 27 SE shows one only. Smith p. 98 VII. 
E. V. v. w. 

4, 5. Close to the last 2 very wide low barrows with ditches, just S. 

of the ditch, both opened, no record. O.M. 27 SE. ; Smith p. 97 
VII. E. V. 1. m. 

6. On West Down in corner of parish, just 1ST. of Roman Rd. close to 

Calstone boundary, O.M. 27 SE marks a barrow, apparently not 
shown by Smith. 

7, 8 [8a]. | mile E. of the last, just N. of Roman Rd., W. of the 
point where it cuts the Devizes Rd., O-M 27 SE shows two 
barrows close together, apparently 2 of the 3 shown by Smith 
p. 104, VII. E. VI. b, c, d. (b) A bell-shaped barrow with ditch 
and a sarsen stone pitched upright on the top, not opened, (c & 
d) Very low barrows ploughed down. 

9. Just E. of point where Roman Rd. cuts Devizes Rd. at 7 miles 

from Devizes, O.M. 28 S.W. shows a barrow touching Rd. on N. 

1 =z Smith p. 106, VII. E. V. 2, a low wide barrow much ploughed 

down. A. W. II, PI. X. " Abury & Silbury." 
[9a.] Close to this Smith p. 106 VII. E. V. 3 shows another low 

ploughed-down barrow, A. W. II. PI. x. " Abury & Silbury " ; not 

on O.M. 28 SW. 



A short distance NW. of the last at S.W. corner of Fox Cover, a 
little away from rd., O.M. 27 SE, 28 SW. shows 7 barrows in 



176 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

line S.W. to N.E.. close together. Smith also shows 7 barrows, 
pp. 105, 106, VII. E. VI. t, u, v, w, x, y. z. A. W. I. p. 91, 92, 
PI. X. " Abury and Silbury," shows 10 (Nos. 1—10). 

10 (1) (t). The most easterly, large bowl-shaped barrow with diteb, 

opened by Hoare, burnt bones in oval cist. O.M. 28 S.W. 

11 (3) (u). Very low barrow, opened before Hoare's time, no record. 

M. 27 SE. 

12 (4) (v). High bowl-shaped barrow, with ditch, opened before 

Hoare's time, no record. O.M. 27 SE. 

13 (2) (w). Low barrow with wide ditch, opened before Hoare's 

time, no record. O.M. 28 SW. 
[13 a— c] Three barrows, (5, 6, 7) of Hoare, have entirely disappeared 
and are shown neither on O.M. 27 SE. nor on Smith's Map. 

(5) Opened by Hoare, contained burnt bones. 

(6) Opened before Hoare's time, no record. 

(7) Opened by Hoare, burnt bones in cist with two rings and 

small ornament of lignite. 

14 (8) (x), Very low barrow, ploughed down, opened before Hoare's. 

time, no record. O.M. 27 SE. 

15 (9) (y). Very low barrow, ploughed down, opened by Hoare, large 

urn, 16in. diam., inverted in cist over burnt bones. O.M. 27 SE. 

16 (10) (z). The most westerly of the line, very low and wide barrow, 

ploughed down, opened by Cunnington, 1804, no record. O.M. 
27 SE. 



17. Beckhampton. Opposite Beckhampton House on N". side of Bath 

Rd. a very large oval barrow ? much of which has been removed. 
Fragments of a large urn (1 of what age) with handle, containing 
burnt bones, and bronze dagger 1 found in it. Proc. Arch. Inst. 
Salisbury p. 109 figs. 11 & 23. O.M. 28 SW. ; Stukeley Abury, 
46 ; A. W. II. " Abury & Silbury " PL x. ; Smith p. 100, VII. F. 
V. a. [1 a Long Barrow.] 

18. To W. of this at Penning Barn in next field, a large bowl-shaped 
barrow without ditch, opened, no record. O.M. 28 S.W. ; A. W. 
II. "Abury & Silbury" PL x. ; Smith p. 100, VII. F. V. b. 

19. In next field W. of this, just N. of Bath Rd. a low wide barrow, 

opened by Dean Merewether 1849. Burnt bones in shallow cist. 
Fragments of Samian ware near top. O.M. 28 S.W. ; Proc. Arch. 
Inst. Salisbury p. 99, No. 19 ; Smith, p, 101. VII. F. V. d. 
[19a]. A.W. II. PL x. "Abury & Silbury " shows a barrow just W. 

of road Beckhampton to Avebury, at 8 miles from Devizes. 

Not in O.M. or Smith. 

20. To E. of the vallum (close to a house built 1908) a very large and 

high bowl barrow, opened, no record. O.M. 28 S.W. , A.W. II. 
PI. x., Stations xi. and xii. ; Smith p. 145 XL G. V. b. 
[20a]. Waden Hill to W. of Kennet Road. A large flat wide bar- 
row on arable land, ploughed down. Has now disappeared 
(191 2). The only remnant of the many barrows with which 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard- 177 

Stukeley says this hill " Windmill Hill," or " Weedon Hill," was 
in his day crowned. At the southern end of the hill he says the 
Roman Rd. passed over a disc barrow. Stukeley Abury 45 ; 
Smith p. 145. XL G. V. d. ; W. A.M. xxxviii. 12 ; not in A.W.ox 
O.M. 28 SW. 

21. To E. of Kennet Rd., at Wayden's Penning, \ mile from Avebury, 

close to site of stone circle, a very low barrow, not opened. O.M. 
28 SW. ; Smith p. 148 XI. G. V. h. 

22. W. Kennet Long Barrow, i mile SE. of Silbury. O.M. 28 SW. 

Smith XL G. VI. b. See Appendix Long Barrows. 

23. Kennet or Overton Hill, S. of Bath Road and W. of Ridgeway. 

A low ploughed-down barrow in Mill Field close to the concen- 
tric stone circles known as " The Sanctuary." It is possibly the 
base of the barrow said by Stukeley to have been levelled in 
1720, when a skeleton, with several large amber beads and glass 
beads, within a bed of great stones forming a kind of arch was 
found. Opened by Thurnam 1854, it produced iron nails, &c, 
but no interment. Possibly the site of a windmill. Shown in 
O.M. 28 SW. as site of tumulus ; W.A.M. vi. 327 ; Stukeley 
Abury 44 ; Smith p. 169. XL H. VI. 1. ; A. W. ii. PI. x. 
On the same hill N. of the Bath Rd. and W. of Ridgeway, a gcoup of 
barrows (24-30) NE. of W. Kennet. O.M. 28 SW. ; A.W. 
II. Stations xi. and xii. 

24 (a). A low wide ploughed-down barrow opened 1882 by C. E. 

Ponting, in centre a circular grave 2|ft. deep and 3£ft. in diam. 
and partially walled with sarsen stones, contained a contracted 
skeleton, with which were the skeleton of some small animal 
and an enormous number of bones of frogs or toads, worked 
flints and " a singular piece of wood in the form of a knife." 
The grave was covered with 3 flat sarsens, and over it was a 
heap of sarsen stones 24ft. in diam. At 6ft. from the base of 
this cairn was a double continuous row of very large sarsen 
stones, some weighing several tons. A skeleton was found in 
the upper part of the cairn with a rude vessel, intended doubtless 
as a drinking cup. Objects at Devizes Museum. W.A.M. xx. 
342 ; A. W. ii. PI. x. ; Smith p. 163. XI. H. VI. a. 

25 (b). On S. side of the last a very large wide barrow, 4ft. 4in. high, 

much ploughed down, opened 1882 by W. and H. Cunnington. 
Two interments of burnt bones in circular cists about 1ft. deep, 
and mixed with ashes, were found. A number of flint flakes 
lying together and apparently made at the time the barrow was 
formed, a flint scraper and a flint " saw " were found, with frag- 
ments of drinking cup and urn. It is doubtful whether the 
primary interment was discovered. O.M. 28 SW. ; W.A.M. xx. 
345 ; Smith p. 164, XI. H. VI. b. 

26 (m). On N. side of (a), a large and high bell barrow with ditch, 

perhaps opened by Thurnam, who found nothing but a frag- 
ment of deer's horn. A bushel of burnt ashes had been previously 



1/8 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

found in it. O.M. 28 SW. ; A. W. ii. PI. x. ; W.A.M. vi. 332 ; 
Smith p. 150, XI. H. V. m. 

27 (1). On N. of the last, a large bell-shaped barrow, possibly (?) that 

opened by Thurnam (No. 24) in 1857. On the S. side the 
skeleton of a female, the skeleton of a child of 2 or 3 years in 
another part of the mound with fragments of burnt bones and 
the perforated head of a bone pin. At the top the skeleton of a 
small horse with iron shoes had been found previously. O.M. 
28 SW. ; W.A.M. vi. 331 ; Smith p. 149. XI. H. V. 1. 

28 (k). On NE. side of last a tall bell-shaped barrow, not opened. 

O.M. 28 SW. ; Smith p. 149. XI. H. V. k. 

29 (i). NE. of the last again, a tall bowl-shaped barrow with ditch, 

not opened. 0. M. 28 S W. ; Smith p. 149, XI. H. V. i. 
[29a] (o). A little distance N. of the last, a very large disc-shaped 
barrow, 30 yds. in diam., with large bank and ditch. Opened by 
Thurnam (No. 23) who found no evidence of an interment. 
W.A.M. vi. 331 ; Stukeley Abury p. 40 tabs xix. and xxii. ; 
Smith p. 150, XI. H. V. o. ; not shown in O.M. 28 SW. 

30 (e). N. and nearer Ridgeway, a very fine bell-shaped barrow, 

opened by Hoare (No. 7). Burnt bones with very rude incense 
cup in oblong cist. O.M. 28 SW. ; A.W. ii. 91. PL x. ; Smith 
p. 148. XL H. V. e. 



30a. To W. of these barrows, E. of field track, twin barrows enclosed 
in one ditch, opened by Dean Merewether (No. 12) 1849 without 
result, shown as a Long barrow in O.M. 28 SW. Proc. Arch. Inst. 
Salisbury 91 ; Smith p. 148 XL H. V. f. g. 

31, 32. On top of hill to E. and nearer Ridgeway 2 fine bell-shaped 
barrows touching each other, opened, no record. O.M. 28 S.W. ; 
Smith p. 148 XL H. V. c. d. 

33, 34. On Avebury Down to N. of the last, and S. of track from 
Avebury, a bowl shaped barrow (a) ; and to E. in arable land a 
low barrow (b), ploughed down. O.M. 28 N.W. ; Smith p. 148 
XL M. V. a. b. 

35. Opposite these on N. side of track, a very wide low barrow 25 
yds. wide and 5ft. high, opened by Dean Mere wether 1849 (No 1). 
In centre 18in. below surface a coarse urn containing bones of a 
child. At 2jf t. below surface the contracted skeleton of a young 
person. In the mound numerous pieces of deers' ribs. O.M. 28 
N.W. ; Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury, 82, Fig, A. ; Smith p. 132 
X. H. IV. i. 

[35a, b.] Not far to E. of this 2 very low barrows formerly existed, 
now ploughed down. One (1) opened by Dean Merewether 1849 
(No. 10) contained two shallow cists with burnt bones, with 
quantities of broken Roman pottery, iron nails and 84 Roman 
coins in the body of the mound. Not in O.M. 28 NW. Proc. 
Arch. Inst. Salisbury 86 Fig. k. ; Smith p. 132 X H. IV. k. 1. 



By the Bev. E. H. Goddard. 179 

N. of this and S.E. of Avebury Down Barn a line of 5 barrows 
lying E. and W.all except (d) opened by Dean Merewether 1849. 
O.M. 28 NW. ; Smith p. 131, 132, X. H. IV. a. b. c. d. e.] 

36 (a). Large bowl-shaped, without ditch, 9ft. high (No. 2), nothing 

but animal bones and wood ashes found. Proc. Arch. Inst. 
Salisbury 83. 

37 (b). Large and high bowl-shaped barrow, without ditch (No. 3). 

cist, 18in. diam., contained burnt bones and two small pieces of 
bronze (knife daggers 1) 

38 (c). Very high bowl-shaped barrow (No. 4). Central cist 2ft. 6in. 

deep x 2ft. 6in. diam., containing large plain urn, 13in. high, 
with burnt bones. Fragments of another urn found 2ft. 6in. 
below top of barrow. Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury p. 83,. figs. F, G. 

39 (d). Large high bowl-shaped barrow, no ditch, opened before Dean 

Merewether's time, no record. 

40 (e). Large high bowl-shaped barrow, 7ft. high, no ditch (No. 5). 

Large cist with large quantity of burnt bones, covered with 
pounded charcoal 1 Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury p. 84. 



| mile E. of this group, on brow of hill near the Bidgeway 3 barrows 
in line N. & S. close together (41—43). O.M. 28 NW. ; Smith 
p. 133, 134, X. H. IV. m, n, o. 

41 (m). Large low bowl-shaped barrow, no ditch, opened by Dean 

Merewether 1849 (? No. 8). Circular cist in centre with burnt 
bones covered with black charcoal dust. Above this "four 
distinct layers of sarsen stones, ranging with the form of the 
barrow." " Bones & pottery covered over with convex sarsen 
stones " found on the outskirts of the barrow. Proc. Arch.Inst. 
Salisbury 85. 

42 (n). Flat bowl-shaped barrow, no ditch, with a stone on the 

top and surrounded by sarsens. 

43 (o). Large low barrow, with ditch, opened by Dean Merewether 

1849 (No. 9). At 2ft. below the surface of the barrow a cist 
containing burnt bones and charcoal dust, and lower down a 
cist 3ft. deep covered with a large sarsen containing an unusual 
quantity of burnt bones covered with charcoal dust. Proc. 
Arch. Inst. Salisbury 86, Jig. J. 
44. Just N.E. of this group & touching W. side of the Bidgeway a 
small barrow. O.M. 28 NE. ; Smith p. 133, X. H. IV. p. 



Windmill Hill. 1^ miles NW. of Avebury. In iStukeley's days this 
hill, surrounded by a ditch, was under grass and had 15 barrows 
on it, of which he opened a flat one, with an urn inverted over 
burnt bones in a cist. Stukeley Abury 45, PI. xxxvi. ; A-W. ii. 
95. Smith marks 13 of these barrows ; A. W. ii. Stations xi. and 
xii. shows 4 inside the trench and 8 outside. O.M. 28 NW, 
(1900) shows 6 only, 4 of which are in Winterbourne Monkton, 
q.v- 



180 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

From a barrow on Windmill Hill (? in which parish) found with 7 
skeletons, a Grape Cup, and perforated Hammer axe. W. Brown, 
Devizes Museum Cat. II. x23 x23aj%. ; Arch. Jour. vii. 399 ; 
Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury 108 fig. 3 & 4. 

In 1891 a skeleton accompanied by worked flints found on Mr. Henry- 
Browne's farm, possibly from site of a destroyed barrow. J. W. 
Brooke. W.A.M. xxvi. 411. What age ? 

[44 a, b]. Inside the entrenchment on S. side, 2 wide low ploughed- 
down barrows, not in O.M. 28 NW. ; Smithy- 90 VI. F. IV. 1. m. 

[44c]. Outside the ditch on S. side a wide low barrow, ploughed 
down, not in O.M. 28 NW. ; Smith p. 90. VI. F. IV. n. 

45. On NE. side, outside the ditch, on parish boundary, large bowl- 
shaped barrow. Opened, no record. Smith p. 89. VI. F. IV. e. 



On a line E. from the last outside the ditch, and on the line of the 
parish boundary, 4 barrows, of which only one (? g) is shown on 
0. M. 28 NW. ; ' Smith p. 89, VI. F. IV. f. h. g. 

[45a] (f). Wide low barrow, ploughed down. 

46 (g). Large low barrow, ploughed down, opened by Dean Mere- 
wether 1849 (No. 14). 1ft. 2in. below surface of barrow, the 
fragments of a small urn containing the unburnt bones of a child. 
Lower down a skeleton with no left hand. O.M. 28 NW. ; Proc. 
Arch. Inst. Salisbury, 94, figs. P. Q. 

[46a] (h). Large low barrow, opened by Dean Merewether (No. 15). 
Part of human skull, many animal bones, fragments of pottery, 
and barbed and tanged flint arrowhead found. Had perhaps 
been opened before. Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury, M,fig. R; 
Evans' Stone, 343. 

[46b]. A large low barrow, now obliterated, opened by Dean Mere- 
wether 1849 (No. 13). Cist 2ft. deep with burnt bones. In 
body of mound 9 smooth pebbles, jet bead, and pottery fragments. 
Not in O.M. 28 NW. ; Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury, 94, fig. ; 
Smith p. 131. X. G. IV. a. 

47. Due S. of Windmill Hill and W. of track, a very low barrow 

ploughed down. Site marked on O.M. 28 NW. ; Smith p. 90. 
VI. F. IV. p. 
[47a]. E. of this last and of the track, a widespread barrow ploughed 
down. Not in 0. M. 28 NW. ; Smith p. 90. VI. F. IV. o. 

48. S.W. of Windmill Hill a large low barrow, ploughed down, pos- 

sibly the one mentioned by Stukeley in which a "brass spearhead" 
(? knife dagger) was found with a skeleton. Site shown in O.M. 
28 NW. ; Stukeley, Abury 45 ; Smith p. 131, X. G. IV. b. 



Dean Merewether, in a list of "Antiquities found near Avebury " (Proc. 
Arch. Inst. Salisbury, pp. 108—112) mentions several barrows which 
cannot be exactly identified. They are probably in Avebury parish. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 181 

Barrow " 1 mile from Beckhampton on r. of Devizes Rd." contained 
an urn of unusual type 6|in. high x 5in. wide at the base, full 
of burnt bones, p. 108, fig. 5. 
Barrow "£ mile N. of the last" contained a small plain urn 7in. 
high near the skull of a very young person ; also a plain bowl- 
shaped vessel 2Jin. high, pp. 108, 109, figs. 6, 7. 
Barrow " \\ miles W. of the last." Urn 7in. high, found with 
crouched skeleton, p. 109, figs. 8, 16. 
3 cinerary urns from barrows at or near Beckhampton, of which no 

details are known, in Devizes Museum. Cat. II. x6, x7, x8. 
In a barrow S. of Silbury was found " a bit of gold (I suppose the 
covering of a button, or the like, such as that I dug up at Stone- 
henge), and many sharp bits of iron." Stukeley Abury, 45. 
2 fine cin. urns, probably from barrows near W. Kennet, of which there 

is no record, now in Devizes Museum. Mr. Butler, of Kennet. 
In a barrow " to the S.E. of Kennet (? in what parish) were 12 skeletons 
with their feet towards the centre, in which was a " Grape Cup." 
Proc. Arch. Inst., Salisbury p. 108, fig. 2 ; Smith p. 145. 

BEegalithic. 

The Circles. A great roughly circular ditch, the earth from which is 
thrown up in an irregular bank on the outside, encloses an area of 
28j acres, with a diameter of from 1170ft. to 1260ft. Ditch and 
vallum remain for about f of the circuit, the section near the Church 
and Manor House having been destroyed. The vallum had a cir- 
cumference of 4442ft., and at the highest point was about 21ft. 
high above the level. Round the inner edge of the ditch ran, 
according to Stukeley, who carefully surveyed the whole monument 
in 1724, an outer circle of 100 stones, placed about 27ft. apart. 
Inside this were two smaller circles, consisting each, according to 
Stukeley, of 30 stones, with, as he believed, in each case an inner 
concentric circle of 12 stones. These inner circles of the northern 
and southern " Temples," however, are not clearly to be made out 
from Aubrey's sketch made in 1663, and their existence has been 
denied by the Rev- W. C. Lukis (Proc. Soc. Ant., ix., 141) and others. 
In the centre of the northern circle was a " cove " facing N.E. formed 
of three very large stones, of which two are still standing, 17ft. and 
14ft. 7in. high respectively. The third, 21ft. in length, fell and was 
broken up in 1713. In the centre of the southern circle stood, says 
Stukeley, a single stone, " The Obelisk," of a circular form at base, 
21ft. long by 8ft. 9in. diam. This has entirely disappeared, it is 
not noticed by Aubrey in his survey of 1663, but evident signs of its 
former existence and destruction were found by the Rev. A. C. Smith 
in 1 865 ( W.A. M. x., 212). Between the southern circle and the outer 
circle in a line with the centres of the N. and S. circles, stood in 
Stukeley's time a single stone with a hole wrought in it, which he 
called the " Ring Stone." This no longer exists. Of the outer circle 
there are visible now 10 standing and 8 prostrate stones, of the 



182 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Ray an Saxon Antiquities. 






southern circle 2 standing and 3 fallen, and of the northern circle 
3 standing and 1 fallen, but in 1881 the Rev. A. C. Smith [Brit, and 
Rom. Antiq. of N . Wilts., 139) discovered and uncovered 16 stones 
of the outer circle now buried, and 2 in the northern circle. 

From the S.E. point of the oater circle, just on the E. side of the 
present Kennet Road, a winding avenue of a double row of stones led 
across the ditch by a solid causeway and more or less along the course 
of the present road to W. Kennet where it turned sharply to the E. 
and ended in a double concentric circle or oval of stones on Overton 
or Kennet Hill just W. of Overton boundary and S. of Marlborough 
Rd. (O.M. 28 S W.). This circle, called by Stukeley " The Sanctuary," 
was entirely destroyed in 1724, the ground around it having been 
found in 1678 to be full of human bones (Stukeley's Abury, 27, 29, 
30). This avenue, planned in a rough sketch by Aubrey (1663) when 
it was nearly complete, had in Stukeley's day (1743) 72 stones still 
standing. At present 19 stones remain visible, one just outside the 
vallum of Avebury, and a group on the W. of the Rd. to Kennet, 
still occupying their original positions. Of this group of 11 stones 
together 2 are now standing and 9 prostrate. Stone No. 2 from the 
Avebury end of the W. side of the avenue has never fallen, the stone 
opposite to it on E. side of avenue was re-erected by Wilts Arch. Soc. 
in Aug., 1912, at the same time as the large Longstoneat Beckhamp- 
ton. Long in 1858, and Smith in 1884, state that there was only 
one stone standing at those dates, but there seems good evidence 
that there were really two, and that this one fell cir. 1889. O-M. 28 
S.W. ; W.A.M. iv., 328 ; xxxviii., 7. 

A large sarsen was found buried in the line of the avenue, 1913, 12ft. 
from the W. side of the road, possibly one of the avenue stones, 
broken human bones found round it. W.A.M. xxxviii., 12. 

The existence of the Beckhampton Avenue rests on the authority of 
Stukeley alone, Aubrey does not mention it, and many authorities 
doubt its existence. According to Stukeley it left the -circle at the 
S.W. point to S. of the churchyard, (extending to Beckhampton and 
ending near a group of barrows on the down between the Calne and 
Devizes Roads. Stukeley Abury, 30 ; W.A.M., iv., 329. 

Longstone Cove, Longstones, or the Devil's Coits, 2 large stones stand- 
ing in field to N. of Rd. Avebury to Beckhampton, near the latter. 
Aubrey says 3 stones were standing in his time placed like a cove. I 
Stukeley saw 2 standing and 1 prostrate, which he says abutted on 
the Beckhampton Avenue, the avenue stone forming the back of the ' 
cove which opened to the S.E. The large stone which fell Dec. 2nd, 
1911, was re-erected by the Wilts Arch. Soc, 1912, when B. H. 
Cunnington found an interment with drinking cup immediately at 
the foot of the stone. O-M. 28 SW. ; W.A.M. xxxviii., 1 ; Stukeley 
Abury, 35 ; A. W. ii., 78 ; Smith p. 101, VII. F. V. c. 

Excavations in the ditch by H. St. G. Gray on behalf of Brit. Assoc. 
carried out 1908, 1909, and 1911 on the W. side of Kennet Road proved | 
the ditch to have been 17ft. to 20ft. deeper than it is now, with a flat ! 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 183 

bottom ll^ft. to 17ft. wide. The absence of metal, and the presence 
of deer horn picks, shoulder blades of ox possibly used as shovels, 
and a flint knife of Neolithic type on the floor of the ditch, together 
•with the fact that pottery similar to that found in the chamber of the 
W. Kennet Long Barrow was found in the filling of the ditch, points 
to the end of the Stone Age as the probable period of the work. 
W.A.M. xxxvi. 345 ; xxxvii. 477. 
For Bibliography of Stonehenge and Avebury see W.A.M. xxxii. 1. 



Remains of a stone circle about 1 mile S. of Silbury close to parish 
boundary. Rev. A. C. Smith, 1877, uncovered 22 small stones buried 
underground forming part of this oblong or circle, 261ft. X 216ft. 
Stukeley, Abury p. 46, mentions this circle. " Upon the heath south 
of Silbury Hill was a very large oblong work like a long barrow, made 
only of stones pitch'd in the ground, no tumulus." The stones had 
been removed, he says, 14 years before. O.M. 28 SW. ; A. W. II. 96 ; 
Smith p. 177 plan, XII. G. VII. a ; W.A.M. xvii. 253; xix. 56, plan 160. 

Stone circle formerly existed at Wayden's Penning on opposite side of 
road 283 yds. E. of the 11 stones of the Kennet Avenue. One stone 
by the hedge only now remains. In 1840 R. Falkner found two prostrate 
and saw 9 holes from which others had been taken. Diameter cir. 
120ft. O.M. 28 S W. ; W.A.M. iv. 345 ; xix. 55 ; Smith p. 147, XI. G. V. 
g,plan;A.W. II. 94. 

On the down E. of Avebury, Smith, p. 150, XL H. V. n, notes several 
sarsen stones, consisting of one cap-stone on three very small sup- 
porters, surrounded by a very low mound of earth ; in all probability 
a burial place or diminutive cromlech." 

Earthworks. 

On slope of Hackpen E. of Kennet Avenue and just N.W. of Barrow 30 
an oblong enclosure 100 yds. X 80 yds. with inner enclosure in S.W. 
corner. Banks 2ft. high. No evidence of occupation found by Hoare. 
O.M. 28 S W. ; Stukeley Abury 48 ; Smith p. 148 XL, H. V. h. ; Proc. 
Arch. Inst. Salisbury p. 102, No. v. fig.; A.W. II. 94. 

Windmill Hill, circular trench enclosing top of hill and many barrows 
(partly in Winterbourne Monkton). O.M. 28 NW. ; Stukeley Abury 
45 ; A. W. II. 95. 

Silbury Hill. I mile S. of Avebury. Largest artificial mound in 
England, 130ft. high, 552ft. diam. at base, 104ft. diam. at top, and 
covers area of 5 acres 1192 yds. {Smith 151.) In 1777 the Duke 
of Northumberland and Col. Drax sunk a shaft from top to original 
level ; in 1849 the Arch. Institute. drove a tunnel on the S. side along 
the original level to the centre and round the centre. Nothing found 
except a few bones of ox or deer, and pieces of twisted grass string. 
{Proc.' Arch. Inst., Salisbury 297). The Roman Rd., Bath to Cunetio, 
ran immediately S. of Silbury Hill, and Stuke.ley who saw its course 
here before it was obliterated says it was purposely deflected from 
the straight to avoid the hill. If it had kept on a straight course it 



184 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

would have passed under the hill. In 1867 excavations were made 
to settle its real course — and the road was found at a distance of 
30 yds. to the S. of the base of the hill. The two ditches of the 
road 18ft. apart were found. {Smith 161 ; W.A.M. xi. 113.) The 
road was traced for 477 yds. here by 8 sections. This seemed to prove 
that the road was deflected from the straight here to avoid the already 
existing hill.* Stukeley records finding of skeleton with iron " bridle '' 
and knife on top near surface 1723. Stukeley, Abury ; A.W. II. 79. 
In 1886 A. C. Pass sunk 10 shafts round N. & W. sides of base of hill 
and showed that chalk had been dug out for a distance on the 1ST. of 
100ft. round the base, and for 300ft. or more on the W. to a general 
depth of 15ft.increased immediately at the base of the hill to21ft.below 
the present surface, the whole of which has been filled up by white 
chalky clay alluvium. The hill was therefore surrounded by water ex- 
cept on S. side. In one shaft near base of hill on W. side, at depth of 
9ft. from surface and 5ft. from the bottom a layer of black earth with 
charcoal, burnt flints, bones of ox, deer, pig, and dog, flint flakes, and 
a worked flint knife were found, showing that ditch had silted up 
5ft. before flint-using people (probably of Bronze Age, said Sir John 
Evans) left their rubbish on the surface. This is the most important 
evidence at present available as to the age of the hill. Objects found 
are in Devizes Museum. ( WA.M. xxiii. 245.) 
Finds, Neolithic. 

Windmill Hill (partly in Monkton) is probably the most prolific site in 
Wiltshire. Great numbers of flint implements are found upon the 
surface, all of white porcelain-like flint. Numbers of cores occur, 
and it is doubtless the site of a flint factory. Scrapers and fabrica- 
tors of beautiful make are very abundant, and many fine arrowheads 
have been found, of which 13 are in Mr. J. W. Brooke's collection, 
tanged and barbed, oval, delicately-made thin leaf-shaped, and 
triangular without barbs, as well as mullers and hammerstones. 
Flakes and knives also occur frequently. The most remarkable 
objects found here, however, are the ground flint celts, almost all in 
a fragmentary condition, the fragments often re-chipped to an edge, 
or used as hammerstones. Numbers of these exist in the collections 
of Messrs. J. E. Pritchard, J. W. Brooke, A. D. Passmore, Eev. H. 
G. O. Kendall, Taunton and Devizes Museums, Cat. II., 27, 43—49, 
51_58; W.A.M., xix., 99, 100 ; xxx., 371 ; xxxvii., 627, 628. 

Broken quartzite pebble perforated hammerstone. Devizes Museum 
Cat. II., 21. 

Ground greenstone celt found "near Avebury." Canterbury Museum. 

Roughly-chipped flint celt, 1899, Devizes Museum, and a good barbed 
arrowhead in private hands, both from W. Kennet. 

Fine large chipped celt and a fragment of another, 1910. J. W. Brooke 
coll. 

On ploughed fields about W. Kennet, flint flakes, scrapers, &c, are fairly 
numerous, Rev. H. G. O. Kendall. A partially polished celt, 
scrapers, &c, from the field containing the stones of the Kennet 
Avenue, Mrs. H. St. G. Gray, 1911. 



By the Rev. E. H. Godclard. 185 

Finds, Bronze Age. 

Bronze celt found near Church. Stukeley, Abury 27. 

Bronze palstave, small and of unusual form, Devizes Museum. Cat. II. 

B 23 ; W.A.M. i. 59 ; xxxi. 269. 
Bronze tanged chisel with broad blade. J. W. Brooke Coll. Reliquari/ 

xiv. 244, jfy. 
Bronze awl, Beckhampton. Evans' Bronze 190. 
Bronze awl, Kennet. Devizes Museum Cat. II. B 12a. 
2 large bronze awls, and part of a bevelled knife blade, with a grooved 

flat whetstone, found " 1 mile E. of Wansdyke." Devizes Museum 

Cat. II. B 9— B 9 b ; W.A.M. xv. 139. (? what parish.) 
Bronze tanged razor and very narrow chisel. Beckhampton Down. 

Devizes Museum Cat. II. B 8, B 14 ; Reliquary xiv. 245, 247 fiy. 
Bronze socketed looped spearhead. From flint-diggings on down S. W. 

of Beckhampton. Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury 110, Fig. 20. Devizes 

Museum Cat. II. B 6 
Cin. urn, 6|in. high, found in W. side of Barrow 15 Avebury, no 

details of find. Devizes Museum Cat. II. xQfig. ; W.A.M. i., 62. 

•ate Celtic. 

Dwelling pit, Beckhampton Down, on trackway leading from Mr. 
Wentworth's farm house to the farm buildings on the down (? in 
Avebury or Bishops Cannings parish). Double dwelling pit opened 
by H. Cunnington 1884. Two pits intersecting, 5ft. 8in. deep, X 5ft. 
diam. and 4ft. 8in. deep X 4ft. diam. Two broken cooking pots found 
resting on 3 stones in ashes of the hearth, chalk loom weight, flint 
mullers, spindle whorl, 6 sling bullets of burnt clay, iron nails, 
fragments of pottery , bones of sheep, ox, and rabbit. Devizes Museum 
Cat. II. 797—805; W.A.M. xxiii. 65—68. 

Dwelling pit near top of "Waden Hill 117 yds. E. of new pond 1912, 
opened B. H. Cunnington. Animals' bones, pottery sherds, charcoal, 
muller, and burnt flints. W.A.M. xxxviii., 14. 

Bronze bow brooch " La Tene I." type," near Avebury," 1876. British 
Museum. Guide to Early Iron Age, 1 00, fig. ; Pitt Rivers Excavations 
II. Ill, fig. W.A.M. xxxv. 398, 399,./?.?. 3. A second example of the 
same type, W. Kennet, 1897, J. W. Brooke Coll. ; a third from near 
Silbury Hill, Devizes Museum, Cat. II. 304; Reliquary xiv. 95, figs. 
5, 7 ; W.A.M. xxxv. 398, 400, figs. 4, 15. 

Part of bronze chape of sword sheath, Beckhampton 1912. W.A.M. 
xxxviii. Wlfig. 2. 

idgeway running along the crest of Hackpen Hill forms the whole E. 
boundary of parish. O.M. 28 SW. ; A. W. II. 46. 

oman. 

The line of the Roman Rd. Bath to Cunetio forms S. boundary of 
parish at S.W. corner for 1 mile as far as Beckhampton and Devizes 
Rd. E. of this road a section of the raised way pointing to Silbury 
is well seen, the rest is lost in ploughed lands. To decide whether 
XXXVIII. — NO. CXX. O 



186 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

it really swerved S. to avoid Silbury excavations were undertaken 
1867. O.M. 28 SW. : Smith 162 map. See above p. 183. 

In field on opposite side of Rd. 150 yds. S.E. of Silbury, site apparently 
of Roman houses, no foundations found but refuse pit opened 1867 
contained coins of Constans, Valentinian, &c. W.A.M. xi. 118 ; 
Smith 162. Three wells in this field opened 1882, 1896, 1908. Coins, 
Arcadius, Theodosius II. in the former, and in that opened 1908 by 
J. W. Brooke 33 coins Trajan to Valentinian, the latest found at the 
bottom, 26ft. deep. Samian ware & various objects. Devizes 
Museum Cat. II. 570—599 ; O.M. 28 SW. ; W.A.M. xxix. 166 ; xxxvi. 
373. 

" S. of Beckhampton towards Tan Hill " (? in Avebury). Roman vase 
at head of skeleton at full length with iron nails of coffin. Proc. 
Arch. Inst, Salisbury 1 08 fig. 1. 

Coins, casual finds, Stukeley, Abury, p , 27 ; W.A.M. xxvi. 413. 

84 coins, Constantine, &c, found in low barrow with pottery on Avebury 
Down 1849 in body of the mound. Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury p. 86, 
No. 10 ; Smith X. H. IV. i. 

Windmill Hill, fragments of Roman pottery, including Samian, on 
ploughed ground and ditch. M.E.C. 

Iron key, Beckhampton 1912. Devizes Museum. W.A.M. xxxviii., 
Ill, jig. 6. 

Lobed horseshoe, W. Kennet near Silbury. Pro. Arch. Inst., Salisbury 
p. 110, fig. 19 ; Devizes Museum Cat. II. 511. 

Beckhampton Down, bronze tweezers, 2 bronze bow brooches, bracelet, 
bronze leg of small jointed figure, bronze penannular brooch, Devizes 
Museum Cat. II., 322, 323, 363, 364, 366, 367 ; Proc. Arch. Inst. Salis- 
bury p. U0, figs. 22, 24—29 ; W.A.M. xxx. 81. 

Bronze nail cleaner, earpick, and bow brooch, Kennet. S. Butler, 1910, 
Devizes Museum Cat. II. 385b. ; W.A.M. xxxvii. 205. 

Vase of Upchurch Ware, Beckhampton. J. Britton. Devizes Museum, 
Cat. II. 240. 

Iron tubular padlock & keys (1 medieval), Beckhampton, 1849. Devizes 
Museum, Cat. II. 551, fig. ; Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury fig. 18. 

Iron spearhead (? Saxon), Beckhampton. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 517. 

Small urn, Avebury. T. B. Merriman. W.A.M. vi. 257. 

Bronze bow brooch, La Tene III. type. H. G. O. Kendall, 1913. 
Devizes Museum. 

Bronze bow brooch, Aucissa type, found in excavating the ditch round 
Avebury, 1911. W.A.M. xxxvii. 477. 

Bronze bow brooch, Beckhampton Down. Devizes Museum. W.A.M. 
xxxv. 404,7?gr. 

Errata. 

Barrow 17, p. 176. Probably a true long barrow. See Appendix, 

Long Barrows. 
Barrow [19a"|, p. 176. For West of Avebury Rd., read East. [Still a 

good sized barrow under the plough, 1913. M.E.C] 
Windmill Hill, p. 179. Two barrows not shown on O.M. 28 NW. can 

still be seen on the ploughed land, 1913. M.E.C. 



By the Bev. E. H. Goddard. 187 

BARFORD ST. MARTIN. 

Earthworks. " Hamshill Ditches," just on S. edge of Groveley Wood, 
triple rampart on S.W., irregular banks on S.E., none on the wood 
side. O.M. 65 NE. ; A. W. I. 109, Plan, Station IV. From E. side 
of the settlement a ditch runs eastwards along S. side of Groveley to 
Chilhampton in S. Newton. A- W. I. 119. 

Finds, Neolithic. On the greensand plateau between Barford and 
Oompton, flint scrapers, flakes, cores, &c. C. V. Goddard. 

Finds, Late Celtic. Uninscribed British coin of base silver, 1908. 
Devizes Museum. W.A.M. xxxv. 524. 

Roman. Site of British village at Hamshill Ditches. O.M. 65 NE., see 
Earthworks above. 

BAYERSTCCK. 

Finds, Neolithic, On N. slope of hill W. of village, flint scrapers, cores, 
flakes, &c, with very rough long-shaped flint implements. 0. V. 
Goddard. 

Hurdcott, in making the lake, 1908. A small narrow partly-ground 
flint celt, and remarkable flint implement 13in. long, slightly crescent 
shaped, finely flaked all over, with two sharp edges and pointed ends,one 
of which shows signs of polish from use ; regarded by Dr. Blackmore 
as a pick. . Blackmore Museum. 

Roman. Course of Roman Rd. through Groveley making for Dinton 
Beeches is shown running through Baverstock Long Copse in O.M. 
59 SW. ; 65 NE. & NW. 

BAYDON, 

Barrows. [The barrow at Botley Copse is just over the parish and county 
boundary in Berks. O.M. 17 SW.] 

Finds, Neolithic. Ground flint celt. Devizes Museum, Cat. II. 16. 
Other flint implements, J. W. Brooke Coll. 

Late Celtic. Bronze bow brooch of "Certosa" type, cir. 400 B.C. J. W. 
Brooke. W.A.M. xxxv. 395, 398 fig. 
Bronze bow brooch " La Tene I." type. Reliquary xiv. 97 fig. ; 
W.A.M. xxxv. 399, 400 fig. ; Devizes Museum, Cat. II. 466. 

Roman. Ermine Street runs N.W. to S.E. through the parish and village 
to the Berkshire border and Lambourne. O.M. 24 NW. 
At Botley Copse just over the Berkshire border, site of a Roman 
and perhaps earlier settlement with earthworks, etc., at which 
many objects have been found. Iron billhook, chisel, bit, nails, 
arrowheads, carding comb, knife, horseshoe, bronze T-headed 
bow brooch, Samian and other ware, querns, iron slag and pit 
coal, pig of iron. O.M. 17 SW. ; Devizes Museum, Cat. II. 452 
—472 ; W.A.M. vi. 119 ; x. 104—109 ; xxxvi. Aid figs. Roman 
coins, skeletons, and querns, W.A.M. vi. 260 ; ix. 26 ; Cent. 
Mag. 1866 Pt. II. 335. 

o 2 



188 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

BEDWYN, GREAT, 
Barrows. 

1, 2. In Stokke House grounds just S.E. of house, site of 2 barrows 
close together. O.M. 36 NE. [These are perhaps amongst the 
" few barrows on Bedwyn Common " mentioned by Hoare. He 
shows 3 close together apparently hereabouts in the Plan of 
Wansdyke. A. W. II. 16]. 
2a. A barrow on the hill close to line of Roman Rd. and parish 
boundary, f mile N.E. of Wilton (not in O.M. 36 S.E.) W.A.M. 
xxxiv. 309 ; O. G. S. Crawford, 1913. 

Finds, Neolithic. Two large ground flint celts. Evans' Stone 93, fig. 
46. Flint scrapers, &c. J. W. Brooke. 
Many flint implements in field above Crofton pumping station. 
W.A.M. xxvi., 412. 

Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze mace head in Brit. Museum. Evans' Bronze 
271, 272 fig. 340; Arch. Journ. vi. 411. 

Finds, Late Celtic. Triangular earthenware stamp with triquetral 
ornament from Roman villa, Brail Wood. Devizes Museum. 
W.A.M. xxxv. 403, 406, fig. 26 ; Pro. Soc. Ant., 2nd Series, xix. 
imfig. 

Roman. Line of Roman Rd. enters parish with Grand Avenue, runs 

just E. of Tottenham House straight to Crofton, across canal and 

railway, forming boundary of parish from railway S. O.M. 36 

SE. ; A.W.Il. 70, plan. 

Roman villa just S. of Tottenham House, pavement found. OM. 

36 SE. ; W.A.M. vi. 262 ; xix. 29. 
Roman villa with pavements and large lead cistern discovered dr. 
1780 in Bedwyn Brail wood. Several more pavements found 
and destroyed 1853 in Castle Copse near same spot, much pot- 
tery, small gold finger ring with irregular engraved cross on it, 
Late Celtic stamp (see above), bronze spoon, bracelets, figure of 
cock, &c Devizes Museum. Cat. II. 400— 416, figs. O-M.ol 
SW. ; W.A.M. i. 216, 352 ; ii. 26 ; iii. 14 ; vi. 253, 256 ; xxxv 
406, fig. 
At Crofton Pumping Station in or near the Chalkpit many skele- 
tons found from time to time. One found 1892. ? Of what date. 
O.M. 36 SE. ; W.A.M. xxvi. 412. 

BEDWYN, LITTLE. 

Earthworks. Chisbury Camp J-mile W. of village and railway, partly 
triple and partly double rampart, strongest towards the S. W. Area 
15 acres. Circuit 1012 yds. Depth of vallum 45ft. 
Wansdyke runs S. downhill from the camp to road to Gt. Bedwyn. 
A. W. II. 13, 31. (Not shown on O.M. 41 N W.) Hoare regards it a.s 
a British Camp earlier than Wansdyke, which he traces E. of Chisbury 
across railway and canal to Foxbury Wood and into Shalbourne parish. 
O.M. 41 NW. shows it here. A. W. II. 30. 



By the Rev. E. H. Qoddard. 189 

Palaeolithic. At Knowle Farm Gravel Pit between Marlborough— 

Hungerford Kd. at 5 miles from Marlborough, and the Farm, O.M. 

29 SE., great numbers of fine flint implements. First found by S. B. 

Dixon 1901. J. W. Brooke, H. G. O. Kendall, A. I). Passmore. 

Devizes Museum Gat. II. 2. 
W. Cunnington and S. B. Dixon on gloss and glacial scratches, W.A.M. 

xxxiii. 131. 
H. G. O. Kendall on geology and types of implement, W.A.M. xxxiv. 

299 ; on microliths in situ, Man viii., 103 ; W.A.M. xxxv. 597. 

Heolithic. Flint scrapers, knives, fabricator, Knowle Farm, Chisbury, 
&c. Devizes Museum. W.A.M. xxxiii. 91. 
Ground flint celt, surface, Knowle Farm Pit, 1912, B. H. Cunnington. 

Bronze Age. Small socketed unlooped spearhead, surface at Knowle 
Farm Pit, 1913. Devizes Museum. 

Roman. Coins found 1854 W.A.M. I. 352 ; II. 35. 

BEECHINGSTOKE. 
Barrows. 

1. Hatfield Barrow. Height 22jft. Opened by Hoare 1809. A.W. 
II. 4, plan. Fragments of burnt bones, charcoal, &c, found, and 
W. Cunnington believed it to be sepulchral. Hoare thought it a 
"Hill altar " with earth circle round it. Around the barrow is an 
irregularly circular intrenchment with bank outside ditch — as at 
Avebury. Area 51 acres. Area shown in O.M. 41 NW. 

[la]. A smaller barrow 1 ( Ring Barrow ?) ; diam. 198ft. with circular 
vallum slightly raised and interior rising to a low apex was also 
enclosed' in the area. No marks of interment found, much defaced 
by plough in Hoare's time, now destroyed. Hatfield Barrow also 
entirely removed before 1818. A.W. II. 4, plan, 5 — 7. Under part 
of the outside bank quantities of stags' horns and bones found. 
Outside bank, | of which is destroyed, sbown in O.M. 41 NW., close 
to village of Marden but in Beechingstoke parish. 

Ridgeway. Broad Street marks course of Ridgeway across Pewsey Vale. 
O.M. 41 NW.; A.W. II. 8. 

BEMEETON. 

Barrows. A large barrow S. of line of Roman Rd. and just W. of Salisbury 
— Devizes Rd. apparently in Bemerton, shown in A.W. I. Station V. 
South; not in O.M. 66 NW. 

Palaeolithic. Flint implements from the river gravel first found by Dr. 
H. P. Blackmore 1863. Considerable number of flint implements 
afterwards found. Blackmore <fe Devizes Museums. Cat. II. p. 4 ; 
W.A.M. xxii. 117. 

Finds, Neolithic. 1 long rough and 2 fine chipped flint celts. Blackmore 
Museum. Evans' Stone 62. 



190 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

Soman. The Roman Rd. to Old Sarum runs straight N.E. out of Nether - 
hampton forming boundary of Bemerton for a short distance, just E. 
of old Church, across road and railway along Folly Lane, and through 
the cemetery. O.M. 66 SW., SE. 

BERWICK BASSETT. 
Barrows. 

1. On Berwick Down, \\ miles E. of village at foot of Hackpen, close 
to Winterbourne Bassett boundary, a moderate sized bowl- 
shaped barrow, opened, no record. O.M. 22 SW. ; Smith p. 127 
X. H. III. i. 

[la.] Just above this on shoulder of down, about 800ft., a low bowl 

barrow, not on O.M. 22 SW. H. G. O. Kendall, 1913. 

The Ridgeway running along crest of Hackpen Hill forms the whole 

east boundary of parish. O.M. xxii. SE. ; A. W. II. 46. 



BERWICK ST. JAMES. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow £ mile N. of Yarnbury Castle. O.M. 59 NE. ; A. W. I. 
Station III. 

2. Barrow J mile N. of Druid's Lodge, W. of Salisbury — Devizes Bd. 
at 7 miles from Salisbury. O.M. 60 NW. ; not in A. W. I. Station V. 
South. 

Earthworks. § of Yarnbury Castle is in this parish, O.M. 59 NE. ; but 
see Langford, Steeple. 

Roman. On down apparently half-way between B. St. James and Yarn- 
bury, site of British village. A. W. I. 95, Station III. 



BERWICK ST. JOHN. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow on Whitesheet Hill or Woodlands Down, just E. of the 
Long Barrow (see Ansty). O.M. 69 SE. ; A. W. I. Stations VIII. IX. 

2, [2a]. Barrow 1 mile S. W. of last, f mile N.W. of Berwick St. John 
village on point of Whitesheet Hill. [(2) Bowl-shaped, never 
ploughed, 1913, M.E.C.] O.M. 69 SE. ; A. W. I. Stations VIII, IX. 
shows 2 barrows close together here. 



On Winklebury Hill S. of the Camp, A. W. 1. 248 Stations VIII. IX. 

shows 3 barrows ; O.M. 74 NE. shows 4 (3 to 6) ; and Pitt Rivers j 

Excavations II. 257 PI. cxlix shows 6 barrows. The second numbers 

in brackets are those of Pitt Rivers. 
3. (III.) The most northerly barrow just S. of the Camp. Opened | 

by Pitt Rivers, had been disturbed before. O.M. 74 NE. ; Ex., II. 258. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 191 

4. (I.) S. of the last, just on W. of ditch running N.W. to S.E. 
Barrow with ditch and low bank outside it, and causeway across 
ditch on E. Opened by Pitt Bivers. Large grave 8ft. 6in. X 6ft. lOin. 
in centre, with stake-holes at corners and iron straps of coffin with 
bones of skeleton which had been subsequently disturbed. Probably 
Saxon skeleton which had replaced Bronze Age interment. Bronze 
awl found in side of barrow. O.M. 74 NE. Ex. II. 257. 

5. (IV.) Smaller barrow close on SE. side of last, opened by Pitt Bivers. 
No ditch. In centre a cinerary urn full of small flint chips, no burnt 
bones. O.M. 74 NE. ; Ex. II. 258 PI. cxlviii. 2. 

6. (VI.) Very flat barrow, a little distance S. of two last. Opened 
by Pitt Bivers. A few burnt bones in a deposit of wood ashes, covered 
by large flint, and close to it a deposit of 64 small fragments of British 
pottery, broken and deposited here purposely. O.M. 74 NE. ; Ex. 
II. 258. 

[6a.] (V.) Bowl barrow just N.E. of last, S. of the ditch. Opened 
by Pitt Bivers. A few fragments of pottery only. Ex. II. 258 ; not 
in O.M. 74 NE. 

[6b.] (II.) Small very low barrow with slight ditch with causeway 
across it on E. Opened by Pitt Bivers. Saxon skeleton with iron 
knife had probably displaced original interment. Ex. II. 259 ; not 
in O.M. 74 NE. 



7. Barrow on S. edge of Ox Drove at Monks Down in W.end of Bridmore 
Belt. O.M. 74 ; NE. ; A. W. I. Stations VIII. IX. 



Bushmore Park. 10 barrows opened 18S0 — 1884 by Pitt Bivers 
(8—15), none of which are shown in A. W. I. Stations VIII. IX. 

Group of 6 barrows close together in Barrow Pleck N. of S. Lodge , 
| mile S. of House. O.M. 74 SE. shows 3 only (8—10) ; Ex. II. 28, 
plans PI. lxxx, lxxxi. 

8. (XVIII.) Very low barrow with ditch, between upper and lower 
S. Bd. Opened by Pitt Bivers, no interment, flint scrapers & flakes 
only. O.M. 74 SE. ; Ex. II. 19, 30. 

9. (IV.) Barrow with ditch just on E. side of upper S. Bd. which 
cuts into it. 40ft. diam., 8ft. 6in. high. In centre basin-shaped cist 
2ft. 9in. deep, empty, on the floor on one side of it heap of burnt 
bones, on the other part of cin. urn upright. O.M. 74 SE. ; Ex. II. 1 ] , 
29, PI. lxxxvii. 

10. (III.) Just N.E. of last, low barrow with ditch with causeway 
across it on S, opened by Pitt Bivers. In centre in two basin-shaped 
cists in chalk burnt bones and ashes, and fragments of broken pottery 
placed with them. A stake-hole close to centre. On S. side 9 
secondary interments, 8 by cremation in basin-shaped cists, and one 
crouched skeleton. O.M. 74 SE. ; Ex. II. 29. 



192 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

[10a/] (II.) Very small barrow touching W. side of (lO). Opened 

by Pitt Rivers. Burnt bones only in central basin-shaped cist. Ex- 

II. 29 ; not in O.M. 74 SE. 
[10b.] (XXI.) Very small low barrow on S.E. side of (10). Opened 

by Pitt Eivers. Burnt bones in cist and fragments of pottery. Ex. 

II. 20, 37, PL lxxxv. ; not in O.M. 74 SE. 
[lOc] Barrow between 9 and [10a] had been removed before Pitt 

Rivers' time. Cinerary urn. Ex. II. 40, PL lxxxvii. Fig. 3 ; not in 

O.M. 74 SE. 

11. (I.) Rolleston's Barrow on E. side of lower S. Rd. in park just 
S.E. of House (Prof. Rolleston was present at the opening by Pitt 
Bivers 1880.) Very low barrow, in centre layer of charcoal and ashes 
9ft. X 6ft. with burnt bones, apparently burnt on the spot, with small 
fragments of bronze. Flint scrapers in body of the mound. OM. 
74 SE. ; Ex. II. 1, 10, 22, 24, PL lxxvi., lxxxix. 

12. (XX.) Tinkley Coppice, Susan Gibbs Walk. Small barrow 
opened by Pitt Rivers. In grave 8ft. X 5ft. X 3ft. deep, a crouched 
skeleton with drinking cup at feet. OM. 74 SE. ; Ex. II. 19, 26, 
PI. lxxvii. — lxxix. 



On Tinkley Down \ mile W. of last, 3 barrows opened by Pitt Bivers 
1881 (13—15). 

13. (VIII.) Most northerly barrow of the group. Rough flint axe, 
borer, &c. O.M. 74 SE. Ex. II. 13. 

14. (VII.) Small barrow S. of last, 18in. high. No interment found. 
O.M. 74 SE. ; Ex. II. 13. 

15. (VI.) Small barrow just on E. side of last. Burnt bones, flint 
flakes, and pottery fragments. O.M. 74 SE. ; Ex. II. 13, PL lxxxvi. 



16. Barrow S. of British village on Botherley Down just on E. side of 
track. OM. 74 NE. 

Barrow Hill, Rushmore, doubtless marks site of destroyed barrow. 

[Barrow in Calcotts Wood E. of Barrow Pleck is in Dorset. O.M. 74 
SE.] 
Earthworks. 

Winklebury Camp, a promontory camp occupying a point of the down 
f mile S.E. of village of Berwick St. John. Single ditch, an inner 
and outer ward with rampart across isthmus of down, with 3 openings 
in it. (Like Oliver's Camp, and Binknoll Camp.) Area. 12| acres, 
circumference 1056 yds., greatest depth of rampart 39ft. O.M. 69 SE. | 
74 NE. A. W. I. 217 plan, 247, Stations VIII. & IX. Excavated 
by Pitt Bivers 1881— 1 882, believed by him to have been of Late Celtic: 
date. Outside the E. rampart was a dwelling pit 7ft. deep and about 
12ft. square at the floor. Inside the camp were 6 circular rubbish 



By the Rev. E. H. Qoddarcl, 193 

pits and several similar pits outside the camp on the S. Chalk loom 
weights, a bone comb, iron knife, bronze ring brooch, and flint flakes 
were found in these, probably of Late Celtic date, and in one pit a 
small urn-shaped vessel, and one of basin-shape, both handmade. 
Ex. II. 242—246, Ph. cxliv.— cxlviii. 

South Lodge Camp, rectangular enclosure of little strength just N. of 
South Lodge, Rushmore Park, excavated by Pitt Rivers, 1893, proved 
to be of Bronze Age. A cinerary urn, 2 bronze razors, a narrow 
bronze chisel, part of a broad flat fluted bronze bracelet, a bronze 
looped socketed spearhead, bone button, flint scrapers, were found 
either on the bottom or in the silting of the ditches. O.M. 74 SE. ; 
Ex. IV. 3—44, Ph. 234—241 ; W.A.M. xxvii. 206. 

On White Sheet Hill at point of junction of Anstey, Alvediston, and 
B. St. John, bank & ditch of great strength going S.E. as boundary 
of Alvediston & B. St. John for a short distance and re-appearing 
S.E. of Warren Copse. Northwards it is lost in cultivated land. 
O.M. 69 SE. ; A. W. I. 249, Stations VIII. & IX. 

On Wingreen Hill in W. corner of parish on the line of the Ox Drove 
called by Hoare " The Ridgeway," a ditch and bank cutting across 
the hill and parish boundary. O.M. 74 NE. ; A.W.I. 248, Stations 
VIII. & IX. 

On Winkelbury Hill, S. of the Camp, ditch running N.W. to S.E. for f 
mile. O.M. 74 NE. 

" Carrion Tree Rack" ditch just N. of Rushmore House, excavated by 
Pitt Rivers. Quantity of Samian and other Roman pottery found 
in silting. Probably of Roman date. O.M. 74 NE. ; Ex. I. 241, 251. 
Finds, Neolithic. 

Fragment of ground flint celt, Chase Avenue, Rushmore. Pitt Bivers, 
Ex. II. 48, PI. xci. 1. 

Flint scrapers. Rushmore. Ex. I. 248, PI. lxxii. 10, 11. 

1 ground flint celt, half a ground celt of basalt, and another of other 
stone, with 1 tanged flint arrowhead and 2 ruder triangular ones, 57 
flint scrapers, a flint knife, and flint hammer stones were found within 
the area of the Romano-British village of Rotherley. Ex. II. 184, 186, 
PI. cxxii., cxxiii. 
Finds, Bronze Age. 

To the W. of the S. Lodge Camp, a pit 23ft. in diam. at top and 7ft. 
deep. Originally a dwelling pit, but with portions of a human 
skeleton interred in the silting, was excavated by Pitt Rivers. A 
well-formed chipped flint celt lay near the skeleton. Probably a 
dwelling of the Bronze Age utilised for a later interment. Ex. IV. 
28, 42, Ph. 239, 243. 

Socketed looped spearhead found on Berwick Down 1905, another found 
in Tinkley Coppice, Rushmore, 1900, both in Brighton Museum. 

For Bronze Age objects see Earthworks, S. Lodge Camp, above. 

In the centre of the Romano- British village, a contracted interment of 
the Bronze Age without any sign of a barrow, was found by Pitt 
Rivers, a drinking cup at the feet of the skeleton. Ex. II. 50 PL xcii. 



194 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

Finds, Late Celtic. 

For Winklebury Camp and dwelling pits of this age see above under 
Earthworks. 

Fragment of a " cordoned " pottery vessel of Late Celtic type found 
with objects of Roman date in a trench in Rushmore Park. Ex. I. 
245, PI. \xx\i.,fig. 7. 

In the Romano-British village of Rotherley Pitt Rivers found 2 British 
uninscribed coins, both of the disjointed horse type, one of copper, the 
other of silver. Ex. I. 152 ; II. 188, PI. cxxiv. There were 2 bronze 
brooches of " La Tene I." type, Ex. PI. xcvii. 5, 6 ; Reliquary, xiv. 95, 
figs. 1 & 2; W.A.M. xxxv. 400, figs. 12,13; and 4 bronze and 2 
iron brooches of La Tene III. type, with many of later Roman fashion, 
Ex. pp. 116, 122, 124, Pis. xcix., c, ci. An iron door key is of Late 
Celtic form, PI. cv. 5, and some of the earthenware vessels of tazza 
form, Pis. cix. 1 ; ex. 1 , 3 ; cxiv. 8, appear to belong in type to the 
same period. All now in Farnham Museum. 

2 uninscribed British copper coins occurred with Romano-British pottery 
in a trench in the nursery gardens, Rushmore. Ex. IV. 240 PI. 317. I 

Roman. 

Extensive Romano-British village on Rotherley Down with earthworks, 
completely excavated by Pitt Rivers, and the whole of the objects 
of bronze, iron, stone, bone, and pottery fully described and illus- 
trated Excavations, II. 51—231 ; O.M. 74 NE. 

Roman dyke, see above, " Carrion Tree Rack," under Earthworks. 

Roman pottery found in S. Lodge Camp in upper part of silting of 
Ditches. W.A.M. , xxvii., 213. 

Trench of Rom. Brit, date near sunk fence in Rushmore Grounds, 
opened by Pitt Rivers. Ex. I. 245. 

Romano-British Trench found in making nursery gardens, Rushmore, 
excavated by Pitt Rivers, coins and pottery. Ex. IV. 240, fig. 

The district round Rushmore was very populous in the later Roman i 
period, 12 or 13 sites of Roman villages and habitations within radius ' 
of 6 or 7 miles. Pitt Rivers, W.A.M., xxv. 283. 

Saxon. 

To the 8. of Winklebury Camp, around Barrows 5 & 6, a Saxon ceme- , 
tery containing 30 separate graves in 3 groups, in addition to the 2 
Saxon interments in Barrows 4 & [6b], was excavated by Pitt Kivers. 
A few iron knives, 3 glass beads, and other iron objects found. Ex. 
II. 257, 259, PI. cxlix., cl. 

BERWICK ST. LEONARD. 

Earthworks. " Irregular earthen work with entrance to the south," j 
apparently on Chilfinch Hill just at S. edge of Great JRidge i 
Wood. A.W. I. 105 Station IV. Marked as British village | 
O.M. 58 SW. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 195 

oman. British village with extensive banks, &c, on Chilfinch Hill N. 
of Bake Barn and another just W. of it N. of Chicklade Bottom. 
Roman pottery, coin of Oarausius, &c, found by Hoare. O.M. 
58 SW. ; A. W. I. 105, Station IV. 

BIDDESTONE. 

arrows. Round barrow J-mile N.E. of Manor Farm at " Bushy Bar- 
row." O.M. 19 SE. 

BISHOPS CANNINGS. 
arrows. 

1, 2. Just S. of Wansdyke, and a little to E. of its junction with 
Roman Bd. at Morgan's Hill, a large bowl-shaped barrow opened 
by Thurnam (No. 3) who found nothing but 2 layers of wood 
ashes, and concluded it was not sepulchral. " An adjacent mound 
may be of similar character." O.M. 27 SW. shows 2 barrows 
here. A. W. II. 29 PI. V. ; Stukeley, Abury, PI. X ; W.A.M. vi. 
318 ; Smith p. 57 III. B. VI. e. 



In the triangle formed by the Wansdyke, the Roman Rd., and 
the Marlborough — Devizes Rd., on Morgan's Hill or N. Down- 
O.M. 27 SW. marks 29 or 30 barrows ; A. W. II. Stations XL, 
XII. shows 24 ; Smith shows 32 or 33. 

A very low barrow close N. of Wansdyke at W. end of triangle, 
(No. 5) of Thurnam who opened it. Burnt bones and flint 
flakes only. Smith p. 57 III. B. VI. h. ; W.A.M. vi. 319. (It is 
very doubtful if this is the barrow referred to by Thurnam). 
O.M. 27 SW. 

To E. of this and |-mile N.W. of the square earthwork, a low 
bowl-shaped barrow without ditch, has been opened. No record. 
O.M. 27 SE. ; Smith p. 57 III C. VI. c. 

To E. of this and i-mile N. of the square earthwork a low bowl- 
shaped barrow, without ditch, not opened. O.M. 27 SE. ; Smith 
p. 57 III. C. VI. b. 



To E. of this 5 barrows in a line close together 6 — 10. 

6. Large bell-shaped barrow, 7ft. high, with large ditch and vallum 

outside it. Opened 1804 by W. Cunnington. No record. 
Opened again by Thurnam without result. O.M. 27 SE. ; Smith 
p. 102, VII. D. VI. 1 ; W.A.M. vi. 319. 

7. Large bowl-shaped barrow. Opened, no record. 0-M. 27 SE. ; 

Smith p. 102, VII. D. VI. k. 

8. Very large bell-shaped barrow with ditch. Opened, no record. 

O.M. 27 SE. ; Smith p. 102, VII. D. VI. i. 



196 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

9. Very small bowl-shaped barrow, no ditch. Opened by Thurnam. 

Very large wide-mouthed urn, 15in. X 12in., with burnt bones. 
Had been opened in 1804 by W. Cunnington, no record. O.M. 
27 SE. ; Smith p. 102, VII. D, VI. f. ; W.A.M. vi. 319. 

10. Very large and high bell-shaped barrow with ditch. Opened 

probably by W. Cunnington, 1804. No record. O.M. 27 SE. ; 
Smith p. 102 VII. D. VI. e. 



[To E. of these, another group of 4 barrows in line, W. of the track 
from Oldbury (11—14). O.M. 27 SE.] 

11. Disc barrow, 36 yds. diam. O.M. 27 SE. ; Smith p. 102, VII. D. 

VI. d. 

12. Large disc barrow with small tumulus in centre, 48 yds. diam. 

Not opened. O-M. 27 SE. ; Smith p. 102 VII. D. VI. c. 

13. Very large and high bell barrow, opened. No record. O.M. 27 

SE. ; Smith p. 101, VII. D. VI. b. 

14. The 4th of this group is described by Smith p. 101 VII. D. Via, 

as " a circular pit, beautifully shaped, 36 yds. in diam., one of 
the so-called ' Pond Barrows.' " O.M. 27 SE. 

15. To S. of this group a shallow disc-shaped barrow, opened. No 

record. O.M. 27 SE. ; Smith p. 103 VII. D. VI. u. 

[One of a group of 4 barrows under Morgan's Hill, N.W. from Shepherd'? 
Shore, a disc barrow opened by W. Cunnington 1804 contained 
" burnt bones, a piece of slate and a neat little urn, several long 
amber beads, and two ivory or bone beads" (probably those in 
Devizes Museum, Stourhead Cat, 232a, 297, 302). This may tx 
Barrow (12) and the other 3 may be (11, 13, 14). 

A tumulus lower down contained a large rude black urn with burnt 
bones. A disc barrow a little way off had " a skeleton, and a small 
rude urn of burnt bones inverted over the skull beneath (sic) the 
primary interment, with two oblong beads." This may perhaps b< 
Barrow (15). 

" Opened eight or nine more, in the group near the Roman Rd. ascend 
ing Oldbury Hill, but found nothing new." These may possibly bi 
those close to the fox covert in Avebury Parish. Hoare's MS 
Notes, W.A.M. xxii. 237.] 

16. To E. of the last and just W. of track from Oldbury, a wide lo^ 

barrow which has been ploughed over and opened. No record 
O.M. 27 SE. ; Smith p. 103, VII. D. VI. w. [Under plough 1913 
M.E.C.] 

17. 18. E. of the track from Oldbury, 2 barrows, both ploughec 

over. O.M. 27 SE. ; Smith p. 103, VII. D. VI. x, y. [Undei 
plough 1913, M.E.C.] 
[18a]. Just S. of these a mound, apparently a barrow. Smith]' 
103, VII. D. VI. v. ; not on O.M. 27 SE. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 197 

[To. E. of these and close on N. side of Devizes Ed. a group of 5 
barrows together (19—23). O.M. 27 SE. ; Hoare shows these 
as 7 round barrows. 

19. Large high bell-shaped barrow, with ditch and a sarsen stone at 
base. Opened, no record. O.M. 27 BE. ; Smith p. 103, VII. D. 

VI. o. [Formerly ploughed, now under grass 1913, M.E.C.] 

20. Large low barrow, of long shape, much spread about and ploughed 

down, not opened 1 Hoare shows 5 round barrows here only. 
O.M. 27 SE. ; A. W. II. Stations XI., XII. ; Smith p. 103, VII. 
D. VI. p. [Not really a long barrow, still under plough 1913, 
M.E.C.] 

21. Large high bell-shaped barrow. Opened, no record. O.M. 27. 
SE. ; Smith p. 103, VII. D. VI. q. [Very much ploughed down 
1913, M.E.C.] 

22. High bell-shaped barrow with wide ditch. Opened, no record. 

O.M, 27 SE. ; Smith p. 103 VII. D. VI. r. [Never ploughed, 
M.E.C.] 

23. Wide low barrow on N. side of group. Opened, no record. O.M. 

27 SE. ; Smith p. 103, VIL D. VI. 3. [Never ploughed, M.E.C.] 

24. 25. To N. and N.W. of this group, 2 barrows in O.M. 27 SE, 

not shown by Smith. 

26. To E. J-mile from the group, a large low barrow with ditch. 

Opened, no record. O.M. 27 SE. ; Smith p. 105, VIL E. VI. k. 

[Close to junction of Koman and Devizes Eds., touching the Eoman 

Ed., Smith notes a circular ring possibly a large disc barrow, or 

possibly a modern ditch, not on O.M. 27 SE. ; Smith p. 104, 

VII. E. VI. a. 

27, 28. Just N. of Wansdyke at Old Shepherd's Shore, a group of 

a small bowl shaped barrow, opened, no. record, and a small 
disc-shaped barrow with double ditch, both now mutilated by 
flint diggers, and close to them a circular hollow or " Pond Bar- 
row." Smith pp. 65, 66, IV. C. VII. 1, m, n ; O.M. 34 NE. 
shows the 2 barrows. 

[28a]. Half-way between Blackland Hollow and Old Shepherd's 
IShore a little distance N. of Wansdyke, a large wide barrow, 
very low and inconspicuous, 2ft. high. Opened by Thurnam 
(No. 4). In centre in round cist a heap of burnt bones covered 
with ashes and 2 beautiful barbed and tanged flint arrowheads 
and a rudely-formed knife. Not in O.M. (?) ; W.A.M vi. 319 ; 
Arch. XLIII. &0,fig. III. ; Smith p. 63, IV. B. VII. f. 

A large cin. urn from a barrow W. of Shepherd's Shore now ploughed 
down, is in Devizes Museum, Cat. II. JAbfig, ; W.A.M. VI. 397. 



Group of 5 barrows at Baltic Farm, just N. of junction of Wansdyke 

and Devizes Ed. at Shepherd's Shore. O.M. 34 NE. 
29, 30, 31. Triplet of 3 barrows enclosed in the same ditch, now 
much mutilated. One of them a large bell-shaped barrow at 
the N. end opened by Hoare 1814 gave no sign of any interment, 



198 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

opened again by W. Cunnington 1852 with same result ; the 
second a small bowl-shaped barrow between the two large ones, 
opened by W. Cunnington 1804, contained burnt bones in an 
oblong cist with a jet ornament and a bone pin. Opened again 
by Hoare 1814 when a cist containing burnt bones with jet 
ornament, bone arrowhead, pin, etc., was found. The third, a 
large bowl-shaped barrow, opened by Hoare, contained burnt 
bones. O.M. 34 NE. ; A. W. II. 92 ; Arch, xxxii. 457 ; W.AM. 
vi. 317 ; xxii. 237 ; Smith p. 66, IV. C. VII. o, p, q. 

32. A. large low barrow, not opened.O.i/. 34 NE. ; Smith p. 66, IV. \ 

C. VII. r. 

33. A large bowl barrow, 5|ft. high, no ditch. Opened by Thurnam 

1855 (No. I.), burnt bones in shallow cist in centre. O.M. 34 
NE. ; W.A.M. vi. 317 ; Smith p. 66, IV. C. VII. s. 



[33a, 33b.] A little to N.E. of the Waterworks and near W. side of 
road, 2 wide barrows formerly existed, now completely ploughed 
down. Smith p. Ill, VIII. D. VII. t, u ; not on O.M. 34 NE. 



At Old Shepherd's Shore in the angle between the S. side of the dyke 
and the N. side of the Old Ed., Smith p. 65, IV. C. Vll. b, c, e, f, h, 
marks a group of 5 barrows. Of these O.M. 34 NE. marks 1 barrow 
(35) ; and 3 " mounds" (34. 34a, 36). 

34 (b). Small bowl-shaped barrow, opened, no record. 
34a (h ?). Small barrow or mound 1 

35 (e). Large bowl-shaped barrow, opened by Thurnam, 1856 (No. 2). 

In an oval cist a contracted skeleton. Cran. Brit. II. 32 ; 
W.A.M. vi. 318. 
36, [36a], (f ?), (e 1). Small barrows or mounds 1 



37, [37a]. W. of these and S. of Wansdyke 2 low bowl-shaped 

barrows, not opened, of which O.M. 34 NE. shows the first (37) ] 
but not the second. Smith p. 65, IV. B. VII. g ; IV. C. VII. i. 
[37b, 37c]. W. of these again but E. of the Calne — Devizes Ed. and 
just S. of Wansdyke, Smith shows 2 large bowl-shaped barrows. 
opened, no record. Smith p. 63, IV. B. VII. b, c ; not on O.M. 

38. |-mile S.W. of Shepherd's Shore and W. of the Devizes Ed., ob 
long barrow, once large, now ploughed down. O.M. 34 NE. ; 
Smith p. 66, IV. C. VII. u. 



39. On E. end of Eoundway Hill, NE. of the Chalk Pit, bowlsha 

barrow, 40ft. diam., 3§ft. high, opened by Thurnam. Cist found 
but no signs of interment. Had been opened before. O.M. 3-1 
N W. ; W.A.M. vi. 162 (No. 5 in plan) ; Smith p. 69, IV. B.V1II 



a. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 199 

40. To E. of this on the extreme point of the hill over Bps. Cannings 
a very low barrow. O.M. 34 NW. ; Smith p. 70, IV. B. VIII. c. 



E. of the Devizes — Beckhampton Rd. and S. of Wansdyke. O.M 
34 NE. 

41. Barrow ^-mile S. of Shepherd's Shore, much ploughed down. 

O.M. 34NE. ; Smith , p. 70, IV. 0. VIII. a. 

42, 43. On Easton Hill, N.E. of Easton Farm, and i-mile S. of 

Wansdyke, 2 bowl-shaped barrows. O.M. 34 NE. ; Smith p 
113, VIII. D. VIII. b, c. 

44. E. of this on Kitchen Barrow Hill, Long barrow, marked "Kitchen 

Barrow " on O.M. 34 NE. [? this is apparently Thurnam's 
" Horton Barrow "] ; Smith p. 114, VIII. E. VIII. h. See appen- 
dix, Long Barrows. 

45. N. of this is another mound, 1 a barrow. O.M. 34 NE. ; Smith p. 
114, VIII. E. VIII. i. [Has every appearance of being a round 
barrow damaged by stone diggers and plough. 1913. M.E.C. 

On the next point of hill to the E. close to Allington boundary, a 
group of 4 barrows (46—49). O.M. 34 NE. ; Smith pp. 113, 
114, VIII. E. VIII. a, b, c. shows 3 only. 

46 (a). Bowl-shaped, opeiled by Thurnam, burnt bones with glass 

bead, and 3 beads and pendant of jet. W.A.M. vi. 324 (No. 15). 

47 (b). Large bowl-shaped barrow with ditch, opened by Thurnam. 

Disc of flint found. W.A.M. vi. 325. 
48(c). Large bowl-shaped barrow with ditch, opened by Thurnam. 
Cin. urn with burnt bones, inverted on a flat stone. W.A.M. 
vi. 325 (No. 16). 
49. Bishops Cannings Down, barrow on parish boundary, just to S. 
of the above 3. OM. 34 NE 
[Barrows 46—49 all on steep hill side and never ploughed. 1913. 
M.E.C] 



E. of Devizes — Beckhampton Rd. and N. of Wansdyke. O.M. 34 
NE. 3 small barrows close together in line just N.E. of Shep- 
herds Shore, and opposite Baltic Farm. O.M. 34 NE. 
SO— 52. (d) Very small, no ditch, opened, no record ; (e) very low, 
no ditch, opened, no record ; (f) very small and low, opened by 
Thurnam, shallow grave 2ft. deep with skeleton of female, a few 
ox teeth under the turf. O.M. 34 NE. ; W.A.M. vi. 323 (No. 6) ; 
Smith p. 110, VIII. D. VII. d, e, f. 

53. Small low barrow at 5th mile from Devizes, close to Rd. Opened, 
no record. OM. 34 NE. ; Smith p. Ill, VIII. D. VII. r. 

54. Barrow to S.E. of this on slope of down, very low with large 
ditch and bank outside it. Opened by Hoare 1814. A grave 
with skeleton and drinking cup at the head. The subject of a 
poem by the Rev. John Skinner entitled " Beth Pennard or the 
British Chieftain's Grave." O.M. 34 NE. ; A. W. II. 93 PI. xxxv ; 



200 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon AntiqvAties. 

Proc. Ar. Inst., Salisbury, p. 109 fig. 10 ; W.A-M. iv. 361 note; 
vi. 321, 322; Stourhead Cat, 296, fig.; Smith p. 109, VIII. D. 
VII. b. 
55. Barrow N.E. of the last, small bowl-shaped, with ditch. Opened, 

no record. O.M. 27 SE. ; Smith p. 110 VIII. D. VII. c. 
[55a, 55b]. 2 barrows to E. or N.E. of this on brow of hill. Both 
opened, no record. Smith p. 112 VIII, E. VII. e, m; not on 
O.M. 27 SE. 
56 — 59. Roughridge Hill, group of 4 small barrows close together, 
just N. of Wansdyke. O.M. 34 NE. 
(h) Bowl-shaped, no ditch, opened by W. Cunnington. Burnt 

bones only. 
(i) Low,without ditch, opened by Thurnam, burnt bones of female 

or young person. W.A.M. vi. 323 (No. 7). 
(k) Very low, opened by W. Cunnington, burnt bones. 
(1) Low with slight ditch, opened by W. Cunnington, burnt 
bones. O.M. 37 NE. ; W.A.M. vi. 323 ; Smith, p. 110, VIII. D. 

VII. h, i, k, 1. 

60. Close to these and close to Wansdyke, a very diminutive barrow, 
no ditch. Opened, ? no record. O.M. 34 NE. ; Smith p. 110, 

VIII. D. VIII. d. 



Just N.E. of this group Smith shows 3 barrows close together (61 
—63). 

61 (o). Wide, low, bowl-shaped, opened by Thurnam (No. 8). Burnt 

bones with ashes and pottery fragments, and 2 pins of ivory ? 
In British Museum. O.M. 34 NE. ; W.A.M. vi. 323 ; Arch. 
xliii. 490, fig. 185 ; Smith p. 110, VIII. D. VII. o.fig. 67. 

62 (p). Wide low bowl-shaped, no ditch. Opened by Thurnam (No. 

9). Burnt bones only. O.M. 34 NE. ; W.A.M. vi. 323 ; Smith 

p. Ill, VIII. D. VII. p. 
[62a] (q). Very wide low barrow, indistinct, not on O.M. 34 NE. 

Opened by Thurnam (No. 10). Burnt bones at a depth of 2ft. 

much burnt wood and ashes, bowl-shaped incense cup, and long 

bone bead. In British Museum. W.A.M. vi. 323 ; Smith p. 

Ill, figs. 68, 69, VIII. D. VII. q. ; Arch, xliii. 360.fig. 38. 
63, 64. To N. of these on E. side of hill, 2 low barrows. O.M. 34 

NE. ; Smith p. 110, VIII. D. VII. m. n. 



65, Easton Down. Long Barrow lying E. & W. largest end to the E., 

opened by Thurnam (No. 13). Scattered bones of 4 persons at 
E. end. O.M. 34 NE. ; W.A.M. vi. 324 ; Smith p. 112, VIII. E. 
VII. g. See appendix Long Barrows. 

66. To N. of Long Barrow a very large bell shaped barrow on brow 

of hill with deep ditch, opened by Thurnam (No. 12). A heap 
of burnt bones with quantity of ashes. Nearer the surface a 



Bj/ the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 201 

grooved bone pin with animal bones. O.M. 34 NE. ; W.A.M. 
vi.,323; Smithy. 112, VIII. E. VII. f. [Part of mound and 
ditch carted away, never ploughed but much cut about and 
damaged, 1913, M.E.C.] 

67. To N.W. of these a low bowl-shaped barrow with slight ditch, 
opened by Thurnam (No. 11). Burnt bones and teeth of ox. 
O.M. 34 N.E. ; W.A.M. vi. 323 ; Smith p. 112, VIII. E. VII. i. 

[67a.] S. of Long Barrow and just N. of earthwork on Wansdyke a 
very low wide bowl-shaped barrow, no ditch. Not opened. ? Not 
on O.M. 34 NE. ; Smith p. 114, VIII. E. VIII. g. 

68. E. of this and | mile N. of Wansdyke a low bowl-shaped barrow 
with ditch. O.M. 34 NE. ; Smith p. 114, VIII. E. VIII. e. 

[68a.] N.E. of Long Barrow, close to track from Horton to Beck- 
hampton, small barrow opened by Thurnam (No. 14). Burnt 
bones only. Not in O.M. 34 NE. ; W.A.M. vi. 324 ; Smith p. 113 
VIII. E. VII. n. 

[It is difficult to say which of Smith's two barrows is represented on 
O.M. Possibly 68 and 68a should be transposed]. 



Horton Down, E. side,close to Allington boundary, 3 barrows (69 — 71) 
close together and 1 to S W. O.M. 35 N.W. ; Smith p. 113, 
VIII. F. VII. a, b, c, d. 

Very flat, with bank and ditch. In centre. 

Very high bowl-shaped, without ditch, opened, no record. 

Easternmost. 
Bowl-shaped, without ditch, opened, no record. Western- 
most. 
Bowl-shaped, opened, no record. 



70. 


(b) 


71. 


(c) 


72. 


(d) 



73 — 75. Beckhampton Down, S. of Devizes— Beckhampton Rd., at 
6 miles from Devizes, 3 barrows close together near Rd., all bowl- 
shaped, much ploughed down, and opened without record. O.M. 
27 SE. ; Smith p. 104, VII. E. VI. f, g, h. 

76. A little nearer Beckhampton a very long large barrow, mutilated & 

ploughed over. Red deer horns found when the top was levelled 
1879. Devizes Museum. O.M. 27 SE. ; Smith p. 105, VII. E. 
VI. 1. [Possibly the long barrow referred to by Thurnam as 
" Bishops Cannings." M.E.C.]. 

77, 78. Just to S. & E. of this, 2 barrows mutilated, and ploughed 

over, a quantity of pottery fragments on one of them (n). O.M. 
27 SE. ; Smith p. 105, VII. E. VI. (m, n). 

Further E. on the down 2 barrows and a " mound " on O.M. 27 SE. 
Smith p. 105, V1L E. VI. o, p, 5, shows 3 barrows (79—81). 

79 (o). Large low bowl-shaped, ploughed over. 

80 (p). Low wide barrow, nearly ploughed down. 

81 (5). Large bowl-shaped, with trench across the middle. 

)L. XXXVIII. — NO. CXX. P 



202 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

82, 83. Just on W. side of plantation near Ed., 2 wide flat barrows 
nearly ploughed down. O.M. 27 SE. ; Smith pp. 104, 105, VII. I 
E. VI. i,j. 



Inside the plantations at Beckhampton Buildings, 4 barrows 
O.M. 27 SE. ; Smith pp. 105, 106, VII. E. VI. q, r, s, I. 

84 (q). Small, nearly ploughed down. 

85 (r). Large bowl-shaped, apparently not opened. 

86 (s). Wide low bowl -shaped. 

87 (I). Low, irregular, may not be a barrow. 



88. On Avebury boundary, 1 mile S. W. of Beckhampton, on the 
training course, on top of hill, a peculiar barrow, flat, depressed 
in centre, with bank, ditch, and ridge all round. Not opened. 
O.M. 28 SW. ; Smith p. 106. VII. E. VI. 4. 

89. A very large high, bell-shaped barrow, just to W. of it, opened, 
no record. O.M. 28 SW. ; Smith p. 106 VII. F. VI. a. 

Erratum p. 197. Barrow 21 for " very much ploughed down " read " has 

never been ploughed." M.E.C. 

For other barrows formerly in Bishop's Cannings see Roundway. 

Earthworks. 

Wansdyke runs across the parish from Morgan's Hill, crosses Devizes 
Road at Shepherd's Shore and on to Tan Hill, everywhere a strong 
rampart to S. and ditch to N. and a smaller bank on the N. edge of 
the ditch. Pitt Rivers in 1889 cut two sections through it, one on j 
Morgan's Hill near Old Shepherd's Shore, one at Brown's Barn S. of 
Easton Down. Iron knife, nail, cleat, clay sling pellet, and fragments 
of bead rim and Samian pottery found on original surface under the 
rampart proved it to be of late Roman or post Roman date. Modeis 
of sections and objects found in Farnham Museum. 

At Brown's Barn a rectangular earthwork adjoins N. side of Wandyke, 
its ditch passing under the mound on the N. side of Wansdyke, but 
no sign was found of it on S. side of Wansdyke. O.M. 34 NE. ; 
A. W. II. 29 ; Pitt Rivers' Excavations, III. 245 — 276, plans ; Smith \ 
VIII. E. VIII. f. 

Large rectangular enclosure on Morgan's Hill N.of Wansdyke, excavated i 
by B. H. Cunnington 1909. Probably medieval. O.M. 27 SE. : 
iv.A.M. xxxvi. 590 ; Smith IV. C. VII. d. ; A. W. II. 97. 

Large rectangular enclosure at the rifle range S. of Morgan's Hill, W 
of Blacklands to Cannings Rd, used to be called " Breach Barton. 
Roman coins said to have been found in the bank. ? Medieval. O.il- 
34 NW, ; Smith IV. B. VIII. d. 

Large square enclosure £ mile N. of Wansdyke on Horton Down, 200ft. 
each way with rampart 4ft. high and ditch outside entrances on each 
side, ramparts highest at the corners, strong. O.M. 34 NW. ; Smithy, 
112, VIII. E. VII. a. ; Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury 101 (No. II.). 



By the Rev. E. H. Qoddard. 203 

N. W. of the last on the same down on E. side of training course a cluster 
of square, circular, and oblong enclosures adjoining each other, a large 
sarsen in the most northern circle. Banks and ditches in places of 
large size. O.M. 34 NE. ; Smith VIII. E. VII. b. 

N.W. of these again on W. side of training course and track from 
Beckhampton buildings scattered over the down are five or six similar 
enclosures. O.M. 27 SE. ; Smith p. 112, VIII. E., VII. c, d, k, 1 ; Proc. 
Arch. Inst. Salisbury 101 (No. III). Smith remarks that these en- 
closures are more frequent on this down than anywhere else. 

On Bishops Cannings Down S.E. of barrows (63, 64) and N. of 
Wansdyke, Smith notes that the flat top of Roughridge Hill is en- 
closed by bank and ditch. A cattle pen or camp 1 O.M. 34 NE. ; 
Smith p. Ill, VIII. D. VII. v. 

Hut circles. At Old Shepherd's Shore where Old Bath Rd. cuts 
Wansdyke, just on N. side of the Dyke between old road and angle 
where the Dyke turns VV. 22 ring mounds about 17 — 20ft. diam., all 
close together except one 60 yds. to N., like hut circles. Only rings 
of turf, no excavation in the chalk. Examined by B. H. Cunnington 
(1909) but nothing found to prove their age. 1 Ancient or Civil War. 
Not shown in Smith or O.M. 34 NE. 

Is, Neolithic. 

Many flint implements on arable fields about Shepherd's Shore. B. H. 

j Cunnington. 

The ploughed ground all round about Barrow (16) O.M. 27 SE. a rich 

site for worked flints especially scrapers, weathered white like those 

of Windmill Hill, Avebury. M.E.C. 

Is, Bronze Age. 

l contracted interment in grave without a barrow " above Wansdyke." 
I Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury WO, fig. 15. 

similar interment found 1912 by chalk diggers near Old Shepherd's 
| Shore, near Barrow (36) in grave 3ft. long and 1ft. 6in. deep. Bone 

implement and two sarsen hammerstones, Devizes Museum. W.A.M. 

xxxviii. 106. 

inerary urn from large barrow W. of Shepherd's Shore now destroyed. 

Devizes Museum, Cat. II. X15 ; W.A.M. vi. 397. 

ronze ring-headed pin, surface, Shepherd's Shore, 1911, Devizes 

Museum, Cat. II. Bl6a ; W.A.M. xxxvii. UOfig. 

oi m. The line of the Roman Road Bath to Cunetio forms N. boundary 
of parish from its junction with Wansdyke to the Beckhampton — ■ 
Devizes Road. OM. 27 SE. 

Wick, nr. Devizes, several hundred coins found, 1699. W.A.M. vi. 
138. 

< i top of Roundway Hill round Barrow (40) abundance of Romano- 
British pottery shows in molehills, probably site of settlement. O. M. 
24 NW. M.E.C. 

P 2 



204 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities, 
BISHOPSTONE, N. WILTS. 

[6 Barrows on Idstone Down are just over the Berkshire and Idstoi; 
boundary.] M. 17 SW. 

Earthworks. 

" Old Ditch " on Bishopstone Down runs for about \ mile across Ber 
border on to Idstone Down. O.M, 17 S.W. 

The Ridgeway running along the escarpment from Berkshire, cross | 
the parish from N.E. to S.W. O.M. 16 SE. ; A. W. II. 46. 



BISHOPSTONE, S. WILTS. 
Barrows. 

1, 2, Two barrows close together S. of Salisbury Rd. and Willi 
boundary at the Hare Warren. O.M. 66 SW. ; A. W. I. Statiis 
VIII., IX., shows two barrows N. of the Rd. apparently in erijr. 

3. Barrow N.W. of Bishopstone village, just E. of track at Chfc 

Hollow. O.M. 70 NE. ; not in A. W. I. Stations VIII., IX. 

4. Barrow i mile N.E. of Croucheston Down Barn, E. of the benco 

the N. in the Roman Rd. O.M. 70 SE. 
[4a, 4b.] A. W. I. Station VII. shows a barrow close to (4) i< 
another near, on E. edge of Roman Rd. Not in O.M. 70 E. 
A. W. II. Roman (Era p. 25 plan of Roman Rd. shows 4 barrta 
at this point. 

5. Barrow 4 mile N. of last, just on E. side of Roman Rd. 0. M'A 

SE. ; A. W. I. Station VII. 
[5a] A. W. I. Station VII. shows a barrow on the opposite, W., 9 
of Roman Rd. just N. of (5). Not in O.M. 70 SE. A.ML 
Roman (Era 28 plan of Roman Rd. says a mutilated barrow 

6. 7. Sites of 2 barrows close together just S. of Faulston Down I'm 

and Ox Drove, N. of Salisbury-Blandford Rd. at 6 miles ton 
Salisbury. O.M. 71 SW. ; not in A. W. I. Station VII. 
[For barrow on Burcombe boundary see Burcombe (I).] 
From a barrow in Bishopstone came the plain tub-shaped urn 2 ii- 
high X 16£in. diam. at the lip, the largest ever found in Will fa 
Salisbury Museum. Arch. xliii.350,.^. 28 ; Stourhead Cat, 257* 

Earthworks. Grim's Ditch, running roughly E. to W., forms the \|ie 
S. boundary of Bishopstone and of the county (Wilts and Hal) 
O.M. 70 SE. ; 71 SW. ; A. W. I. 232, Station VII. 

Finds, Neolithic. A very large and fine chipped flint celt, 2 na|<r 

chipped flint celts, 3 small ground flint celts, flint knife. Black|ii 

Museum. 
Bronze Age Finds. Bronze palstave, of rare form 2£in. long withH 

slots and wide semilunar edge, 1873. Blackmore Museum. II" 

xxxvii. 131. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 205 

Three examples of " Ring Money," gold plated over a bronze core ; one 
in possession of Dr. Blackmore found "between Bishopstone and 
Broad Chalke" 1887, a second in the same locality 1891, a third in 
possession of J. H. Dibben found cir. 1907. Reliquary Sf Illust. Arch. 
xiv. 246 fig. 10; W.A.M. xxxvii. 156^. 

Bronze socketed looped spearhead near the top of a barrow 1873. 
Blackmore Museum. W.A.M. xxxvii. 142. 

toman. Roman Rd. Dorchester to Old Sarum enters Bishopstone at the 
angle at the Knighton High Wood, turns N.E. again and for 1 mile is 
visible, after this its course only between Bishopstone and Stratford 
Tony villages and into the latter parish is marked on O.M. 70 SE. ; 

71 NW. 



BISHOPSTKOW. 
Jarrows. 

1. Large barrow on summit of Middle Hill opened by Hoare 1809 
had been opened before. O.M. 52 NW. ; A. W. I. 69, Station II. 

[la, lb, lc] 2 smaller barrows close together on S.W. point of hill 
(? in Bishopstrow or Norton Bavant) opened by Hoare 1809, each 
had an interment of burnt bones. A third barrow unopened is 
shown close to these two in A. W. I. 69, Station II. Neither of 
these shown on O.M. 52 N.W. 

2 [2a]. Large round barrow in grounds just E. of Bishopstrow House, 
close to Boreham Long Barrow, or " King Barrow " (see 
Warminster Barrow 14). O.M. 52 NW. ; A.W. I. Station II. 
shows 2 barrows here. 

Earthworks. " Old Ditch " coming from Warminster Down crosses 
Bishopstrow Down and parish, running S.E. into Norton Bavant. 
O.M. 45 SW. ; 52, NW. ; A. W. I. Station II. 

i'inds, Neolithic. Two polished flint celts, Devizes and Blackmore 
Museums. Evans' Stone, .92. 
Short polished celt of greensand Chert. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 8. 

'inds, Late Celtic. Bronze bow brooch of La Tene I. type, in posses- 
sion of G. N. Temple. Reliquary, xiv. 95, fig. 3 ; W.A.M. xxxv. 
399, fig. 6. 

Ionian. For villas at Pitmead see Sutton Veny. 

At " The Buries " W. of Rd. and S. of Boreham Mill Hoare found area 
of 50 acres surrounded by a vallum in every part of which he dug 
up quantities of pottery, &c. A Station he says. 0. M. 52 SW. ; 
A. W. II. 108 plan. 



BLACKLAND, see CALNE WITHOUT. 



206 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

BLUNSDON ST. ANDREW. 

Earthworks. " Bury Blunsdon" Camp or Castle Hill just W. of Upper 
Burytowa Farm -jf mile N.E. of Broad Blunsdon (St. Leonard's) 
Church. Ramparts only to the S. of moderate height, natural slope 
of ground to N. only defence. Area 7 acres, 3 roods, 17 perches. 
Hoare thought it Saxon. O.M. 10 NE. ; A. W. II. 39. 

Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze looped palstave 5^in. long found at 
Burytown on high ground S. of farm, 1906. In private hands. 

Roman. Ermine Street forms parish boundary from Latton boundary to 
Blunsdon House and then runs on S.E. through parish to Kingsdown. 
O.M. 10 NE. and SE. 

BOSCOMBE. 

Roman. The line of the Portway, from Old Sarum to Silchester, runs 
across the parish parallel and close on the N. or W. side of the L. 
S.W. Railway. O.M. 61 SW. & NW. 



BOWERCHALKE. 
Barrows. 

1 — 4. On Marleycombe Hill \ mile S.W. of Bowerchalke Church, N. 

of the Ox Drove, O.M. 70 SW. shows 3 barrows (1—3) close 

together and 1 (4) to the S.W. of them. A. W. I. Stations VIII., 

IX. shows 7 barrows here close together. 
5, 6. Above Woodhouse Hanging, \ mile S.W. of Woodminton. O.M. 

70 SW. shows 2 barrows close together, apparently not in A. W. I. 

Station VIII. IX. 

7. Barrow on W. side of enclosure at East Chase Farm. S. of the Ox 

Drove. O.M. 75 N.W. 

8. Barrow \ mile W. of the last. O.M. 75 NW. 

A. W. I. Stations VIIL, IX. shows 2 barrows N. of Ox Drove here, E. 
and W. of the British village [possibly the latter is (9)], but 
marks none S. of the Drove. 

9. Barrow N. of Ox Drove, | mile S. of Woodminton. 0. M. 75 N W. . 

A.W.I. Stations VIIL, IX. 
In a barrow opened 1883 was found a large tub-shaped urn. Salisbury 

Museum. Stourhead Cat. 257 note. 
Earthworks. Hoare, A. W. I. 245, Stations VIIL, IX., shows Bokerly 
Ditch after crossing Roman Rd. at E Woodyates running across 
W. Woodyates and diagonally across Grimsditch to the N. \V. over 
Wilts border to Bowerchalke Down, and into a large British village 
there about 1 mile S. of Bowerchalke village. O.M. 75 NW. shows 
Bokerly Ditch running E. to W. through East and West Woodyates, 
but does not continue it across the Wilts border. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 207 

Grims Ditch (0. M. 75 NW.) is shown as running through part of 
Pentridge (Dorset) E. to W. and crossing Wilts border and entering 
Bowerchalke at Shire Rack pointing S.W. 



N. of this and S. of Ox Drove which runs E. and W. through the parish, 
O.M. 73 N.W. shows a series of short lengths of ditch all running 
roughly N . & S., viz. : — 
" Great Ditch Banks " just W. of East Chase Farm. 
Another ditch just on E. side of track \ mile W. of last. 
A short length pointing N.W. & S.E., to W. of last and N.E. of 

Stanchill Cottages. 
Two ditches coming out of N. end of Stonedown Wood, one E. and 
the other W. of Dank Wood corner. 



A short semicircular ditch on Marleycombe Hill close to Barrows (1 — 3). 



'inds, Late Celtic. Fragments of pottery, some leather brown and 

polished, some painted red. Blackmore Museum. 
toman. British village \ mile S. of Woodminton Farm, W. of track. 

O.M. 70S W. 
A large British village f mile S.E. of last, N.W. of East Chase Farm, on 

N. side of Ox Drove, about 1 mile south of Bowerchalke. O.M. 75 

NW. ; A. W. I. 245, Stations VIII., IX. 

BOX. 
iarrows. 

1 — 3. Three barrows close together in field adjoining and S.W. of 
Hatt House. O.M. 25 SW. 
arthworks. Roman Rd. and Wansdyke combined form S. boundary of 
parish throughout, called the Wansdyke here. 0. M. 25 SE. ; A. W- 
II. 16—33, 78. 
A ditch ? shown on King's Down just N. of Kingsdown Farm. O.M. 
25 SW. 
inds, Late Celtic. Very large and fine bronze brooch of " La Tene I." 

type found near, 1906. Brit. Museum, 
oman. A large villa with fine pavements just S. of Church, excavated 
partly 1881, more completely 1902. Altar, sculpture, capital, and 
other objects, Devizes Museum. Gent. Mag., 1831, Pt. L, 595 ; 1833 
Pt. I. 357, 358; Brit. Arch. Jour. xvi. 340 ; W.A.M. xxvi. 405 ; 
xxviii. 258 ; xxxiii. 236 Jigs. 

BOYTON. 
irrows. 

1. Corton Long Barrow on Barrow Hill, 216ft. long x 25ft. wide, 
opened by W. Cunnington 1801 and 1804. O.M. 58 NW. See 
Appendix, Long Barrows. 



208 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

2. Barrow on Heytesbury boundary, 1 mile W. of Corton Down, N. 

of Long Bottom. (The barrow close to it is in Heytesbury). 
O.M. 58 NW. ; A.W.I. Station IV. 

3. Barrow | mile E. of last at end of Well Bottom, W. of track, W. 

of Corton Down. O.M. 58 NW. ; A. W. I. Station IV. 

4. Barrow f mile W. of Boyton Field Farm, J mile S. of Corton 

Field, " in Boyton Manor, on a neck of land projecting from 
the Great Ridge Wood to Stockton Sheep pond, having Dean 
Valley on the right," was opened by W. Cunnington 1804. Its 
diam. was 40ft. and height 3ft. 9in. In grave 4ft. deep in the 
chalk the skeleton of young person, with large drinking cup at 
feet 9in. high, and near it a very small cup, 3^-in. high, of 
drinking cup shape. O.M. 58 NE. ; A. W. I. 102, Station IV. ; 
Arch. xv. 343, PI. XVI. figs, i, xvii. ; W.A.M. xxi. 257. 

5. Barrow on Boyton Down just E. of Boyton Field Farm on Sher- 

rington boundary, 70 yds. from Long Barrow in Sherrington, 76ft. 
diam., 14ft. high, opened by W. Cunnington 1804. 13 skeletons 
lying in different directions within 2ft. of top of barrow. 
Primary interment heap of burnt bones only in shallow cist. 
O.M. 58 NE. ; A. IF. I. 101, Station IV. ; Arch. xv. 340, PI. xvi.; 
fig. 3. [This unusually large barrow has never been ploughed, 
though disfigured by excavations in it. M.E.C.] 
On Corton Downs adjoining Tytherington, a small barrow with 
burnt bones and incense cup. A.W. I. 103, PI. xii. ; Stourhead 
Cat. 32 fig. 

Earthworks. On Corton Down, N. of Great Ridge Wood, Hoare notes 
" an irregular bank and ditch pursuing their course over the Downs 
towards the wood. A. W. I. 104. A fragment of this ditch is shown 
on Corton Down, O.M. 58 NW., and another just S. of barrow (4.) 
O.M. 58 NE. 
A small nearly square earthwork enclosure in Great Ridge Wood, in 
" Scrubbed Oak," near S. parish boundary. O.M. 58 SW. 

BRADENSTOKE, see LYNEHAM. 

BEADFORD-ON-AVON\ 

Roman. Considerable number of coins, chiefly of Victorinus, Allectus, 
Carausius, Constantine, &c, found in upper part of town called 
" Budbury." Traces of entrenchments in " Bed and Bolster Field." 
W.A.M. v. 6—8. 
Small stone coffin found at the Brewery, 1 before 1907, 4ft, 2^in. x I8in. 
wide. 

BRADLEY, NORTH. 

Roman. Human remains and lead coffin found 1851, just S.W. of Cutter- 
idge Farm. ? Roman. O.M. 44 NE. 



By the Bev. E. H. Goddarcl. 209 

BRATTON. 
Barrows. 

1. Long barrow within Bratton Camp. O.M. 45 NW. See Appendix, 

Long Barrows. 

2. Large flat round barrow on Edington boundary, 1 mile E. of 

Grant's Farm, £-mile N.W. of South Down Farm, apparently 
the one opened by W. Cunnington. Large urn containing 
smaller urn or food vessel with handle, and burnt bones. Devizes 
Museum. O.M. 45 SW. ; A.W. I. 66, Station II. ; Arch., xliii. 
348, jig. 25 ; Stourhead Cat. 20. 

3. Barrow on Summer Down, I mile S. of Grant's Farm. O.M. 45 

SW.. ; A. W. I. Station II. 

4. Another i-mile S. of the last. O.M. 45 SW. ; not in A. W. 

5. 6. Two barrows close together near Edington boundary, i-mile S. 

of New Farm. 0. M. 45 S W. ; not in A. W. 
[A " mound " is shown on O.M. 45 NW. on W. side of track just S. of 
camp.] 

Earthworks. Bratton Camp overlooking valley to N. Irregular oblong 
with double vallum and ditch except on side where the steepness of 
the ground requires little or no defence. At N.E. corner "an 
additional outwork like a detached camp " which Hoare regards as 
a later addition. Area 23 acres, circuit 1540 yds. Greatest height 
of rampart 36ft. Entrance in centre of S. side, facing the down, 
defended by special outwork. 0. M. 45 NW. ; A. W. I. 55, plan. 
About f-mile S.E. of the camp " near White Cliff," says Hoare, a small 
earthenwork nearly square with an entrance towards the S.E., "very 
perfect and neatly formed, and measures 87ft. X 75ft. within the 
area." A.W. I. 66, Station II. O.M. 45 NW. shows this as a 
rectangular enclosure with bank across its centre and a pointed S. 
end. 
W. of the last and directly S. of the camp, a much smaller square en- 
enclosure. 0. M. 45 NW. Not on A. W. 
N.W. of Bratton Village between Court House and railway, banks 
close to line. 0. M. 45 N W. 

Roman. Querns found in the camp and much pottery and many coins in 
field on N. side of camp. A. W. I. 55. 

BRIXTON DEVERILL. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow on Whitecliff Down, S. of Woodcombe Wood. O.M. 57 
N W. ; apparently not in A. W. I. Station I. This seems to be 
really a Romano- British midden {1). See below under Roman. 



A group of 7 barrows on Cold Kitchen Hill of which 4 (2—5) are 
in Brixton Deverill, 2 in Kingston Deverill, and I in Monkton 
Deverill. 



210 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

2. Large Long barrow at N.E. end of Cold Kitchen Hill. 0. M.bl NE. ; 

A. W. I. Station I. See Appendix, Long Barrows. 

3. Small round barrow almost touching E. ditch of Long barrow, 1ft. 

high only. O.M. 57 NE. ; A. W. I. Station I. 

4. Barrow just S. of Long barrow. O.M. 57 NE. ; A. W. I. Station I. 

5. 'Barrow just S. W. of last. O.M. 57 NE. ; A. W. I. Station I. 

[Barrows (1— 5) all on unploughed down on high ground. M.E.C.]. 



[A little W. of these barrows, but E. of the western of the two 
ditches, Hoaro, A. W. I. 41, Station I. shows a group of 5 barrows 
all close together just on the boundary apparently of Brixton and 
Kingston Deverill, which he opened. See Kingston Deverill] 



6. Barrow on Summerslade Down near Hill Deverill boundary, \ mile 

N.W. of Furze Hedge Barn. O.M. 57 NE. ; A. W. I. Station I. 

7. Large Long barrow on W. side of Pertwood Down \ mile S. of last, 

f mile N.W. of Lower Pertwood Farm, 1 mile E. of Monkton 
Deverill. O.M. 57 SE. ; A. W- I. Station I. See Appendix, Long 
Barrows. 

8. Barrow on Pertwood Down \ mile E. of Long barrow (7). O.M. 

57 SE.; A.W. I. Station 1. 

[8a.] A. W. I. Station I. shows two round barrows just S. of the Long 
barrow (7) of which apparently (8) is one. 

[9.] [This which looks on O.M. 57 SE. like a Long barrow just W. of 
Lower Pertwood Farm and is marked " Tumulus " and " Earth- 
work " is neither along nor a round barrow, it is in a hollow and 
looks like the ruin of some old oblong farm buildings. 1913. 
M.E.C] Not in A. W. I. Station I. 

10. Barrow \ mile N.E. of Lower Pertwood Farm just N. of Roman 

Kd. O.M. 57 SE. ; A. W. I. Station I. 

11. Barrow just N.E. of last (10), W. of Warminster Rd. O.M. 58 

SW. ; A. W.I: Station I. 
[lib, lie] A.W. I. Station I. appears to show 3 barrows in line 
E. & W. close together at the point where (11) is shown on O.M. 

58 SW. 

[lid] A.W. I. Station I shows a barrow on S. edge of Roman Rd 
just N. of Lower Pertwood. Not on O.M. 57 NE. 

12. Barrow \ mile S.E. of (11), a little distance E. of Shaftesbury- 

Warminster Rd., f mile N. of Pertwood Church. O.M. 58 SW. ; 

A.W.I. Station IV. 

Earthworks. Large rectangular enclosure on White Cliff Down, N. of 

Bushcombe Bottom, S. of Woodcombe Wood. O.M. 57 NW. & NE. 

At W. end of Cold Kitchen Hill a fragment of ditch cuts across ridge 

and parish boundary S. of Bushcombe Bottom. At E. end of Cold 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 211 

Kitchen Hill a fragment J-mile long runs N.W. and S.E. just E. of 
Long barrow (2). A fragment S. of this, running S.W. and N.E. 
forms parish boundary to W. end of Boars Bottom. O.M. 57 NE. 

Finds, Bronze Age. Large palstave without loops, Midden on Cold 
Kitchen Hill. E. W. Jefferys 1897. W.A.M. xxxvii. 131. 

Roman. Roman Rd. runs E. to W. just N. of Lower Pertwood Farm on 
each side of Warminster-Shaftesbury Rd. at 9 miles from Shaftesbury. 
O.M. 57 SE. & 58 SW. ; A. W. I. Station IV. 
On Whitecliff Down as marked on O.M. 57 NW., or Cold Kitchen Hill 
as it appears to be known locally, all round the conspicuous mound 
or barrow (1) irregularities of ground show extensive Romano-British 
village, partly explored by E. H. Goddard, 1896. The mound itself 
seems to be a midden rather than a barrow, though 2 skeletons were 
found, without skulls, near the surface. Great numbers of objects 
were found in the body of the mound as well as in depressions round 
it. Iron chain, arrowhead, knife, bronze brooches, tweezers, bracelet, 
white metal spoon, red coral, shale bracelets, coins of Constantine, 
Carausius, Crispus, Claudius. Gothicus, Valens, much pottery, sling 
bullet, bone counters, needle and implements, &c. Devizes Museum. 
Cat. II. 337a, 740— 792 figs. ; W.A.M. xxvii. 279 figs.; xxix. 181; 
xxxii. 169 ; xxxiv. 271 ; xxxv. 407 figs. 
W. Cunnington dug ] 803 between Bidcombe and Cold Kitchen and 
found coins of Constantine and Gratian, fragments of painted stucco, 
pottery, &c. A.W. I. 40. 
53 yds. from E. side of Rd. to Kingston, \ mile N.E. of Mere Down 
Farm, chalk diggers cir. 1853 found a little way under the surface 
with no signs of ibarrow, several skeletons " ranged round feet to 
centre." Several loom weights found with them. O.M. 57 SW. ; 
W.A. M. xxvii. 176. 

BROAD CHALKE. 
Barrows. 

1, 2. Two barrows near together between Knighton Hill Buildings 

and Church Bottom. 0. M. 70 SE. 
[2a, b]. Barrow exactly at the angle of Roman Rd., N. of Knighton 

High Wood, on W. side of Roman Rd. A. W. L, Station VII. ; 

not shown on Station VIII., IX., or O.M. 70 SE. A. W. II. 

Roman CEra, plan, shows another barrow S.W. of this. 

3. Barrow on Knowle Hill just on W. side of track lj miles S. of 
Broad Chalke village, apparently " Gawens Barrow" mentioned 
by Aubrey. O.M. 70 SE. ; A. W. I. 245, Stations VIII., IX. 

4, 5. Two barrows close together just below S. point of Hydon Hill. 
O.M. 70 NE. ; not in A. W. I., Stations VIIL, IX. 

6. Barrow a little way to E. of last. O.M. 70 NE. ; not in A. W. I. 
Stations VIIL, IX. 

7, 8. Two small barrows close together on Bishopstone boundary E. 
of Stoke Down Barn. O.M. 70 NE. ; not in A. W. I., Stations 
VIIL, IX. 



212 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

9, 10. Two barrows, j-mile apart, N. of Gurston Ashes, 1 mile S. of 
Chiselbury Cauip. O.M. 70 NW. Not shown here in A. W. I. 
Stations VIII., IX., which however shows 2 barrows close 
together just S.W. of the camp, not on O.M. 
[A barrow on W. side of Roman Rd. at S. extremity of parish is 
just on the Hampshire side of the border. O.M. 75 NE. ; A. W. 
I, Station VII.] 
Earthworks. Grims ditch running E. & W. forming S. boundary of 
Bishopstone and Broadchalke and divides Wilts and Hants until it 
meets the Roman Rd. O.M. 70 SE. From this point it apparently 
turns S. and reappears on O.M. 7o NE. coming from the Hants bor- 
der and Roman Rd. and running E. to W. in Vernditch Chase wood 
for 1-mile, then turns at right angle S. for ^-mile and turns again at 
right angle W. and runs out of the parish and county, crosses the 
corner of Hampshire into Pentridge and Dorset entering Wilts 
(Bowerchalke) again at Shire Rack. "The course of this bank and 
ditch is more irregular and winding than any I have yet followed " 
Hoare, A.W. I. 232, 244, Stations VII., VIII., IX. 

Hoare thinks it a boundary ditch not a covered way, or road, as it has 
no British villages on its track. The bank is throughout its course 
on the E. or N. side whereas as that of Bokerly is on the S. side. 
A.W. I. 244. 

A fragment of strong bank and ditch pointing N.W. in wood just N.E. 
of Barnett's Barn, a fragment reappears in Compton Chamberlaine 
1-mile N.W. O.M. 70 NE. ; A.W. I. 249, Stations VIII, IX. 

Earthwork ditches and banks, many of rectangular form, cover large 
space just S.E. of Knighton Hill Buildings. O.M. 70 SE. ; A. W. I. 
Stations VIII, IX. 

On E. side of Church Bottom on Knighton Hill about 1 mile S. of 
Broad Chalke village, a very small square earthwork enclosure. 
O.M. 70 SE. ; A. W. I. 247, Stations VIII, IX. 

" On the western side of this vale (Church Bottom) the remains of 
another earthen enclosure similar in its construction (i.e., pentagonal) 
to the Soldiers Ring near Damerham." A. W. I, 247 ; not in 0-M. 
70 SE. Apparently this was on Knowle Hill. 
Roman. Roman Rd, Dorchester to Old Sarum, running N.E. from E. 
Woodyates forms boundary of Hants and Wilts and of the parish 
from point S. of Vernditch Chase to Old Lodge Copse. At Knighton 
High Wood 1^ miles further, it turns at an angle E. into Bishop- 
stone. O.M. 70 NE. ; 70 SE. 

British village with strong surrounding ditches just on S. side of Ox 
Drove or Ridgeway close to Bowerchalke boundary W. of Chicken- 
grove and N. of Vernditch Chase. O.M. 70 SE. ; A.W. I. 245, 
Stations VIII, IX. 

BROAD HINT0N. 
Barrows. 

1. Low flat bowl-shaped barrow on brow of hill just \V. of Ridgeway, 
i mile N. of Rd. up White Horse Hill. 0. M. 22 SE. ; Smith p. 
122, IX. I. II. b. 



By the Rev. E. H. Ooddard. 213 

[la, lb.] Utfcott Down. Two low barrows in round plantation W. 
side of Kidgeway, between White Horse and Barbury. Smith p. 
121, IX. I. I. b. c. ; A. W. II. 41 shows 3 barrows on this down ; 
not in O.M. 22 SE. 
[lc] Barrow N. of Swindon Rd. near Wyre Farm. A. W. II. Stations 
XI. XII. ; not in Smith or O.M. 
Earthworks. Binknoll Camp. Promontory camp on projecting spur 
(? of what age), area 5f acres. Mound at apex and outer and inner 
bailey. O.M. does not show outer rampart, almost destroyed. 
O.M. 22 NW. ; A. W. II. 95. 
Slight rectangular earthwork on slope of hill just N. of road up White 
Horse Hill. O.M. 22 SE. 
The Ridge u ay running along the crest of Hackpen Hill forms part of E. 
boundary of parish (and of Ogbourne St. Andrew and Preshute). 
O.M. 22 SE. ; A IF. II. 46. 
Finds, Eoliths. These have been found in drift on top of Hackpen at 
878ft. H. G. 0. Kendall. W.A. M. xxxv. 324 ; Man, June, 1907, p. 84. 
Finds, Neolithic. Uffcott, &c. Flint scrapers and other worked flints. 

J. W. Brooke ; H. G. O. Kendall. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze palstave 1853. Devizes Museum, Cat. II. 

B18; W.A.M. i. 65 ; xxxvii. 132. 
Roman. Bronze stamp. Devizes Museum, Cat. II. 355 fig, ; W.A.M. 
xxviii. 89 fig. ; xxxvi. 508. 

BROAD TOWN. 
Barrows. 

[1]. Barrow 1 just at top of escarpment at head of Thornhill Lane. 
The top was removed 1834. Saxon? interment (? secondary). 
Skeletons with large amber bead and iron arrowhead and glass 
bead. Devizes Museum, Gat. II. 81— 81b ; W.A.M. vi. 256 ; xxix. 
86 ; not in O.M. 22 NW., or Smith. 

Saxon. See Barrow, above. 

BROKENBOROUGH. 

Roman. The Fosseway forms N.W. boundary of parish for about 2^ miles 
and also of the county for this distance, as far as Shipton Moyne 
extends. The boundary of Brokenborough and Long Newnton only 
follows the Fosse for short distances, and Newnton extends irregularly 
E. of it. O.M. 8 NW. and SW. 
A number of Roman coins and trinkets found casually from time to 
time. W.A.M. viii. 16 ; xxxiii. 331. 

BROMHAM. 
Barrows. 

1, 2. Oliver's Camp. 2 small barrows close together just outside 
rampart on S.W. point of the camp and hill. Opened by B. H. 



214 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

Cunnington 1907. The southern barrow (1) produced no inter- 
ment, only fragments of pottery. 
The northern barrow (2) had at the centre a cist in the chalk 25in. 
X 12in. X 12in. deep, containing burnt bones, with fragments 
of a very small incense cup (not the whole cup), and a conical 
bone button, covered over with large lumps of chalk. Above this, 
in the body of the mound, a built-up circular cavity containing a 
quantity of ashes in which were burnt human teeth. On the S. 
side of the barrow a rude pot 3|in, high and 4^in. in diam. lying 
on its side with burnt bones, which had apparently been used as 
a cinerary urn. Fragments of two other similar vessels were 
also found on the S. side. Devizes Museum Cat. II. . X97 — 
X102. O.M. 34 NW. ; not in Smith ; W.A.M. xxxv. 441 figs. 
3 On the down £ mile N.W. of this, a barrow. O.M. 34 NW. ; not 
in Smith. 
[For neighbouring barrows see Roundvvay.] 
Earthworks. Oliver's Camp or Roundway Castle, promontory camp on 
projecting point of escarpment overlooking the vale. One strong 
ditch and rampart on the down side, on other sides the ground is so 
steep that only smaller ditches are required. Area about 3 acres. 
Entrance in centre of main rampart. Excavated by B. H. and Mrs. 
Cunnington 1907. Pottery of late Celtic type found under ramparts 
and in ditches, and this is probably the date of the camp as a whole. 
Four holes ?for gateposts were found, two on either side of main 
entrance. The main ditch was found to be silted up to depth of lift. 
It was 2ft. to 3ft. wide at bottom, and originally 13ft. 6in. deep, and 
appeared to have been purposely filled up. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 
El. O.M. 34 NW. ; W.A.M. xxxv. 408—444, figs and plans ; A.W. 
II. 98. 
Finds, Late Celtic. Pottery in ditches of Oliver's Camp 1907. W.A.M. 

xxxv. 392, 408. 
Roman. Just where the Roman Road would cross the Devizes — Chip- 
penham Road a villa was discovered 1765 — 67, with pavement repre- 
senting a Roman soldier. Great quantities of iron slag found in 
fields of Bromham. Gent. Mag. 1796, pp. 472, 473. 
At Mother Anthony's Well just on parish boundary under Oliver's 
Castle a Roman building of considerable extent, clearly outlined by 
poppies in the corn in a dry year (1907), never explored, pottery and 
other objects on surface. Substantial foundation walls have been 
exposed and great numbers of coloured tesserae ploughed up and the 
floors apparently destroyed, M.E.C. O.M. 34 NW. ; W.A.M. xxxv. 
441. 
In West Park field immediately on E. side of Devizes Road, £ mile S. 
of Wans a Roman villa opened in 1810 by W. Cunnington &, Sir 
R. C. Hoare (A. W. II. Roman GSra, p. 123, pavements figured), but 
it had been opened before by Sir Andrew Baynton. In 1840 J. S, 
Money opened it, found 7 rooms, 4 baths 1, 2 cinerary urns, coin of 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 215 

Carausius ; and also excavated on the other (W.) side of road, where 
he found parts of the villa, hypocaust, 18 bone pins (of which 11 are 
in Devizes Museum), W.A.M. vi. 260; xxxvii. 205, 611 Jigs. ; Gent. 
Mag. 1840 Pt. II. 528; 1841 Pt. I. 81 ; Devizes Gazette, Sept. 24th— 
Nov. 5th, 1840. Opened again 1880 by Wilts Arch. Soc. it was found 
to extend 1 35ft. X 56ft. and the two pavements figured by Hoare found, 
much damaged, with coins of Constantius II. 350 A.D. The building 
certainly extended across the road. Two County Council cottages 
have lately been built on the site. Jar of Upchurch ware and bead 
found. W.A.M. xix. 299, plan ; Devizes Museum Cat. II. 224, 274. 
Camden says several hundred Roman coins were found near Oliver's 
Camp, and several pots without coins. A. W. II. 98. 

BROUGHTON GIFFORD. 

toman. " Site of Roman Station " shown in second field to S.W. from 
point where Holt — Melkshain Road crosses railway, close to line. 
O.M. 32 SE. 

BULFORD. 
{arrows, 

1. Long barrow S.W. of village, S. of Seymour Farm, at Long Rarrow 

Clump. A. W. I. Station VI. shows round barrow only. O.M. 

54 SE. ; Soc. Ant. Map 404. See appendix Long Barrows. 
2—10. E. of the last S.W. of Bulford Penning, 9 barrows extending 

roughly in an irregular line W. to E. for i mile (2 to 7) in O.M. 

54 SE. ; (8 to 10) in O.M. 55 SW. ; Soc. Ant. Map 405—413. 
11—14. S.E. of the Penning a group of 4 barrows close together. 

O.M. 55 SW. ; Soc. Ant. Map 424. 
[14a] In O.M. 1st Ed. a fifth very small barrow is shown in centre 

of the other four, not shown on O.M. 1900. 
15—17. Three barrows N.E. of the last near the reservoir near 

Bulford Camp. O.M. 55 SW. ; Soc. Ant. Map 423, 421, 422. 

18. Barrow on N. side of Andover Rd., 2j miles from Amesbury. 
O.M. 55 SW. ; Soc. Ant. Map 562. 

19. Barrow NE. of the last on Amesbury boundary at Clay Mound 
Plantation. O.M. 55 SW. ; Soc. Ant. Map, 525. 

20. Barrow £ mile N.E. of the last, between Clay Mound and Stephens 
Mound. O.M. 55 SW. ; Soc. Ant. Map 437. 



21—28. Group of 8 harrows near together N. of Sling Plantation, 
just W. of 9 Acre Plantation and J mile S.E. of Sheep Bridge on 
Nine Mile River. (26) in O.M. 55 NW. ; the rest in O.M. 55 
S W. ; Soc. Ant. Map 418, 417, 419, 416, 415, 414, 420 (28 is not on 
O.M. 1st Ed. ? a mound). Of these Lt.-Col. W. Hawley, F.S.A., 
opened two— (22 and 27). 



216 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

22. [No. 2.] Barrow much ruined by rabbits and dug for flints, 
nothing found in centre, but a later burial of skeleton at full 
length on S. side. W.A.M. xxxvi. 618 ; Soc. Ant, Map 417. 

27. [No. 1.] Barrow 13ft. high X 140ft. diam. Large cist in centre 
7ft. deep X 8ft. long X 4ft. 5in. wide, containing crouched 
skeleton of large man, perforated axe hammer (in Brit. Museum, 
figd. W.A.M. xxxvi. 622) near his hands. The cist filled with 
large flints and upon these at the level of the ground, three 
crouched skeletons of men, all without forearms, heads to centre, 
and equidistant from each other. Above these in mound of 
brown earth, at all depths in the barrow and in all positions, as 
if thrown on to the barrow as it was heaped up, 7 skeletons of 
children, varying from a new-born infant to a child of 5 of 6 
years. Marks of deer horn? pick were to be seen on walls of 
cist. In the E. side of barrow cinerary urn inverted over 
burnt bones. (Salisbury Museum, figd. W.A.M. xxxvi. 617). 
Soc. Ant. Map 420. 

29. Bulford Down. Barrow between Three Acre Plantation and 
Rifle Range. O.M. 55 S.W. : Soc. Ant. Map 436. 

29a. Bulford Down. A mound not marked "tumulus" on O.M. oo 
SW. 1900, between (29; and (30). Soc. Ant. Map 435. 

3b— 38. Bulford Down, at S. end of Rifle Range and W. of the 
ditch, scattered group of 9 barrows. O.M. 55 SW. ; Soc. Ant Map 
433, 432, 434, 431, 429, 430, 428, 427, 426. 



39 — 54. Bulford Down, at target or N. end of Rifle Ranges, group 
of 16 barrows close together just N.E. of Group (21 — 28), and 
W. of the targets. O.M. 54 NW. Two of these were opened by 
Lt.-Col. W. Hawley, F.S.A. W.A.M. xxxvi. 619, 620 ; Soc. Ant. 
Map 258, 256, 256*, 252, 251, 250, 253, 254, 255, 257, 249, 247, 248, 
246, 245, 244. 

49. [No. 3.] "Target Barrow." Outside covered with layer of chalk, 
very hard, 2ft. thick. In centre fragments of urn with burnt, 
bones. 4 secondary interments of burnt bones, 3 of them in urns.! 
Under the S.E. side a mass of tons of wood ash with remains of 
charred vertical posts, the ends of which were found in the chalk 
3ft. in diameter. -Soc. Ant. Map 249. 

51. [No. 4.] Small barrow, nothing found, had been opened before.) 
Soc. Ant. Map 248. 

55—65. Bulford Down. Scattered group of 11 barrows round the 
westernmost target, and to N. and W. of it. O.M. 55 NW. 
Soc. Ant. Map 243, 259 [57 not in O.M. 1st Ed.], 260, 261, 
264—268. 
[60a a very small barrow shown between 59 and 60 on O.M- Ul 
Ed. has apparently been absorbed by the Target in O.M. I! 
Soc. Ant. Map 262.] 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 217 

66. Barrow N. of last group on Milston boundary, O.M. 55 NW. ; 
Soc. Ant. Map 269. 

67. Barrow just S. of 900 yds. firing point on most easterly rifle 
range, close to parish and county boundary. O.M. 55 NW. ; 
Soc. Ant. Map, 280. 

On Bulford Down including Beacon Hill, in the tract of land N. 
of the Andover Rd., N.E. of Amesbury, between Bulford and 
the Hampshire boundary, A. W. I. Station VI. shows about 100 
barrows which cannot be exactly identified with those shown on 
O.M. 

In a barrow on Bulford Down, opened by Mr. Hutchins, the 
primary interment was a skeleton under an immense sarsen, 
with bronze dagger 5|in. long (Ashmolean Museum) and drink- 
ing cup. Above this a cinerary urn I2iin. high (Ashmolean 
Museum). Proc. Soc. Ant., Scot, xli., 252, Jig. 110 (erroneously 
said to be from Balsham, Cambs) ; Arch, xliii., 350, Jig. 27. 

Seven barrows near Bulford were opened by Mr, Bowyer Lane. 3 
contained skeletons, 1 a large urn and burnt bones, others con- 
tained burnt bones, bronze dagger (?), open work incense cup 
(Brit. Museum), " contracted " incense cup, and 2 bronze awls. 
Arch, xliii., 366, Jig. 163 ; Arch. Journ. vi., 319, Jig. ; Evans' 
Bronze, 190, 366, Jig. 226. 

In a barrow at Bulford, a bronze dagger and stone wristguard were 
found. Arch. Journ. vi., 319. 
68, 69 [69a]. Bulford Field just W. of Sheep Bridge over Nine Mile 
Water, a barrow and site of another just N.E. of it. O.M. 55 
NW. ; A.W.I. Station VI. shows 3 barrows here ; Soc. Ant. 
Map, 238, 239. 

arthworks. Large bank and ditch running parallel to S. of Ames- 
bury— Andover Rd. and forming boundary for 1J miles of Bulford 
and Amesbury. O.M. 55 SW. ; A. W. I., 215. 
Ditch running S.E. across Brigmerston and Milston Downs enters 
Bulford on the easternmost rifle range, and is there cut or stopped 
by another ditch running at right angles E. and W. This runs 
I mile W.then turns S. at right angles and runs down course of Rifle 
range for 1 mile just to E. of barrows 33—38 on Bulford Down and 
crosses the parish boundary into Cholderton just W. of Hill's Copse. 
O.M. 55 NW. & SW. 

inds, Neolithic. Chipped Flint Celt. Bulford Down. 1896. Brit. 

Museum. 

inds, Bronze Age. Half of a Syenite mould for bronze celts, one with 
two loops, found near Nine Mile Water, formerly in the Lake Ho. 
Coll., now at Farnham Museum. Evans' Bronze 143 ; W.A.M. x. 
18 ; xvii. 36 ; xxviii., 261 ; Arch, xxviii. 451. 
" Part of spear head of fine workmanship," from a barrow, probably a 

dagger. Arch. Journ. vi. 319 ; W. A. M. xxxvii. 126. 
, XXXVIII. — NO. CXX. Q 



218 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

Small narrow chisel-like palstave without loops, with side flanges. 
Beacon Hill. 1878. Blackmore Museum. W. A.M. xxxvii. 132. 

Roman. On W. side of Nine Mile Kiver adjoining Bulford Field, nearly 
opposite milestone 10 from Salisbury, a British settlement. A.W.I. 
195, Station VI. 
Harradon Hill, S. end of Beacon Hill, Roman coins found 1723. 
Stukeley Stonehenge, 32. 

Finds, Saxon. Small iron spear head. Bulford Down. 1861. Devizes 
Museum Cat. II. 62; W.A.M. ix. 25 ; xxxvi. 483, fig. 



BURBAGE. 

Finds, Neolithic. Flint implements found 1895 \ mile S.W. of West 
Court Training Stables. O.M. 36 SE. 

Roman. The course of the road from Cunetio to Winchester runs through 
N.E. corner of parish to Tottenham House, parallel with course of 
Grand Avenue. O.M. 36 NE. ; A. W. II. 70 plan. 
At Southgrove Farm 1893 a Romano-British interment with bone and 
iron fittings of crossbow, whetstone, bronze tweezers, iron hammer, 
knife blade, &c. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 484—490./^. ; W.A.M. 
xxviii. 81 figs. ; O.M. 42 NE. 



BUECOMBE. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow on boundary of Bishopstone S. of Punch Bowl Bottom 

O.M. 65 SE. 

2, 3, 4. Three barrows close together in line E. to W. J mile W. of 

last. O.M. 65 SE. 

5 [5a], Barrow just above the targets of the Rifle Range at S. end of 

Punch Bowl Bottom. O.M. 65 SE. A.W. I. Station VIII. 

shows 2 barrows close together here. 
[5b, c] Two barrows N. of Rd. and W. of (2, 3, 4) close together, 

shown on A.W. I. Station VIII. ; not in O.M. 65 SE. 
[5d, e.] A barrow S.E. of the village of Burcombe and another S.W. 

of it shown on A. W. I. Station VIII. Neither of them on O.M 

65 SE. 

Earthworks. A ditch running along S. side of Grovely from near 
Hamshill Ditches in Barford to Chilhampton in S. Newton forms I 
N. boundary of Burcombe at Grovely Hill, where a branch of it 
runs S. O.M. 65 NE. ; A. W. I. 110, Station IV. 
About 1 mile S. of village just N. of Barrow 5 above the targets at S. I 
end of Punch Bowl Bottom, two parallel banks and ditches cut across 
a projecting point of down. O.M. 65 SE. ; A.W. I. 250, Stations 
VIIL, IX. 



Bij the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 219 

BUTTERMERE 

Earthworks. Ditch runs from Gammons Farm, Collingbourne Kingston, 
across Shalbourne and Fosbury, and Shalbourne again and into 
Buttermere at Henley Bottom, O. G. S. Crawford, 1913 ; A.W. I, 
Station YI. ; not shown on O.M. 43 NE. 

CALNE WITHOUT, including BLACKLAND, CALSTONE, 

and DERRY HILL. 
Barrows. 

1. Long barrow a little distance W. of monument at Oldbury. O.M. 
27 SE. See Appendix, Long Barrows. [Not the Long Barrow 
opened by Ounnington, and referred to by Thurnam as " Old- 
bury." This was Cherhill [la]. M.E.C.] 

2. Low bowl-shaped barrow on point of hill f-mile W. of monument, 
opened, no record. O.M. 27 SE. ; Smith p. 50, III. C, V, a. ; not 
in A.W. - '■,'- 

[2a, 2b.] Two small barrows, the first close on S. side of (2), the 
other a little SE. of it ; both above the 600ft. contourline on the 
hill ; not shown on O.M. 27 SE., Smith, or A. W. M.E.U. 

[2c]. Low barrow S. of Oldbury Camp, opened by flint diggers. 
Skeleton, drinking cup, and a bronze knife dagger 1 (not pre- 
served), [not in O.M. or Smith's Map]. Devizes Museum 
Cat. II. x9 ; W.A.M. xxiii. 215 ; xxxvii. 455. [The remains of 
a barrow, probably this one, still quite distinct close outside 
the rampart, 1913. M.E.C.] 
Barrow close to Wansdyke (? in Calstone) opened by Dean Mere- 
wether, notched vitreous bead. Proc. Arch. Inst., Salisbury, 

"Barrow at Oldbury," 1874. Flint knife -and flakes W.A M. 
xv. 137. 

larthworks. The S.W. portion of Oldbury Castle Camp is in this 
parish, the rest in Cherhill, q, v. 

£-mile S.W. of Oldbury Camp, near Banscombe Bottom, "a very small 
circle or rather oblong with rounded corners, an enclosure with bank 
and ditch on a projecting spur overhanging a deep combe." Smith 
p. 57, III. C, VI., d. O.M. 27 SE. shows it as a triangle with rounded 
corners. [Slight bank with no entrance, ? modern. M.E.C.] 

O.M. shows just S.E. of this last, half of a smaller oval earthwork. 
inds, Neolithic. Flint arrowhead and part of ground flint celt. Ward's 

: Farm, Blackland, 1902. Devizes Museum, Cat. II. 11, 12 ; W.A.M. 
xxxii. 275. 

inds, Bronze Age. Near Oldbury Camp, bronze socketed looped celt, 
gouge, tanged chisel, and awl, found by flint diggers! ' Devizes 
Museum, Cat II. BIO— B12, B24 ; W.A.M. v. 128; xxiii. 216; 
xxxvii. 149.; Reliquary^ xvw. 245, figs.S . . , ". 

Q 2 



220 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 



Slate wrist guard from " interment of bronze age near Calne," 1880. 
Brit. Museum. 

Late Celtic. Dwelling pits 100 yds. S. of monument at Oldbury, opened 
1890. Loom weights, cooking vessels, Devizes Museum Gat. II. 
838—847 ; W '.A.M. xxv. 248 ; xxvii. 291, figs. ; xxviii. 277. 

Roman. Sir R. C. Hoare mentions on the slopes of Oldbury somewhere 
near Ranscombe Bottom, a small " British Village." A. W. II. p. 96. 

Many Roman coins found near Calne. Stukeley Abury, p. 27. 

Roman tile inscribed. C.I.L. VII. 1241 ; WA.M. xxv. 192. 

Whetham Farm. Roman cin. urn of grey pottery found near quarry, 
1843. Devizes Museum Gat II. 223 ; WA.M. II. 60. 

At Barrow Hill in Calstone village, 2 skeletons found, 1892, with 
spindle whorl 3ft. below surface (? what date). WA.M. xxvi. 417. 

Site of Verlucio adjoining Wans House on N. side. Samian ware, 
enamel brooch, lead seal, &c, found 1828. Devizes Museum. 0.21. 
26 SE ; W.A.M. xxxvii. 611 figs. Roman Dice found here, in 
possession of Capt. Wyndham 1873 ; W.A.M. xiv. 233 fig. 

Roman road and Wansdyke combined running straight to Wans 
through Spye Park turns at an angle S. here, where it leaves the 
Station of Verlucio, and then runs straight due E. for 3 miles to 
point at Morgan's Hill where the Wansdyke leaves it, and thence 
N.E. pointing to Silbury Hill, forming S. boundary of Calne Without 
for 5 J miles. O.M. 26 SE ; 27 SW and SE ; A. W. II, 83 plan. 

Bowood, between the House and the Lake, remains of Roman house 
found. W.A.M. xxiv. 170; A. W. II. 124. 

Many bronze coins found at Derry Hill, 1680, Jackson's Aubrey, 39; 
W.A.M. xi. 344. 

Studley Hill, Roman house, bricks stamped with name,hypocaust, coins, 
&c, found 1753. A. W. II. 124 ; W.A.M. xxiv. 170. 



CALSTONE, see CALNE WITHOUT. 



CASTLE COMBE. 

Earthworks. Earthworks surrounding medieval castle on hill N.E. of 
village probably partly those of prehistoric camp, area 8j acres. 0J1. 
19 NE. ; A. W. II. 101, PI. xvi. 

Roman. Sepulchral relief of hunter with stag found on site opposite to 
N. Wraxall Villa, with 300 3rd brass coins of Lower Empire 1825. 
Relief now at Castle Combe Manor. Gent. Mag. 1860 Pt. II. 159 ; 
W.A.M. vii. 73. 

CHARLTON ALL SAINTS, S. WILTS see STANDLYNCH. 






By the Rev. E. H. Godclard. 221 

CHARLTON NEAR PEWSEY. 
farrows. 

[la.] Barrow on Charlton Down N. of Churcli Ditches and British 
village. A. W. I. Station V. Not in O.M. 47 NW. 

Earthworks. A line of ditch beginning with Long Ditch in Marden 

crosses Wilsford into Charlton, then crosses the parish into Rushall 

and on towards Casterley. O.M. 47 N W. ; Soc. Ant. Map 24. 

Another line l| mile S. of last, going W. to E. from Ell Barrow crosses 

Charlton and on into Enford. O.M. 47 N W. ; A. W. I. 175, Station V. 

toman. British village on Charlton Down W. of site of Church Ditches 
in Rushall. O.M. 47 NW. ; A. W. I. 175 ; Soc. Ant. Map 25. 
Coins found, no details, W.A.M. ix. 27. 



CHERHILL. 
iarrows. 

1. Large low barrow 20 yds. E. of E. rampart of Oldbury, 50ft. diam., 

2ft. high. Urn found in it by flint diggers, 1858. Opened by 
W. Cunnington. In cist, 18in. deep x 18in. wide, a large urn 
inverted over burnt bones. Wood ashes and animals' bones in 
the mound. Devizes Museum, Cat. II. xl4 fig. ; A. W. II., 
Stations XL, XII. ; W.A.M. vi. 73,74.,%. ; xxiii. 214; Smith 
p. 95 VII. D. V. f. ; Arch, xliii. 334, 349, PI. xxx.fig. 3. 
la. The remains of a mound just on Cherhill (N.) side of boundary 
a little W. of monument represents the long barrow opened 
by Cunnington. W.A.M. xiii. 103; xxiii. 215; Smith, p. 50, 
III. C, V. d. Not on 0. M. 27 SE. See Appendix Long barrows. 

2, 3. Two barrows? on edge of hill just N. of White Horse. O.M. 

27 SE. ; Smith p. 96 VII. D. V. i, k, thinks they are not barrows. 

4. Very large, high, bowl-shaped barrow, J-mile N.E. of Oldbury, E. 

of track to Yatesbury, just S. of Old Bath Rd., opened, no 
record. 0. M. 27 SE. ; Smith p. 95 VII. D. V. e. 

5. Low and flat barrow, f-mile E. of Oldbury, 100 yds. E. of barn on 

Nolands Down. O.M. 27 SE. ; Smith p. 98 VII. E. V. u. 

6. Large bowl-shaped barrow on Yatesbury boundary just N. of Old 

Bath Rd., with ditch running N. from it. Opened, no record. 
O.M. 27 SE. ; Smith p. 97 VII. E. V. g. 
Barrow opened at Cherhill, 1835. Pottery, bones, urn, and large 
pair of ox horns. Jackson's Aubrey, 40 ; Devizes Gazette, Oct. 
25th, 1835. 
[For other barrows, &c, on Oldbury, see Calne Without.] 
arthworks. Cherhill Down. Bank and ditch running E. from Old- 
bury 11 miles into Avebury parish. O. M. 27 SE. ; Smith VII. D. V. b. 
Cherhill Down. S. of the above ditch and E. of Oldbury, many banks 
and ditches including a rectangular enclosure. O.M. 27 SE. ; Smith 
VII. D. V. d, e. 



222 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

Oldbury Castle. Strong camp in commanding position. Double 
ditch, area 25 acres, circumference 1276 yds., height of rampart, 50 ft. 
Area is intersected by a bank and ditch. Hoare found animals' 
bones and pottery in the area. Entrance to S.E. Two dwelling pits 
within the area have been opened, see below. O.M. 27 SE. ; A. W. 
II. 97. 

Finds, Bronze Age. Skeleton with drinking cup, found 1871, on Old- 
bury Hill (? in Calne Without). Devizes Museum Cat. II. x9 fig. ; 
W.A.M. xxxiii. 91. 

Late Celtic. Two dwelling pits in Chsrhill portion of Oldbury Camp 
opened by H. Cunnington 1875. One was 4ft. deep and 5ft. in diam., 
ashes on the floor, with bowl-shaped vessel, bone weaving comb, and 
animals' bones ; the other 9ft. long X 6ft. wide and 3ft. 6in. deep, 
contained a fine quern stone, sarsen mullers, worked flints, bones, 
and fragments of pottery vessels. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 835 — 
837; W.A.M. xxiii. 217. See also Calne Without for pits S. of the 
camp. 

Roman. Weight or pig of iron, iron key, knives, arrow and spear heads, 
and chisel ; bronze bow brooch, buckle, armlets, &c. ; a few coins 
Domitian to Maximus. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 314, 356b, 516, 
547 ; W.A.M. vi. 256 ; xxiii. 216—219 ; xxv. 364 ; xxvii. 291 ; xxviii. 
263 ; xxxv. 177, 392 ; xxxvi 480. 
Large bronze penannular brooch of 5th cent. A.D., found 1858. Devizes 

Museum, Cat. II. 340 ; W.A.M. xxiii. 216 fig. 
Patch of Roman pavement found 1913 in path immediately in front of 
gate into churchyard, of fine quality, figure of dog (?), with guilloche 
border and floral ornament. 

CHEVEKELL, GEEAT. 

Finds, Late Celtic. Bronze bow brooch, Devizes Museum Cat. II. 

313 ; W.A.M. xxxv. 403 fig. 
Roman. A gallon of coins Gordianus to Tacitus found at " The Sands " 

1695. W.A.M. xxxiii. 169. 
Bronze penannular brooch, 1863, buckle, Devizes Museum Cat. II.' 337, 

347. 
Saxon (?). Glass bead found on spot where bones and a sword had been 

previously found, "above Knowtham Pond." Devizes Museum 

Cat. II. S 3. 

CHEVERELL, LITTLE. 

Roman. British village on Little Cheverell Down about 1 mile N. of 
Imber. A. W. I. 95. 

CHICKLADE. 

Earthworks. Hoare mentions a bank to the N. of the British village on 
Cratt Hill and an old ditch near. A. W. I. 105, Station IV. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 223 

Roman. British village on Cratt Hill [" Croft Hill," Hoare], \ mile N. of 
Chicklade village and S. of Great Ridge Wood. O.M. 58 SW. ; A. W. 
I. 105, Station IV. 

"Roman Road" forms S. boundary of Great Ridge Wood and N. 
boundary of Chicklade. O.M. 58 S.W. 

[British village " opposite Chicklade Bottom " is in Berwick St.Leonard.] 

CHILMAEK. 

Roman. On site of Manor House re-erected 1903-4 by Capt. J. A. Morrison 
at Little Ridge (? in this parish) Romano- British dwelling-pits cut 
through and excavated by B. Stallybrass. Roman coin, pottery, 
animals' bones, querns, shale armlet, amber bead, &c. Devizes 
Museum Cat. II. 491— 491e ; W.A.M. xxxiv. 415. 

CHILTON FOLIOT. 

Finds, Bronze Age. Socketed looped Bronze Celt : J. W. Brooke Coll. 
Reliquary, xiv. 247 ; W.A.M. xxxvii. 135. 

CHIPPENHAM. 

Barrows. Lanhill Long Barrow, called Hubba's Lowe by Aubrey. Just 
on S. side of Chippenham— Marshfield Rd. near W. boundary of 
parish. Chambered barrow. Excavated by Thurnam 1855 and B. 
H. Cunnington 1909. O.M. 19 SE. ; A. W. II. 100 ; W.A.M. Hi. 86 ; 
xxxvi. 300. See Appendix Long Barrows. 

CHLRTON. 
Barrows. 

1. A barrow just N. of Ridgeway about 1 mile E. of Redhorn Hill. 

O.M. 40 SE. ; A. W. I. Station V. ; Soc. Ant. Map 5. 

2, 3. Two barrows close together just N. of Ridgeway 200 or 300 yards 

E. of the last. 0. M. 40 SE. ; A. W. I. Station V. ; Soc. Ant. Map 
6,7. 
4. A barrow SE. of junction of Ridgeway and Redhorn Rd. to 
Salisbury. 0. M. 40 SE. ; Soc. Ant. Map 4. 
The Ridgeway coming from Gore's Cross to near Broadbury Banks cuts 
across Chirton, on the edge of the escarpment. O.M. 40 SE. 

CHISELDON. 
Barrows. 

1. Gipsy Lane 1 mile E. of Barbury Castle, S. of Burderop Down, 
large disc barrow just on N. side of lane and parish boundary, 
" with apparently a Long Barrow in the centre of it, now partly 
cleared away." O.M. 22 S.E. ; Smith p. 191, XIII. L. L a. ; not 



224 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

in A. W. II. Stations XL, XII. [Extremely doubtful whether 
this is a true Long Barrow, it is not included in List of Long 
Barrows, M.E.C.] 
2. Gipsy Lane 4 mile N. of Herdswick Farm, large high bowl-shaped 
barrow in Barrow Field just on N. side of lane. O.M. 23 SW. ; 
Smith p. 191 XIII. L. I. d. ; not in A. W. II. Stations XL, XII. 
[For opposite barrow see Ogbourne St. George.] 

Stone Circle. Day House Farm i mile S. of Coate Church, 9 stones near 
farm, remains of circle. O.M. 16 SW. ; W.A.M. xxvii. 171. 

Ridgeway runs across parish entering at S.W. corner and leaving just N. 
of Liddington Castle. A modern Rd. most of way. O.M. 23 NW. ; 
A. W. II. 46. 

Roman. Road to Cunetio runs N. & S. through the parish, the modern 
road to Marlborough following its course parallel with Midland 
Bailway. O.M. 16 SW. ; 23 NW. 



CHITTERNE ALL SAINTS. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow on Chitterne Down S. of Fox Cover \ mile N. of Bd. 8| 

miles from Amesbury. O.M. 53 SW. ; noting. W. I. Station III.; 
Soc. Ant. Map 281. 

2. " Oram's Grave," site of barrow at junction of C. All Saints, C. St. 

Mary, Maddington, and Fisherton Delamere. Name derived 
from suicide buried here at end of 18th century. O. M. 53 S W. ; 
W.A.M. xxxi. 252; A. W. I. Station III. 

3. Barrow on Chitterne Down, just E. of track Bath to Salisbury at 

1 4th milestone from Salisbury. 0. M. 53 N W. [Large barrow 
with ditch, never ploughed, 1913. M.E.C.] . 

4. Barrow W. of track 4 mile S. of last. O.M. 53 NW. 

5 [5a, b, c]. Barrow \ mile W. of the last. 0. M. 53 NW. ; A. W. I. 
89, Station III. shows also 3 barrows in line together to the S., 
not on O.M. 

Earthworks. Old ditch running W. to E. on Breakheart Hill forms 
boundary for about 2 miles between Chitterne All Saints and Upton 
Lovell and Chitterne St. Mary's. O.M. 52 NE. ; A. W. I. Station III. 

Finds, Bronze Age. Within the area of the British village, O.M. 46 
SW., Hoave found skeleton with drinking cup with no sign of barrow. 
A. W. I. 87. 

Roman. British village in N. corner of parish W. of Kill Barrow. [The 
greater part of this fine village site is unploughed, many division 
banks are not shown on 0. M. Quantities of Rom. Brit, pottery, with 
coins, nails, <fcc, occur. Iron spearhead Devizes Museum, Cat. II. 
509. M.E.C.]. O.M. 46 S.W. ; A. W. I. 86, Station III. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 225 

CHITTOE. 

Finds, Bronze Age. A bronze socketed and looped spearhead with 
prominent midrib, 6in. or Tin. long, found about 1903, " near Spye 
Park," came into possession of Police Sergeant Hill, now (1912) at 
Purton, who lost it. E.BL.G. 
Roman. At Bushey Marsh Farm, in extreme S.W. corner of parish, § 
mile N. W. of Sandridge village, quantity of pottery found (? Roman). 
O.M. 33 NE. ; Gent. Mag. 1796 pp. 472, 473. 

At Chittoe Heath (" Chitway Heath "), just S. of Wans Cross Roads. 
Hoare mentions a Roman house, no details. O.M. 26 SE. ; A. W. 
II. 124. 

At Silverstreet \ mile W. of Chittoe Church, another Roman building 
noted by W. Cunnington. O.M. 33 NE. ; A. W. II. 124. 

Great quantities of slag and scoriae from iron smelting, probably 
Roman, existed in the fields at Chittoe, and especially in Spye 
Park to E. of house where heaps of it were " several feet in thick- 
ness." The lower greensand iron ore extends over the park. W.A.M. 
xxi. 268 ; Gent. Mag. 1796, 472. 

Roman Rd. and Wansdyke combined runs straight W. to E. to Wans 
House through Spye Park N. of the house, its course W. of the 
house being lost, but E. of the house it is in places very perfect 6ft- 
or 7ft. high by 20ft. wide with regular trench on N. side (Hoare). 
O.M. 26 SE. ; A. W. II. 83, plan. 

CHOLDERTON. 
Barrows. 

1 . Barrow at Ann's Copse S. of AndoverRd. at 4? miles f rom Amesbury. 

O.M. 55 S.W. ; A. W. I. Station V. South ; Soc. Ant. Map 565. 

2. Barrow on boundary of Newton Tony •§ mile N. W. of Wilbury Ho. 

in plantation just on S. edge of Rd. O.M. 55 SW. ; not in A. W. ; 
not numbered on Soc. Ant. Map. 
A barrow opened by Mr. Hutchins contained burnt bones and in- 
cense cup. Ashmolean Museum. Arch. XLIII. 361 fig. 41 ; 
Modern Wilts, V. 210. 
Rev. T. Mozley opened a " double barrow " on the Cow Down and 
found " that it was British but overlaid with a Roman cremation 
which had at some time been roughly investigated." Reminis- 
cences of Towns and Villages, II. 313. 
Earthworks. Large ditch running roughly parallel with S. side of 
Amesbury —Andover Rd. and forming boundary of Amesbury and 
Bulford and Bulford and Cholderton from Margaret's Wood to Ann's 
Copse, turns at this point and runs towards Wilbury, passing just N. 
of Ann's Farm after which its track is lost. O.M. 55 S W. ; A. W. I. 
216, Station V. South ; Soc. Ant. Map 563. 
Another ditch ran S.E. from Bulford Down to Cholderton village, its 
track only is marked on O.M. 55 SW. ; A. W. I. Station V. South. 
Roman. Many coins, chiefly of Allectus and Carausius found. Mozley's 
Reminiscences II. 317. 



226 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

CHUTE. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow close to ditch just S.W. of Scots Poor on S. edge of lane 

and boundary of Collingbourne Kingston. O.M. 43 SW. 

2. Barrow £ mile S. of Scots Poor on Mount Cowdown E. of Oxhanger 

Wood. O.M. 43 SW. 
[2a, 2b, 2c] Hoare A. W. I. 188, Station VI. shows two barrows on 
Chute Down 1 mile E. of Chute, and one inside earthworks N.E. 
of Upper Conholt, not in O.M. 49 N.W. 

Earthworks. Hoare says a bank and ditch 320 yds. N. of Collingbourne 
Lodge (? in Chute) issue from the wood in bold form, cross ChuteDown 
N. & S. (shown on O.M. 49 NW.) near the Collingbourne Kingston 
boundary, and proceed, after interruptions, to Gammon's Farm, 
forming from there the boundary of Collingbourne Kingston and 
Chute to Scots Poor, where they reach the Roman Road. A. W. 1. 187, 
Station VI. The latter part of its course is shown on O.M. 43 SW. 
to Scots Poor where it stops on the O.M., but it can be traced further 
into Shalborne and over Silver Down. 

Roman. Chute Causeway, the Roman Rd. Cunetio to Winchester curves 
round N. W. to S.E. from Scots Poor to Conholt Park just inside the 
Chute — Tidworth boundary all the way except just at Scots Poor 
where it forms the parish boundary. At Conholt it forms N . boundary 
of park at first then turns S.E. across the park, a bold and perfect 
piece of road, where it regains the straight line it had left at Tidcombe. 
It leaves the parish and county at Hampshire Gate pointing straight 
to Winchester. O.M. 43 SW. & SE. ; A. W. I. 188, Station VI. ; II. 
69, 70. 
Stukeley Iter. VI. 1723 p. 132, says " Bones are dug up plentifully in a 
place called ' Bloodfield ' especially. A stone coffin, with skeleton, 
arrow, and ' spear head of brass,' a horse found buried 3 yds. from 
the body." ? Roman. 

CLARENDON. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow in corner of copse just N.E. of Pitton Lodge. O.M. 67 

SW. ; A. W. I. Station VII. 

2. Barrow just outside wood and just S. of Lodge. O.M. 67 SW. ; 

A.W.I. Station VII. 
[2a.J A. W. I. Station VII. shows a third barrow here, not on O.M. 
67 SW. 
Finds, Neolithic. Ground flint celt. Blackmore Museum. W.A.M. 
x. 36. 
At Petersfinger. Neolithic flint cores, scrapers, hollow scrapers, knives, 
flakes, &c. Blackmore Museum. O.M. 66 SE. ; Evans' Stone, 250. 
Bronze Age. At Petersfinger, a globular cooking pot with upstanding 
rim and rude ears, found with a quantity of flint flakes. ? of what 
age. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 227 

Late Celtic. King's Manor Farm. British coin, disjointed horse type, 
uninscribed. Modem Wilts v. 162 PI. 

Roman. Villa never excavated said to exist in Clarendon Wood. Many 
coins found. Arch. Journal II. 86 ; W.A.M. xiii. 34. 



CLYFFE PYPARD. 

Barrows. Below the hill at the Badger Copse between Clyffe and 
Bupton, O.M. 21 SE., shows a "mound " and 2 barrows. 

1. A small barrow in field a little way N. of the other two, opened, 

no record. O.M. 21 SE. ; Smith 76 V. E.I.a. 

2. A large mound (' natural) just E. of gateway below Badger Copse. 

O.M. 21 SE. 

3. A low, long mound with ditches at sides and not at ends, like a 

very small long barrow 1, just on S. side of the large mound (2). 
O.M. 21 SE. ; Smith 76, V. E.I. b. 

4. On Windmill Hill f mile W. of Woodhill Park Farm a large 

" mound " (1 a barrow) O.M. 21 NE. ; Smith 76, V. E.I. d. 

Earthworks. 1ST. and W. of Lower Bupton cottages broken ground and 
many irregular ditches shown on 0-M. ; and adjoining Wood Hill 
Park Farm on W. and to N. of it in Mill Mead Wood, considerable 
irregular earthworks, ? of what date. 0-M. 21 NE. 

Finds, Neolithic. Above the hill considerable numbers of worked 
flint scrapers, round, long shaped and notched, hollow scrapers, 
borers, knife flakes, cores, &c, of Neolithic type, are found ; all of 
black and grey flint and almost all of small size as compared with 
those found on the higher downs. One fragment of a chipped flint 
celt and a few well-made arrowheads, 4 barbed and tanged, 2 
triangular, 1 tanged without barbs, and one (broken) apparently of 
the one sided type with remarkable ripple flaking. Devizes Museum 
Cat., II. 31, 68—79. 

Roman. In ploughed lands above the hill in 1854 nine interments of 
skeletons under large sarsen stones found on either side of the 
Broad Hinton Rd. at Cuff's Corner, scattered about over a consider- 
able space with, no sign of barrows over them. Other similar 
interments have been found in other spots. No detailed record. 
Late Celtic or Romano-British 1 W.A.M. xix. 55 ; Smith, 78. 

A considerable number of sarsen mullers, circular and keeled, or of 
irregular shape, with a few globular flint mullers, have been found 
on the surface in the neighbourhood of these interments and are 
probably connected with them. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 51 — 58. 

Greek bronze coin of Antinous, Bupton. Devizes Museum W.A.M. 
xxvi. 104. 

Pottery ring, Bupton. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 250; W.A.M. 
xxxii. 371. 



228 List of Prehistoric, Rowan, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 
CODFORD ST. MARY. 

Barrows. 4 barrows on Lamb Down S. & S.E. of Codford Circle (1-4). 
O.M. 59 NW. 

Hoare opened one small one, the others had been opened before 
his time. A. W. I. Station III. shows 2 barrows only. 

1. Barrow f mile S. of Oodford Circle, | mile E. of Codford St. Mary 

village. O.M. 59 NW. ; A.W.I. Station III. 

2, 3. Two barrows close together \ mile E. of (1). O.M. 59 NW. • 

not in A. W. I. Station III. 
4. Small barrow i mile S. of two last, opened by Hoare ? Urn in cist 
inverted over burnt bones. 0. M. 59 NW. ; A. W. 1. 81 PL VIII. 
Station III. ; Stourhead Cat. 250. 

Earthworks. Codford Circle or "Oldbury Camp" on high point of 
down \ mile N.E. of Church of Codford St. Mary. Slight vallum 
and ditch outside, too slight for defence, no entrance. Area over 9 
acres, circuit 3 furlongs, 110 yds. O.M. 58 NE. & 59 NW. ; A. W. I. 
80, Station III. Fig. p. 89. [Both exterior and interior under cul- 
tivation but the bank itself has not been ploughed. M.E.C.] 

Roman, British settlement " near Codford Circle." A.W. I. 80. Large 
settlement between E. Codford Down and Clay Pit Hill, not marked 
on O.M- 53 SW., about l£ mile S. of Chitterne St. Mary village. 
Site partly ploughed, much Bom. Brit, pottery on surface. M.E.C. 



CODFORD ST. PETER. 
Barrows. 

On Codford Down S. of Amesbury — Warminster Bd. at 12 miles from 
Amesbury, 0. M. 52 SE. shows 6 barrows (1—6) close together, ap- 
parently Nos. 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, of Hoare's " Ashton "Valley Group " of 11. 
All opened by Hoare and Cunnington. A.W. I. 78 plan Station III- 
The second numbers in brackets are Hoare's. [All Hoare's barrows 
except (3) still exist, but (9 — 11) are difficult to see. Never ploughed 
but injured by rabbits, 1913. M.E.C] 
1. (1) Large bowl-shaped barrow with ditch, 80ft. diam. X 6ft. high, 
opened by Cunnington 1801. 5 urns with burnt bones just under 
turf, 4 more urns subsquently found with crouched skeleton. 
Opened again 1803 by Cunnington. Cist in floor of barrow with 
burnt bones only. Opened again 1808 by Hoare. On S. side 
skeleton of infant a year old in small cist. Another cist with 
large urn and bones. O.M. 52 SE. ; A. W. I. 78. 
[la]. (2) Small barrow on E. side of (1), with deep ditch. Frag- 
ments of urn and burnt bones just under turf. Circular shaft 
in chalk 5ft. deep X 2ft. diam., with smaller circular cist with 
burnt bones, at the bottom of it. A.W. I. 78; not on O.M. 
52 SE. [Not now visible, 1913. M.E.C] 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 229 

[lb.] (3) Small barrow between (1) and (2), 1ft. 6in. high. Under 
it a "room" lift, deep with sharp angles. In centre skeleton at 
full length, many pieces of wood and iron nails. Fragments of 
Roman pottery in the soil. Roman or Saxon 1 A. W. I. 78 ; not 
in 0. M. 52 SE. [Can still be seen, 1913. M.E.C.] 

2. (4) Large flat barrow N. of (1). " Floor covered with black ashes 

and charred wood, intermixed with human bones half burned." 
O.M. 52 SE. ; A.W.I. 78. 

3. (5) Very flat wide barrow just N. of (2), 1ft. high, no interment 

found. O.M. 52 SE. ; A. W. I. 78. 

4. (6) Bell-shaped barrow, 63ft. diam. X 8ft. high, with ditch. On 

floor urn inverted over burnt bones, with perforated hammer 
axe. Ashes piled up in heap jiear urn. O.M. 52 SE. ; A.W.I. 
79, PI. viii. ; S tour head Cat. 15. 
[4a— 4c] (9. 10, 11) 3 small barrows between (4) and (5), a few 
inches high, each containing urn with burnt bones. A. W. I. 79 ; 
not on O.M. 52 SE. [Still exist, but are difficult to see, 1913. 
M.E.C.] , 

5. (8) Flat barrow 5ft. high, without ditch. Heap of burnt bones to 

S. of centre, with perforated stone hammer axe and bone imple- 
ment. O.M. 52 SE. ; A.W. I. 79, PI. viii.; Stourhead Cat. 
Vfig. 

6. (7) Barrow a little west of the others. Burnt bones in shallow 

cist in centre. Saxon skeleton buried above this with fragments 
of bronze-mounted firwood bucket (Hoare calls it a shield er- 
roneously) and iron sword, with cloth. O.M. 52 SE. ; A. W. I. 
79 ; Stourhead Cat. 227. 

Earthworks. The numerous banks on N. side of barrows 1 — 6 in O.M. 
52 SE. are cultivation banks regularly thrown up. M.E.C. 

Saxon. Skeletons in Barrows, see above, Barrows [lb] and (6). 

COLERNE. 

Barrows. "Site of Tumulus" is shown in O.M. 19 SW. within Bury 
Wood Camp exactly at the spot where Hoare shows the small 
rectangular work (see below). Hoare shows no barrow. Probably 
there was not one here. 0. M. shows no sign of the small work. 

Earthworks. Bury Wood Camp, or North Wood Camp, \ mile from Fosse- 
way and \ mile S. of N. Wraxall. Area 25 acres, encloses point of 
a promontory of Colerne Down. On the down side a double rampart 
with entrance in centre. (Dr. Thurnam discusses possibility of this 
being the fortress to which the Danes fled after battle of Ethandune). 
A small nearly square work with entrance on W. inside Camp near 
the W. side. A. W. II. 103, PI. XVI. ; W.A.M. iii. 78, 79, plan. 
Short angle entrenchment, bank, and ditch, about 200 yds. long, just 
N. of Gilling Grove, f of a mile S.W. of Ford. O.M. 19 SW. Aubrey 



230 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

(Jackson's Aubrey 76) mentions it as "at Ford Hill a rampard with 

graffe eastward." 
Anbtey mentions "a single workes Gamp" at " Colern Park above 
\ Slaughtenford." Jackson's Aubrey, 76. 
Finds, Neolithic. Scrapers, cores, and worked flints found within Bury 

Camp by W. G. Collins and J. E. P. Falconer 1909. 

Soman. Pavement fouud 1838 and villa excavated 1854 in field called 
" The Allotment," by E. W. Godwin. Coins of Constantine period, 
pavement with 4 horse chariot and inscription, destroyed. Two other 
pavements, hypocaust, central court, and 12 or 13 rooms. Arch.Joum. 
XIII. 328—332, plan. 
The Fosseway forms W. boundary of parish and county. O.M. 25 NW. 

COLLINGBOUENE DUCIS. 

Barrows. Of the large group of barrows on Snail Down N. of Sidbury 
Camp shown on the plan of " Chidbury Camp "in A. W. I. 180 Nos. 
(in A.W.) 1 and 21 to 26 were in Collingbourne Ducis and the re- 
mainder in Collingbourne Kingston. They were opened by Hoare 
1805. Hoare's numbers are given below in brackets. O.M. 48 NW.; 
A.W. I. 181—186. 

1. (1) S.W. of the rest of the group on Collingbourne Kingston 

boundary. Large cinerary urn 13jin. high X lO^in. in diam. 
containing burnt bones. Part of a skeleton near top of barrow. 
O.M. 48 NW. ; Soc. Ant. Map 90. 

2. (21) Large barrow 10|ft. high. Cist in chalk 6£ft. X 5ft. X 3£ft. 

deep, with nothing but a few fragments of charcoal in it. O.M . 
48 NW. ; Soc. Ant Map 51. 
3 [3a]. (22 & 23) Small irregular mounds, no interments found. 
Only one of these, the one furthest N.W., is shown on O.M. 48 
NW. ; Soc. Ant. Map 52. 

4. (24) Twin barrow. A large barrow and a small one enclosed in 

one ditch. The large barrow lift. 4in. high, and 97ft. in diam. 
Burnt bones which had been enclosed in a wooden chest or tree 
trunk 6ft. long x 3ft. wide, with incense cup, bronze dagger, and 
long bronze pin with double rings in the head ; both the latter 
were in wooden sheaths. Devizes Museum. Stourhead Cat. 116 ; 
Evans' Bronze 366 fig. 449; A.W.I. 185, PI. XXIII. ; O.M. 48 
NW. ; Soc. Ant. Map 56. 
The small barrow enclosed in the same ditch, burnt bones only. 

5. (25) Large barrow 13ft. high with deep ditch. No signs of in- 

terment found. O.M. 48 N W. ; Soc. Ant. Map 60. (This O.M. 
1st Ed. shows a small barrow attached to W. side of large barrow, 
numbered 57.) 

6. (26) To W. of last. Signs of cremation, but no interment found. 

O.M. 48 NW. ; Soc. Ant. Map 58. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 231 

[6a.] Disc barrow intersected by the straight ditch or causeway running 
N". from Sidbury on the boundary of Fittleton. A. W. 1. 1 80 plan ; 
not in O.M. 48 N.W. 



7, 8. Two barrows close together N.E. of the above group \ mile W. 
of Hougomont Farm. O.M. 48 N.E. ; apparently not in A. W. I. 
Station VI. ; Soc. Ant. Map 64, -65. ' 



A group of 13 barrows (8a— 18) on Cow Down W. of Ed. to N. 
Tidworth of which A. W. I. Station VI. shows 12, and O.M. 48 
N. E. shows 10. Of these 10, 3 are inside the plantation, 1 on the 
N. edge of it, a disc barrow touching the N. edge, 4 at the N.E. 
corner, and 1 to W. of the disc barrow. 
In addition to these the Eev. W. C. Lukis' plan W.A.M. x. 85 
shows 3 small barrows in line [8a— 8c] just at W. end of plan- 
tation (Nos. 1 — 3). The second numbers shown here in brackets 
are those on Rev. W. C. Lukis' plan. Objects in Devizes Museum , 
Cat. II. X24— X46. 

[8a.] (1) Apparently a twin barrow, the westernmost of the 3 barrows 
in line at W. end of plantation, opened by Rev. W. C. Lukis 
1855, had been opened before, fragments of urns, &c, scattered 
throughout the larger mound, with ashes. In the smaller mound 
charcoal only. W.A.M. x. 90. 

[8b.] (2) Low barrow, almost ploughed down, to W. of plantation, 
opened by Rev. W. C. Lukis 1855. Nothing found. W.A.M. 
x. 90. 

[8c] (3) Low barrow, almost ploughed down/to-W. of plantation, 
opened by Rev. W. C. Lukis 1855. In centre contracted skeleton 
with head to W., close to the hands an iron knife, with fragments 
of thick coarse pottery. Devizes Museum Cat. II. x40. 
W.A.M. x. 90. 

9. (4) The westernmost of the 3 in the plantation, opened by Rev. 
W. C. Lukis 1855 and 1861. In grave in centre a contracted 
skeleton with no right arm and no hands, covered oyer with large 
flints over which vegetable mould and turf had originally been 
heaped up making a barrow with a diameter of about 70ft. Sub- 
sequently other secondary interments were added and the barrow 
enlarged to 96ft. in diam. These secondary interments on the 
S.E. side of the barrow were (1) burnt bones ; (2) large urn in- 
verted over burnt bones, with dry walling of large flints built up 
round it ; (3) burnt bones ; (4) smaller urn containing burnt bones 
lying on its side surrounded by flints. 8 other separate inter- 
ments of burnt bones were found, in each case within a circle of 
flints. Two flint mullers and part of a flat grinding stone were 
found. Another urn with burnt bones found later. Devizes 
Museum. Cat. II., 'x24, x25, x36. W.A.M. x. 88 plan of 
barrow; Soc. Ant. Map 95. 



232 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

10. (5) The centre barrow of the 3 in the plantation. Grave in 

centre, of cylindrical shape 3ft. lOin. long x 1ft. 3in. wide X 1ft 
deep, lined with plaster of pounded chalk l£in. thick showing 
impression of bark of a tree. The calcined bones had been 
placed in a hollow trunk of a tree which projected above the 
surface level and was covered with a layer of pounded chalk. 
A horn hammer with the bones, charred animals' bones, flint 
flakes, and pot sherds in layer of dark earth over floor 
of centre of barrow. On the S. and S.E. sides of barrow 
6 interments of burnt bones were found, on one of which an 
empty urn stood, a larger urn being inverted over another heap. 
The centre of the mound was of mould 60ft. in diam. Outside 
this 10ft. of pounded chalk as a footing for the chalk rubble in 
in which all the secondary burials were found. Devizes Museum 
Cat. II. x32, x33 ; W.A.M. x. 94—97 ; Soc. Ant. Map 96. 

11. (6) The most easterly of the 3 in the plantation. Large barrow 

110ft. in diam., 12ft. high. Opened on one side 1840, when a 
skeleton, a heap of burnt bones, and 5 urns were found. Opened 
by Rev. W. C. Lukis 1861. 12ft. S. of centre a grave 1ft. 6in. 
deep x 4ft. 6in. long containing skeleton of female child 3 or 
4 years old, with cinerary urn containing burnt bones and another 
urn-shaped vessel empty apparently used as a drinking cup. The 
grave covered with mould and over that a layer of pounded 
chalk 8in. thick. All round S. side of barrow 18 burnt interments 
surrounded by flints were found with remains of about 40 
different urns, all plain. Devizes Museum Oat. II. x 26, x 27, 
x 28, x 38. W.A.M. x. 94 ; Soc. Ant. Map 97. 

12. (8) On N. edge of plantation, 3ft from top, burnt bones with 2 
jet and 5 amber beads. 5ft. from top, parts of a skeleton with 
traces of wooden plank. 1 8in. below the plank a cist with un- 
disturbed burnt bones. Upper part of barrow had been dis- 
turbed at early period. Devizes Museum Cat. II. x 35. W.A.M. 
x. 91 ; Soc. Ant. Map 98. 

13. (7) Disc barrow on N. edge of plantation, opened by Hoare 1805, 

no record, tradition says " a small saucer " found. Opened 
again 1855 by Rev. W. C. Lukis, empty cist only found. Soc. 
Ant. Map 93. 

14. (13) Small low barrow to W. of Disc barrow, opened by Eev. W, C. 
Lukis, empty cist only. W.A.M. x. 91; Soc. Ant. Map 94. 

15. (10) Low barrow, 4ft. 6in. high, opened by Rev. W. C. Lukis. 

Burnt bones lft. below top surrounded by large flints, and at 
intervals of 18in. below each other 3 more burnt interments 
surrounded by flints. Nothing else. W.A.M. x. 91 ; Soc. Ant. 
Map, 92. 

16. (12) Low barrow opened by Rev. W. C. Lukis. Skeleton of 
child in grave 2ft. long. A small tea- cup-shaped cup near the 
face and 1 shale bead. Devizes Museum Cat. II. x 45, x 46 ; 
W.A.M. x. 91, Jig. ; Soc Ant. Map 91. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 233 

17. (9) Only partially opened by Rev. W. C. Lukis, nothing found. 

W.A.M. x. 91 ; Soc. Ant. Map. 99. 

18. (11) Low slightly elongated barrow, opened by Rev. W. C. 
Lukis. Burnt bones on a heap of mould 18in. above floor of 
barrow, fragment of bone implement only. W.A.M. x. 91 ; Soc. 
Ant. Map 100. 



19—21. Group of 3 small barrows close together, J-mile S.E. of last 
group, E. of Leckford Bottom and Southly Bridge, just on S. 
or E. edge of track, close to N. Tidworth boundary. Two of 
these opened by Rev. W. C. Lukis, 1861. O.M. 48 NE. ; W.A.M. 
x 102 ; Soc. Ant. Map. 105, 104, 103. 

20. Opened by Rev. W. C. Lukis, Roman pottery, &c, scattered in 
mound, previously disturbed. 

21. Partly removed in making roadway, opened by Rev. W. C. Lukis. 
Fragments of two large urns which had contained burnt bones 
amongst large flints. Under them in the centre a circular cist 
2ft. wide and 2ft. deep containing charcoal and burnt bones. 



Three small barrows in rowE. and W. [21a— 21c] on slope of 
hill somewhere near Leckford Bridge N. of the Everley— Ludger- 
shall Rd. and E. of the Collingbourne — Tidworth Rd. Much 
ploughed down. Opened by Rev. W. C. Lukis, 1857. Not 
on O.M. 48 NE. ; W.A.M. x. 103 ; Soc. Ant. Map 105*. 
[21a]. Westernmost of the 3, at depth of 1ft. from top a thick layer 
of ashes and charcoal with a few burnt bones. Under this a 
circular hole 14in. diameter X 1ft. deep containing burnt bones 
and charcoal. 
[21b]. The middle barrow. Similar layer of charcoal covering hole 2ft. 

diameter X 2ft. deep, filled with charcoal and burnt bones. 
[21c]. Easternmost. 6in. from top, burnt bones and charcoal and 
bone pin with pierced head, and skull of Bos longifrons. Devizes 
Museum Cat. II. x 31. 
22. Barrow E. of Wick Down, W. of Joyce's Copse. O.M. 48 NE. ; 
not numbered on Soc. Ant. Map. 
Earthworks. Sunnyhill and Windmill Hill Down, 1 \ mile S. of village, 
S. of Devizes — Ludgershall Rd. near N. Tidworth boundary, bank 
and ditch running E. and W. O.M. 48 NE. ; A. W. I. 186, Station 
VI. 
Wick Down, \\ mile SE. of Collingbourne Kingston, a ditch running 

for a short distance E. and W. O.M. 48 NE. ; Soc. Ant. Map 65*. 
In Exdown Copse, N. of Crawlboys on Ludgershall border, a ditch. 

A. W. I. 187, Station VI. 
Hoare A. W. I. Station VI. shows a ditch running N. and S. over top 
of Windmill Hill and Tickpit Hill, not in O.M. 48 N.E. and S.E. 
VOL. XXXVIII. — NO. CXX. K 



234 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

Finds, Neolithic. Chipped flint celt, Blackmore Museum ; Fabricator, 

Devizes Museum Cat. II. 10. 
Finds, Late Celtic. British silver coin "of Greek type" found 1859, 
W.A.M. iii. 14 ; vi. 256. 
Burial with iron knife in barrow, see Barrow 8c above. 

COLLINGBOUKNE KINGSTON. 
Barrows. 

If 2. Two barrows close together S. of Summer Down J mile E. of 
Marlborough — Andover Ed., at about 10| miles from Marl- 
borough. O.M. 42 SW. 

[2a.] A. W. I. Station VI. shows 3 barrows close together at the point 
where (1 & 2) stand, and one to N.E. which may be (3). 

3. A barrow \ mile N.E. of the last. O.M. 42 SW. 



On Snail Down, N. of Sidbury Camp, large group of 31 barrows 
shown in Hoare's plan of " Chidbury Camp " A. W. I. 180, of 
which 26 are numbered by him, 24 (apparently) were in Colling- 
bourne Kingston [numbered 2 to 20] and 7 in Collingbourne 
Ducis. Of these O.M. 48 N.W. shows 17 in Collingbourne 
Kingston and 5 in Collingbourne Ducis. These barrows were 
most of them opened by Hoare 1805, Those now shown on the 
Ordnance Map are numbered (4 to 20). The numbers in 
brackets thus (2) are Hoare's numbers. 

4. (2) Large barrow, cist containing small bronze chisel in horn 

handle, bone wrist guard, bone implements, a plain and a 
grooved whetstone, and a hone, but no bones. Devizes Museum. 
A. W. I. 182—184 PI. XXL ; Evans' Bronze 163, 382, Jig. 189 \ 
Evans' Stone 144, 241 ; Stourhead Cat. 95 — 98c ; Soc. Ant. Map. 62. 

5. (3) Small barrow, skeleton only. Soc. Ant. Map. 61. 

6- (4) Low barrow with ditch, a circular cist 3ft. diam., and inside 
this a smaller cist containing burnt bones, two incense cups, and 
a bronze awl. Devizes Museum. A. W. L 182, PI. XXII. ; Stour- 
head Cat. 104, 104a. Soc, Ant. Map. 55*. 

7. (5) Deep cist but no interment. Soc. Ant. Map. 54. 

[7a]. (6) Apparently not on O.M. Burnt bones enclosed in wood in 
a wide cist. 

8. (7) Large urn with burnt bones Soc. Ant. Map. 53. 

[It is impossible to identify the smaller barrows of Hoare's group 
at this point, 4 of which he does not number, with those shown 
on the O.M. Apparently number 9 [10a] and five other very 
small mounds closely adjoining do not appear on O.M. now.] 

2 very small barrows between (9 and 10) numbered on Soc. Ant. ] 
Map. (1st Ed.) 39, 40, are not on O.M. 48 NVV. 2nd Ed. 

A " boundary mound " just N. of ditch on boundary of Colling- 
bourne Kingston, S. of No. 8 is on Soc. Ant. Map 59. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 235 

9. (8) ? Burnt bones only. Soc. Ant. Map 38. 

10. (12) Nothing found. Soc. Ant. Map 42. 

[10a.] (9) Fragments of urn and burnt bones near surface. Deep cist 
in chalk empty, but many signs of cremation. Not in O.M. 
2nd ed. 

11. (10) Nothing found Soc. Ant Map 41. 

12. (11) An empty cist. Soc. Ant. Map 37. 

13. (13) A very large barrow. A stratum of black : earth only. Soc. 

Ant. Map 43. 

14. (14) Disc barrow, had been opened before, ashes and burnt bones 

found mixed together. Soc. Ant. Map 44. 

15. (15) Fragments of pottery and a few burnt bones. Soc. Ant. 

Map 45. 

16. (16) Burnt bones in cist. Soc. Ant. Map 46. 

17. (20) Cist 3ft. deep, on one side of it an urn upright containing 

burnt bones. Devizes Museum. Stourhead Cat. 255 ; Soc. Ant. 
Map 50. 
18 (18) Not mentioned by Hoare. Apparently a disc barrow with 
2 mounds. W.A.M. x. 99 ; Soc. Ant. Map 49. 

19. (17) " Hunter's Barrow," 8ft. lOin. high. On the floor a pile of 

burnt bones and ashes surrounded by a wreath of stags' horns. 
On the ashes 5 flint arrowheads and a red pebble. Nearer the 
surface, the skeleton of a dog. Devizes Museum. Stourhead 
Cat. 105—109 ; A.W. 1. 183, PI. XXII. ; Evans' Stone, 343,419 ; 
Soc. Ant. Map 47. 

20. (19) Large barrow, previously opened, nothing found. Soc. Ant. 

Map 48. 

21. Long barrow on Fairmile Down l£ mile N.E. of Church. O.M . 

42 SE. True long barrow but shown as a round barrow by 
Hoare in A.W. Station VI. ; not numbered on Soc. Ant. Map. 
See Appendix Long Barrows. 
Earthworks. Boundary between Coll. Kingston and Fittleton formed by 
straight bank and ditch running N. from Sidbury Camp. Another 
Ditch cuts this at right angles running through Fittleton and Coll. 
Kingston to British village just N. of barrows on Snail Dowu 
A.W. I. 180, Station VI. 
Ditch runs from Gammons Farm N.E. into Shalbourne at Scots Poo 
and on to Fosbury. O. G. S. Crawford 1913; O.M. 43 SW. ; 
A.W. I. Station VI. 
On Aughton Down ^ mile N. of Croft Barn, a somewhat triangular 

enclosure. O.M. 42 SW. 
The group of barrows on Snail Down is enclosed between two parallel 
ditches running E. & W. at right angles to the ditch running N.W. 
from entrance to Sidbury Camp and forming for \ mile S. of Snail 
Down Square the parish boundary. OM. 48 NW. 
Roman. Just N. of the group of barrows on Snail Down [4 to 20] Hoare 
shows a British village, A. W. I. 181, Station VI. ? in what parish- 

R 2 



236 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

COMPTON BASSETT. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow in Mount Wood at E. end of Park, unopened. O.M. 27 NE; 
Smith p. 44 II. C. IV.a. 



COMPTON CHAMBEELAYNE. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow N of Rd. ± mile N.W. of Compton Hut. O.M. 65 SE. ; 

A.W.I. Station VIII. 
Earthworks. In extreme S.E. corner of parish near Compton Hut, bank 

and ditch traverse a very narrow ridge of down and form boundary 

between Compton & Burcombe, says Hoare. A.W. I. 250, Stations 

VIII. & IX. ; not in O.M. 65 SE. 
Short ditch near S. boundary E. of Compton Ivers. O.M. 70 NW. 



COOMBE BISSETT. 
Barrows. 

1. Round barrow a little distance S. of Grimsditch. O.M. 71 SW. ; 

A. W. I. Station VII. 

2. O.M. 71 SW. shows just S.W. of (1) a narrow long mound. Not 

in A. W. I. Station VII. 



On the Salisbury — Shaftesbury Rd. at 3 miles from Salisbury, on N. 

boundary of Coombe Bissett, at the racecourse at the point where the 

line of the Roman Rd. cuts the Shaftesbury Rd., A. W. II. Roman 

iEra p. 26, plan of Roman Rd., shows 4 barrows (2a— 2d). A . W. I. 

Station VII. shows 3. None of these shown on O.M. 71 NW. 

[2a]. Very small barrow in triangle formed by Shaftesbury Rd., 
Roman Rd., and Drove Lane. N. or W. of Roman Rd. Possibly 
in W. Harnham parish. 

[2b]. Largest of 2 close together a few yards on S. or E. side of 
Roman Rd., E. of Drove Lane. Opened by Cunnington, 1803. 
Had been opened before, 2 skeletons near surface disturbed, 
primary interment not found. A. W. II. Roman iEra p. 26. 

[2c]. Small barrow close to last, opened same time. Large grave 
3jft. deep, no skeleton but iron sword 29in. long, 3 spear heads, 
2 knives, umbo of shield, bronze and iron buckles, finger rings 
of silver and gold wire, bronze studs set with garnets and 
enamel, bronze-handled vessel which had been fastened to oak 
wood bowl, 2 glass cups. Saxon. A. W. II. Roman JEra, 26, 27, 
Pis. XXXVL, XXXVII. ; Stourhead Cat., 216— 217a, 221, 244, 
300, 355. 

[2d]. Barrow just on opposite side of Drove Lane. ? opened by 
Cunnington. A. W. II. Roman iEra 26. 



By the Rev. E. H. Godclard. 237 

Earthworks. Grims ditch coming from Standlynch W. through Nunton 
and Odstock forms boundary of Coombe Bissett and the county 
for f-mile, and then crosses S. point of parish into Stratford Tony. 
O.M. 71 SW. ; A.W. I. 232 Station VII. ; Ancient Earthworks of 
Cranborne Chase 58, plan. 

Saxon. See Barrows 2b 2c above. 



COKSHAM. 

Barrows. Barrow in plantation just S. of Jubilee Wood and \ mile N.W. 
of Hartham House. O.M. 25 NE. 

Earthworks. The line of the Roman Road and Wansdyke combined form 
the S. boundary of the parish throughout, passing 200 yds S. of Neston 
House. In Neston Park the Ridge says Hoare was 6^ft. high. He 
believes that a cutting here shows that the bank of Wansdyke was 
thrown up over the Roman Road here and is therefore later. O.M. 
25 SE, 26 SW. ; A.W. II. 16—30, 1Q plan. 

Roman. "At the back of the late George Inn is an old Roman bas relief 
of six figures, dug up on the spot." Jackson's Aubrey, 80. 

CORSLEY. 
Barrows, 

1, 2. Cley Hill. 2 barrows on top of hill, opened by Hoare. The 

larger produced ashes, fragments of pottery, and ears of wheat, 

but no interment. The smaller had an interment of burnt bones 

which had been disturbed. O.M. 51 NE. ; A. W. 1. 51, Station II. 

Earthworks. Cley Hill Gamp, a single ditch and rampart surround the 

top of the hill. O.M. 51 NE. ; A. W. I. 51, Station II. ; View of Cley 

Hill, A.W. I. 55. 

COULSTON, EAST. 

Roman. Hoard of Roman 3rd brass coins in a broken pot found at Baynton 
dr. 1830, of which 365 were given to Devizes Museum, described, 
W.A.M. xxxv. 132. 
112 coins, perhaps the same, W.A.M. ix. 27. Roman spoon found near 
same spot. Devizes Museum. W.A.M. xxxvii. 496. 

CEICKLADE. 

Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze socketed celt. A. D. Passmore coll. 

W.A.M. xxxvii. 134. 
Finds, Late Celtic. Bronze bow fibula with openwork foot, probably of 

Roman date. Found in the Churn. British Museum. Guide to 

Early Iron Age, p. 102. 



238 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon AntiqvAtifS. 

Roman. Ermine Street resumes its straight course S.E. at Calcutt Bridge. 
O.M. 5 SW. Stukeley says Cricklade was probably a Koman town. 
Square embankment round the town \ mile long on each side clearly 
discernible in 1870 except where destroyed by houses. S.W. corner 
in meadow adjoining St. Sampson's ch. yd. ; N.W. corner at N. end 
of Longclose ; N.E. corner in meadow adjoining Abingdon Court ; 
S.E. corner in Paul's Croft. Many Roman coins found. Roman 
bricks found in restoring St. Mary's Ch., 1862. W.A.M. xii. 126. 
[For finds in neighbourhood see Latton.] 



CKUDWELL. 

Barrows. Aubrey writes " In this parish are several barrows . . . 
There is a hamlet called Chedslow, near to which place is a barrow 
or two . . ." Canon Jackson adds (1862) " of the barrows one 
or two are left. That at Chedslow itself has been " hauled away to 
fill up quarries," the field is still called barrow field. Jackson's 
Aubrey, 213. No barrows are shown on O.M. 

Finds, Neolithic. 3 very fine polished flint celts, 9in. long, which had 
apparently never been used, found 1862 lying together. 2 in Devizes 
Museum Cat. II. 7 ; W.A.M. xxxi. 269 ; xxxii. 173 ; Evans' Stone, 
99. 

Koman. In quarry in Long Furlong, Murcott, 2 skeletons found 1901, 

head of one at feet of the other. Several coins, one of Gallienus, 

found in trench in same quarry. Skeletons said to have been found 

here for years. Rev. H. K. Adkin. 

Fragments of pottery, Samian with maker's name. Devizes Museum 

Cat. II. 243 ; W.A.M. xxxiv. 240. 
Fosseway forms N.W. boundary of parish, and as far as it marches 
with Rodmarton, of the county as well. O.M. 3 SE. & NE. ; A. W. 
. II. Roman iEra 98 plans. 

DEAN, WEST. 
Barrows. 

[la, lb.] A. W. I. Station VII. shows 2 barrows on Dean Hill, S. of 
W. Dean, not shown on O.M. 72 NE. In W. Dean or White- 
parish 1 A barrow on Dean Hill near its centre and overlooking 
the village was opened 1870 by Rev. G. S. Master. No interment 
found. W.A.M. xxii. 243. 
Earthworks. Small circular " camp " and other works just E. of old 

Church. O.M. 72 NE. 

Finds, Neolithic. Flint chisel. W.A.M. xxii. 242. 

Finds, Late Celtic. British gold coin, uninscribed, disjointed horse 

type, found about 1883. Dr. H. P. Blackmore. W.A.M. xxii. 242. 

In a field called "Tots" adjoining the glebe, British coin of Vericus 

inscribed veri., in possession of Rev. G. S. Master. W.A.M. xxii. 242. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 239 

Roman. Just on or over the parish and county boundary immediately 
adjoining N". side of railway, E. of Church, in field in front of .Rectory, 
a Roman villa found 1741 and rooms and pavements opened, all 
covered by railway 1846. Further excavations by H. Hatcher 1845, 
pavements and rooms in field called " Hollyflower." 1871 — 3 further 
excavations by Kev. G. S. Master, pavements, baths, hypocausts, 
pottery, Samian, &c, window glass, iron tools, bone objects, brooches, 
coins Victorinus to Magnentius. Salisbury Museum. O.M. 72 NE. ; 
W.A.M. xiii. 33 ; xxii. 243. [Holbury Copse where other Roman 
objects were found is in Hants.] 



DEVIZES. 

Roman. When railway was made 1861, a quantity of Roman pottery, 
Samian, &c, iron axe head, knives, nails, found with an interment at 
Pans Lane. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 352, 387— 399d ; W.A.M. ix. 27 ; 
xxiv. 345 ; xxxvi. 480, 508 ; xxxvii. 496. A skull in Cambridge 
Museum. No. 144. 

Coins found near, 1853. W.A.M. i. 62. 

At Wick, several hundred coins in earthen pot 1699 on property of Sir 

John Eyles. A number of other vessels found later. W.A.M. ix. 29. 
Close to site of Southbroom House set of 21 (or 19 ?) bronze " Penates " 

found 1714, in urn enclosed in tiles and cement, with coin of Severus. 

8 of the figures in the British Museum. W.A.M. i. 214; vi. 138 ; 

ix. 29 ; Waylen's Chron. of Devizes 279. 
[" A Tessellated pavement found recently in the cellars of the Old Town 

Hall and still in situ," mentioned Arch. Journ. XLIV. 54 (1887). 

There is no truth in this statement. B. H. Cunnington]. 

DILTON MAKSH. 

Finds, Bronze Age. Cinerary urn found close to Chalcot House, in 
possession of C.N.P. Phipps. M.E.C. 

Roman. Many Roman pottery vessels, brooches, &c, found on site of 
Roman settlement in ground round Chalcot House, in possession of 
C. N. P. Phipps (1908). O.M. 44 SE. ; W.A-M. xxxvi. 473. 
Hoare notes that the whole tract between Dilton and Hisomley was 
inhabited by Romano Britons. " All kinds of pottery," &c, at Short 
Street just W.of Chalcot House ; Roman coins and pottery " dispersed 
over the fields." A. W. I. 52, 53, Station II, 

DINTOK 

Earthworks. The ditch running irregularly from Hanging Langford 
Camp to Stockton Works forms parish boundary atjDinton Beeches. 
O.M. 59 SW. 



240 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Par/an Saxon Antiquities. 

Finds, Neolithic. On the slope between village and hill on the N. a 
number of worked Hints, scrapers, knives, oval leaf -shaped arrow- 
head, and others, have been found about 9in. below the surface. 
Rev. G. H. Engleheart coll. 1908. O.M. 65 NW. ; W.A.M. xxxvi. 86. 
A crouched burial, apparently Neolithic with no sign of barow over it, 
was found at the waterworks beyond the ridge N. of Dinton village, 
1909. Flint flakes and two fragments of worked bone accompanied 
it. G. H. Engleheart. W.A.M. xxxvi. 144. 

Finds, Bronze Age. Dinton Beeches, large bronze spear head broken. 
Blackmore Museum. W.A.M. xxxvii. 143. 
Bronze palstave without loops, 1878. Blackmore Museum. W.A.M. 

xxxvii. 132. 
Bronze socketed looped celt, Dinton Beeches, 1881. Blackmore 
Museum. W.A.M. xxxvii. 135. 

Roman. The course of the " Roman Road " W. to E. from Dinton Beeches 
runs through the woods near N. boundary of parish. O.M. 59 SW. 



DONHEAD ST. ANDREW. 

Finds, Neolithic. Short thick celt of hard gritstone. Canon Short, 
Salisbury Museum. Salisbury Field Club Trans. I. 35. 



DONHEAD ST. MARY. 
Barrows. 

1. Charlton Down, near S. boundary of parish and county, barrow 

on N. edge of Ox Drove, f mile S. of Charlton Manor Farm. 
O.M. 74 N.W. This is shown as an oval barrow, A.W . I. 
Stations VIII. IX. [Really a round barrow with ditch. M.E.C.] 
[la.] Just opposite last on S. side of Ox Drove, a round barrow 
shown by A. W. I. Stations VIII. IX., with another on county 
boundary and two others just in Dorset, all just S. of (1). Not 
on O.M. 74 N W. 

2. Barrow just S. of Ox Drove \ mile S.E. of (1). O.M. 74 NW. ; 

A. W. I. Stations VIII. IX. shows at this point a barrow just N. 
of Ox Drove, perhaps in error. 

3. Barrow \ mile E. of (2) between two tracks near parish boundary 

opposite Wingreen Plantation. O.M. 74 NE. 
[3a.] Between the two ditches which cross the Ox Drove. A. W. I. 
Stations VIII. IX. shows a barrow in the Ox Drove itself (3a), 
not in O.M., and two others just S. of it, probably (3) and (4). 

4. Long barrow, Ashmore Down, S.E. of (3), \ mile N.W. of Friend's 

Burial Ground, close to county boundary, \ mile W. of Quarry 
Bottom. O.M. 74 NW. See Appendix, Long Barrows. 
[4a.] Wingreen Hill, unopened barrow on S. edge of Ox Drove. A. W. 
I. Stations VIII. IX. ; not in O.M. 74 N.W. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 241 

In a barrow at Charlton opened 1832, a small triangular bronze 
knife dagger. Devizes Museum, W.A.M. vi. 259 ; xxxvii. 455, 
GlOfig. 
Earthworks. On Charlton Down a line of ditch cuts across ridge and 
Ox Drove at point of intersection of tracks \ mile N.E. of Wingreen 
Plantation, another shorter ditch cuts across a little way to the W. 
O.M. 74 N W. ; A. W. I Stations VIII. IX. ; Ancient Earthworks of 
Cranborne Chase 66, plan. 
At Wingreen Hill about 2 miles S.E. of Church. A ditch cuts across 
a promontory and the parish boundary S. of the Ox Drove. O.M. 
74 N.W. ; A. W. I. 248 Stations VIII. IX. 
On Tittle Path Hill, about If miles N.W. of village, Castle Rings 
Camp. Strong earthwork, had 4 entrances ; single ditch ; area 
Hi acres, circuit 4 furlongs 132 yards. Depth of vallum 40ft. On 
W. of camp remains of bank and ditch. O.M. 69 S W. ; A. W. I. 253, 
Stations VIII. IX. plan; Ancient Earthworks of Cranborne Chase 
23 plan. 
Just on W. side of camp a short line of ditch running N. and S. cuts 
across the road into Crate's Wood in Semley. O.M. 68 N.E. ; A. W. 
I. Stations VIII. IX. 
Finds, Neolithic. Great numbers of flint scrapers, flakes, &c, are 
found round the springs of the Nadder, as though the Neolithic 
people had settled there. Ground flint celts have been found in the 
rectory garden, on the Shaftesbury Rd., at Barker's Hill, and on 
Wyncombe ; a pebble hammer stone at Barker's Hill ; a barbed and 
tanged arrowhead (Canon W. F. Short collection). Many of the 
scrapers, &c, now in Salisbury Museum, 1911). 
At Windwhistle 1 mile SW. of Donhead St. Mary Church, 2 leaf-shaped 
arrowheads and hundreds of worked flints, scrapers, hollow scrapers, 
cores, &c. Canon Short. Salisbury Museum. O.M. 69 SW. ; 
Salisbury Field Club Trans. I. 34. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze palstave, and socketed celt found on 
surface E. of Castle Rings ; Blackmore Museum. Bronze palstave 
from surface near Castle Rings ; Canon Milford, of E. Knoyle. 
W.A.M. xxxvii. 132, 133, 135. 
In 1896 a bronze founder's hoard was found " at Donhead " consisting 
of 3 celts, 1 hammer, 1 mould for celts, 1 armlet, 1 burnishing stone, 
2 fragments of bronze, and several lots of wire, now in Farnham 
Museum. W.AM, xxxvii., 137, 138, 140, 155, 157. 

DOWNTON. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow on boundary line of parish and county, |-mile S. of Great 

Yews. O.M. 71 SW. [Round ploughed into oval shape. M.E.C.]. 

2. "Giants Grave," Long barrow 1 mile N.W. of New Court Farm, 

| mile S.W. of Charlton Farm. O.M. 71 SE. ; not in A. W. L, 
Station, VII. See Appendix, Long Barrows. 



242 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

3. "Giants Chair," round barrow a little distance S.E. of last. O.M. 

71 SE. ; not in A.W. I. Station VII. 
[The barrows shown in A. W. I. Station VII. at Gallows Hill and 

Breaniore Down are in Hants. O.M. 76 NE. 
Earthworks. From Whitsbury Camp, now in Hants, a ditch called in 

O.M. " Grimsditch " runs N. to Gallows Hill, where it forms Wilts 

and Downton boundary for \ mile, and across Wick Down and New 

Court Down into Standlynch. O.M. 76 NE. ; 71 SE. ; A. W. I. 231 

Station VII. 
The Moot, large earthworks of doubtful plan and date, just on E. bank 

of the Avon, strong double horseshoe-shaped banks and ditches, 

much cut about and altered by conversion into pleasure grounds. 

Said to be a Saxon " moot hill." O.M. 77 NW. ; Arch. Joum. xxxii. 

305—309, plan ; W.A.M. xxi. 353. 
Finds, Bronze Age. 2 looped palstaves, 2 palstaves without loops, 

1 socketed looped celt. Blackmore Museum. Evans' Bronze, 89, 

91, 120 ; W.A.M. xxxvii. 132, 133, 135. 

DUKNFOKD. 
Barrows. 

Group of 7 barrows (1—7) round Littledown Clump, just E. of 
the Avon, N. of Netton Hill, is shown on O.M. 60 NE. A. W. I. 
Station V. South shows 2 barrows as on Netton Hill. Of these 
Rev. E. Duke opened one, finding charcoal only without inter- 
ment. A. W. I. 221. Perhaps these are the barrows mentioned 
by Mr. Letheuillier. In E. side of one, urn filled with ashes 
found 1731, and another urn in same barrow 1732. In the other, 
a skeleton with a " spearhead " (dagger V) found 1732. A. W. I. 
221, 222 ; Gent. Mag. 1754 p. 188 confuses the account but refers 
to same barrows. 
1, 2. Two large barrows (1 the westernmost) close together near 
chalk pit and Avon. 

3. Small barrow just S.E. of last near clump. 

4. Barrow a little distance E. of 1 and 2. 

5. 6, 7. Three small barrows close together just S. of clump. 
Earthworks. Ogbury Camp above and just E. of Gt. Durnford village. 

Area 62 acres, circuit 1 mile, 1 furlong, 53 yds. Single rampart of no 
great strength, without ditch, much mutilated on SE. and W. sides. 
Entrance to E. Hoare found marks of enclosures inside but no 
signs of habitation. O.M. 60 NE. ; A. W. I. 219, 220, Station V. 
South ; Stukeley, Itin. Curiosa 1 38. [The whole interior has been 
ploughed and all trace of enclosures, &c, destroyed, 1913. M.E.C.]. 
Bank and ditch running N.E. from Little Durnford a continuation says 
Hoare of the Groveley and Chilhampton Ditch. A. W. 1. 215, Station 
V. South. 
Roman. On high ground just E. of Ogbury Camp, signs of British village. 
A. W. I. 220, Station V. South. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 243 

DUKKINGTOK 

[The numbers in brackets thus (62) are those on Hoare's Map of 
Stonehenge.] 
Barrows. 

Of the group of barrows on both sides of the parish boundary £ mile 
N. of the Lesser Cursus and the end of Fargo plantation, 5 in- 
cluding 1 on the boundary are in Winterbourne Stoke, 3 (1 — 3) in 
Durrington. Some of these had been opened before W. Cunning- 
ton's time, some were opened by him but no exact record of their 
contents exists. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 166, Note. See also Winter- 
bourne Stoke. [Barrows 1 — 7 now in middle of Artillery Camp, 
1913. M.E.C.] 

1. (62) Disc barrow. O.M. 54 SW. ; Soc Ant. Map, 319. [In poor 

condition, 1913. M.E.C.] 

2. (63) Just E. of last. 0. U. 54 SW. ; Soc. Ant. Map, 320. [Good 

condition, 1913. M.E.C.] 

3. (64) Just E. of last. O.M. 54 SW. ; Soc. Ant. Map, 321. [Good 

condition, 1913. M.E.C.] 



4, 5. (65) A little E. of last, O.M. 54 SW. shows 2 barrows close 
together. A. W. Stonehenge Map shows only 1. It is doubtful 
whether 5 is a barrow (A.H.L.). Soc. Ant. Map, 322, 323. [Good 
condition, 1913, M.E.C.] 

6, 7. Two barrows a little distance from each other, about J mile E. 
of the last, neither of them on A. W. Stonehenge. Map ; O.M. 54 
SW. ; Soc. Ant. Map, 324, 325. 

8. (66) Low barrow just S.E. of 7, opened by Hoare. Fragments of 

skull, large cinerary urn, and drinking cup. 0. M .54 S W. ; A. W. 
I. 166 ; Soc. Ant. Map, 326. [Good condition, 1913. M.E.C.] 

9. (67) Large barrow just S.W. of 8. Opened before Hoare's time. 

O.M. 54 SW. ; A.W. I. 166 ; Soc. Ant. Map, 328. [Fair condition, 
has been dug into, 1913. M.E.C.] 

10. (68) " Pond Barrow " E. of 9. O.M. 54 S.W. ; A. W. 1. 166 ; Soc. 
Ant. Map, 327. [Good condition, 1913. M.E.C.] 

On Durrington Down, just E. of 10, O.M. 54 SW. shows a group 
of 13 barrows very close together, 11—22. A.W. Stonehenge 
Map shows 15 barrows in this group. Opened for the most part 
by Hoare, or by W. Cunnington at earlier period. A.W. L 167, 
[This group in good condition, 1913. M.E.C.] 

11. (69) The westernmost of the group, a low barrow opened by W. 

Cunnington 1803. Large cin. urn with burnt bones and remains 
of linen cloth in cist. W.A.M. xxi. 260 fig. ; Soc. Ant. Map 340. 

12. (70) Opened by Hoare. Burn bones in cist. SocAnt.Afap,339. 

13. (71) Bowl-shaped barrow with ditch, opened by Hoare. Two 

urns each containing burnt bones, one over the other, and above 
these near the surface, a child's skeleton. Soc. Ant. Map 338. 



244 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

14. (73) Opened by Hoare. Flat barrow with ditch, near the surface 

a skeleton with 4 lignite beads. Another burnt interment had 
apparently been disturbed. Soc. Ant. Map 347. 

15. (74) Disc barrow, the mound not in the centre, a cist filled with 

ashes only. Soc. Ant. Map 348. 

16. 17, [17a]. (75 — 77) Stonehenge Map shows 3 barrows here, and 

Soc. Ant. Map also shows 3, 2 of them, 350, 351, being small 
barrows joined together. O.M. 54 SW. 2nd edition, shows two 
barrows only. These barrows had been opened before Hoare's 
time. Soc. Ant. Map 349—351. 

18. (83) Opened by Hoare. Cinerary urn and bronze awl. A.W.I. 

167 ; Soc. Ant. Map 347. 

19. (72) Opened by W. Cunnington. Cin. urn found. Soc. Ant. 

Map 344. 

20. (82) Opened by Ifoare. A hole filled with ashes and two in- 

terments of burnt bones. A.W.I. 167 ; Soc. Ant. Map 345. 

21. (81) Opened by Hoare. A large rude cin. urn and burnt bones. 

A. W. I. 167 ; Soc. Ant. Map 346. 
[21a.] (80) The southernmost barrow in this group shown on Stone- 
henge Map said by Hoare to be " not sepulchral." Not on O.M. 
54 SW. [Not now to be found, 1913. M.E.C.] 

22. (79) Opened before Hoare's time, no record. Soc.[Ant. Map 353. 

23. (78) Opened before Hoare's time, no record. Soc. Ant. Map 352. 



24. Long barrow | mile NE. of the last group on Durrington Down, 
| mile S. of Knighton Long Barrow. O.M. 54 SW. ; A.W. 
Station V. North ; Soc. Ant. Map 337. See Appendix, Long 
Barrows. 

A scattered group of 15 barrows 25—38 on Durrington Down N. 
oftheCursus, S.E. of group 11— 23. O.M. 54 SW. 25—29 
are in a line roughly. 

25. (84) Large barrow, ploughed over, opened by Hoare. Primary 

interment a crouched skeleton, another skeleton with drinking 
cup and "two knives." A.W.I. 167 ; Soc. Ant. Map 358. [Injured 
by rabbits, 1913. M.E.C.] 

26. (85) Opened before Hoare's time. Interment of burnt bones 
A. W. I. 167 ; Soc. Ant Map 359. [Fair condition 1913. M.E.C.] 

27. (86) Circular cist and hole filled with ashes, had been opened 
before Hoare's time. A. W. I. 167 ; Soc. Ant. Map 361. [Fair 
condition, 1913. M.E.C.] 

28. (87) Disc barrow. Fragments of urn and burnt bones in shallow 

cist. OM. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 167 ; Soc. Ant. Map 362. [Good 
condition, 1913. M.E.C.] 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 245 

29. (88) Disc barrow. Fragments of urn and burnt bones near sur- 

face, and beneath them an urn inverted over burnt bones. O.M. 
54 SW. ; A.W- I., 167 ; Soc. Ant. Map, 363. [Good condition, 
1913. M.E.C.] 

30. Barrow to S.W. of last, not on Stonehenge Map ; O.M. 54 SW. ; 

Soc. Ant. Map 355. 

31. Barrow to S.E. of last, close to Amesbury boundary, not on 

Stonehenge Map ; O.M. 54 SW. ; Soc. Ant. Map 364. 
32 (89) Southernmost of 3 barrows close together in line just E. of 
the last. Has been ploughed. Opened by Hoare. Skeleton 
with head to N. O.M. 54 SW. ; A.W. I. 167; Soc. Ant. Map 
371. 
[Barrows 32 — 36 have been ploughed but are now down to grass 
and in fair condition, 1913. M.E.C.] 

33. (90) Close on N.E. side of the last, ploughed over, opened by 

Hoare. Large urn inverted over burnt bones. O.M. 54 SW. ; 
A.W. I. 167 ; Soc. Ant. Map 370. 

34. (91) Close on N.E. side of last, opened by Hoare. Burnt bones 

on floor, deep cist filled with ashes and fragments of burnt bone. 
O.M. 54 SW. ; A.W. I. 168 ; Soc. Ant. Map 369. 

35. (92) Just S.E. of 29, opened by Hoare. Crouched skeleton in 

grave, above it fragments of urn with burnt bones, a second 
skeleton, and fragments of enormous stag's horns. O.M. 54 
SW. ; A.W. I. 168 ; Soc. Ant. Map 360. 

36. (93) N.E. of the last. Primary interment, a skeleton with fine 

drinking cup. Above this a rude urn with burnt bones and 
small cup, also remains of a second skeleton near the surface. 
OM. 54 SW. ; A.W. I. 168, PI. XVIII. ; Soc. Ant. Map 357. 

37. 37a. (96, 95?) Two barrows touching each other, just S.E. of 

36. Opened by Hoare. Burnt bones and nothing else. O.M. 
54 S W. ; A. W. I. 168 ; Soc. Ant. Map 366, 365. 
[37b.] (94) Barrow ploughed over just N. of the last. Not opened 
by Hoare. Not in O.M. 54 SW. [Very low, 1913. M.E.C.] 

38. A little distance N.E. of 25. OM. 54 SW. : Soc. Ant. Map 356 ; 

not on A. W. Stonehenge Map. 

39. Large disc barrow just at N.E. corner of Fargo Down Barn S. of 

group 11 — 23. Opened by Hoare. A large rude urn without 
interment. O.M. 54 SW. ; Soc. Ant. Map 354 ; not shown on 
Stonehenge Map, but mentioned A. W. 1. 167. [In good condition 
1913. M.E.C.] 
A group of 7 barrows, 40—46, close together on Durrington Down 
close on N.W. side of Down Barn, E. of the last. O.M. 54 SE. 
[In good condition, never ploughed, 1913. M.E.C.] 

40. (109) Southernmost of line of 5 barrows, and nearest the barn. 
Opened before Hoare's time, no record. A. W. I. 168 ; Soc. Ant. 
Map 384. 



246 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

41. (L10) Close on N.W. side of last. Opened before Hoare's time. 

A.W.I. 168 ; Soc. Ant. Map 353. 

42. (Ill) Close in line N.W. of last. Opened before Hoare's time. 

O.M. 54 SE. ; A. W. I. 168 ; not in Soc. Ant. Map. 

43. (112) In line N.W. of last. A twin or oval barrow with ditch 

all round. Burnt bones under one mound, urn inverted over 
burnt bones under the other. O.M. 54 SE. (not shown as a twin 
barrow) ; A.W.I.XQQ; Soc. Ant. Map 380. 

44. 113. Northernmost of the line of 5. Opened by Hoare, disturbed 

before his time. Fragments of urn and skeleton. O.M. 54 SE. ; 
A. W. I. 169 ; Soc. Ant. Map 379. 
45 (114) Just E. of 43. Opened by Hoare. Deep cist with burnt 
bones and ashes. O.M. 54 SE. ; A. W. 1. 169 ; Soc. Ant. Map 381. 
[Defaced by rabbits, 1913. M.E.C.] 

46. (115) Just on S. side of last, opened by Hoare, had been opened 

before. Burnt bones in cist. O.M. 54 SE. ; A. W. I. 169; Soc. 
Ant. Map 382. 

A group of small barrows \ mile E. of the last group and \ mile N. of 
E. end of Cursus, S.E. of Down Barn. O.M. 54 SE. shows 8 barrows 
47 — 54 close together. 

47. (101) Opened by Hoare. Burnt bones in cist, with shale rings 

and glass bead. A. W. I. 168 ; Stourhead Oat. 30a ; Soc. Ant. 
Map 386. [Condition good, 1913. M.E.C.] 

48. (102) Opened by Hoare. Burnt bones in cist with remains of 
cloth in which they were wrapped. A. W. I. 168 ; Soc. Ant. Map 
387. [Condition good, 1913. M.E.C.] 

49. (103) Opened by Hoare. Deep circular cist with ashes. A. W. 

I. 168 ; Soc. Ant. Map 388. [Condition good, 1913. M.E.C.] 

50. (104) Opened by Hoare. Disturbed before that. Remains of 

several skeletons, fragments of urns, large deep cist, and stag's 
horn implement. A. W. I. 168 ; Stourhead Cat. 101 ; Soc. Ant. 
Map, 385. [Condition good, 1913. M.E.C.] 

51. (100) Opened by Hoare. Burnt bones in circular cist. A- W. 

1. 168 ; Soc. Ant. Map, 389. [Condition good, 1913. M.E.C.] 
[51a]. (108) Between 51 and 53, A. W. Stonehenge Map shows 
another barrow not on O.M. 54 SE. A " Pond Barrow." [Bank 
ploughed down, just distinguishable, 1913. M.E.C.] 

52. (105) Opened before Hoare's time. Soc. Ant. Map 390. [Con- 

dition good, 1913. M.E.C.] 

53. (107) Opened by Hoare. Heap of ashes in a cist, above this a 

heap of burnt bones with bone pin. A. W. 1. 168 ; Soc. Ant. Map 
391. [Condition good, 1913. M.E.C.] 

54. (106) Opened before Hoare's time. Soc. A nt.Map 392. [Ploughed 

nearly level, now grass, 1913. M.E.C.] 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 247 

55—59. (97—99) O.M. 54 SE. shows a scattered group of 5 barrows 
N. of cursus and \ mile S.E. of Down Barn and group 40 — 46. 
A. W. Stonehenge Map shows only 3 barrows here which cannot 
be exactly identified. All opened by Hoare. All contained 
burnt bones only. A.W.I. 168. [97 just distinguishable, 98, 
99 much ploughed down, 1913. M.E.C.] 

55. Shown but not numbered on Soc. Ant. Map. 

56. Not shown on Soc. Ant. Map. 

57. 58. Soc. Ant. Map 367, 368. 

59. The southernmost of the group, shown but not numbered on Soc. 
Ant. Map. 



A small barrow in the neighbourhood of Durrington Down, the 
exact position of which is not specified, opened by Hoare, 
contained burnt interment with " expanded " incense cup. 
Devizes Museum. Stourhead Gat. 92 fig. ; A. W. 1. 174, PI. XVIII. 



Three small barrows, 60 — 62, close together in line just outside 
N. bank of Cursus J mile from its E. end. O.M. 54 SE. [Con- 
dition fair, 1913. M.E.C.] 

60. (117) Opened by Hoare. Contained small rude urn and burnt 

bones. A. W. I. 169 ; Soc. Ant. Map 393. 

61. (118) Called by Hoare " a small long barrow," really an oval 

barrow. Contained burnt bones and ashes in circular cist. A.W. 
I. 169 ; Soc. Ant. Map 394. ' 

62. (119) Opened by Hoare. Burnt bones in small cist. A.W.I. 

169 ; Soc. Ant. Map 395. 
[62a.] (116) Barrow just W. of 60 in same line close to Cursus. 

Opened before Hoare's time, no record. A.W. I. 169; not on 

O.M. 54 SE. 
[62b.] (120) Barrow in same line just E. of 62. A " Pond barrow." 

A.W. I. 169 ; not on O.M. 54 SE. [No trace, 1913. M.E.C.] 
[62c] (121) Barrow in same line just E. of last. Opened by Hoare. 

Rude cin. urn inverted over burnt bones. A. W. I. 169 ; not on 

O.M. 54 SE. [No trace, 1913. M.E.C.] 

63—65. (124) A Long barrow on Amesbury .boundary just W. of 
Kd. near river, -J mile S. of Durrington Walls. O.M. 54 SE. 
shows 3 barrows close together in line, that to the W., 63, the 
largest. Hoare describes this as apparently 3 barrows rising 
from one base. He thought it originally a long barrow, with 2 
circular barrows raised on the top of it. Opened by Hoare, the 
E. barrow 65 contained only ashes, the central barrow 64 a 
skeleton and drinking cup near the surface. On the floor of the 
long barrow a circular cist like a well without interment, from 
which a tunnel like a chimney ascended nearly to the top. 
A. W. I. 170 ; Soc. Ant. Map 401—403. [It is not as shown by 



248 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

O.M. 3 separate barrows, but one considerable Long barrow of 
very irregular outline. Still under the plough, 1913. M.E.C.] 
See Appendix, Long Barrows. 
[65a]. (122) On S. side of Durrington Walls, just E. of Rd. a large 
mound opened by Hoare to depth of lift, but no signs of inter- 
ment found. A. W. I. 170 : not on O.M. 54 SE. [No trace, 1913. 
M.E.C.] 
[65b]. (123) Just S. of the last but on W. side of Rd. a very large 
disc barrow, mutilated in Hoare's time. A.W. I. 170 ; not on 
O.M. 54 SE. [Still under plough, but the bank distinctly trace- 
able, 1913. M.E.C.] 
Earthworks. Durrington Walls, a circular embankment partly natural, 
partly artificial, with vallum on the high ground all round but not 
on the river side, \ mile S. of Durrington close to the Avon, inter- 
sected by the Amesbury Rd. The site of a British village says 
Hoare, much pottery found in it. Much ploughed down even in 
Hoare's day. O.M. 54 SE. ; A.W. I. 169, Stonehenge Map. [The 
bank can only be traced now when ground is in favourable condition, 
M.E.C.] 
Pinds, Neolithic (?). "Above Durrington Walls" an interment of a 
skeleton under a large sarsen stone, without a barrow, with fine flint 
dagger, small whetstone, and lignite conical button and pully ring. 
Devizes Museum. A. W. I. 172, PI. XIX. ; Evans' Stone, 242, 278, 
315, 409 ; Stourhead Cat. 85a— 85b. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Socketed looped celt 1891. Blackmore Museum. 
W.A.M. xxxvii. 136. 
Near the Winterbourne Stoke boundary in arable field, 30 graves with 
skeletons lying N. and S. found 1864, no details. ? of what age. 
W.A.M. xxxi. 331. 
Saxon. Skull from Pond Barrow on Durrington Down. Cambridge 
Museum 120. 

EASTERTON. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow on Warren Down. O.M. 46 NE. ; not shown 1 in A. W. I. 
Station III. ; Soc. Ant. Map 66. 
The Ridgeway coming from Gore's Cross to near Broadbury, cuts across 

Easterton following the escarpment. O.M. 40 SE. 
Pinds, Roman. Bronze bow brooch. Devizes Museum, Cat. II. 309. 
Brnoze bow brooch of Late Celtic type but found with pot of coins 
Vespasian to Constantine II. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 320, 321 ; 
Reliquary xiv. QQfig. ; W.AM. x. 178—180; xxxv. 403 ./S?. 

EASTON GREY. 

Earthworks. In White Walls Wood a small square camp J mile E. of 
Church, regarded by Hoare as connected with Roman station to the 
S. O.M. 8 SW. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 249 

Roman. The Fosseway forms E. boundary of parish. O.M. 8 SW. 

In 4 fields on each side of the Avon stream partly in Easton Grey, J mile 
S.E. of Ch., partly in Foxley, a large Eoman settlement identified by 
Hoare as Mutuantonis, " White Walls." Many coins, foundations, 
and tessellated pavement found here. Relief of 4 figures under 
portico inscribed civilis fecit, and head of female statue, found 1810 
near the site, preserved at Easton Grey House. O.M. 8 SW. ; A. W. 
II. 100, 101, fig. & plan; Jackson's Aubrey p. 85 ; Britton's Beauties 
of Wilts III. 134 ; Arch. Journ. xxxvii. 145 ; W.A.M. viii. 16 ; xxxi. 127. 



EASTON EOYAL. 
Barrows. 

1. Godsbury Barrow. O.M. 42 NW. ; A. W. I. Station VI. 
[la] A disc barrow on Easton Hill 1 mile S. of Easton village, planted 
with trees. ? The circular enclosure in Easton Clump on O.M. 
42 NW., not otherwise shown. A. W. I. 190, Station VI. 
[lb, c]. A. W. I. Station VI. also shows two small barrows in valley 
S. of the last, between it and Godsbury, not on O.M., and one 
barrow to W. of Godsbury, between it and the 6 barrows near 
Milton Hill Farm, which is probably Milton Lilborne 8. 
Earthworks. Hoare notes faint traces of a circular entrenchment round 
Godsbury Hill. A. W. I. 189. 
Hoare says a vallum and ditch surround the British village on Easton 
Hill, and a ditch leads to it. A. W. 1. 190, Station VI. Remains of 
these shown on O.M. 42 NW. 
Roman. " British village" with earthworks {see above) just S. and E. of 
Easton Clump about 1 mile S. of Easton village. O.M. 42 NW. ; 
A.W.I. 190, Station VI. 
Saxon. Easton Hill. Interment in coffin with iron nails, iron knife, and 
double bone comb. Devizes Museum Cat. II. S 2 — S 2 b. [? Saxon 
or Roman.] 

EBBESBOUENE WAKE AND FIFIELD BAVANT. 

Barrows. 

1. Barrow just S. of trackway N. of Church Bottom, W. of Fifield 

Down. O.M. 75 NW. ; not in A.W. 

2. Another | mile S.E. of the last. O.M. 70 NW. ; not in A. W. 

3. Barrow S. of East Combe Wood and just N. of the Ox Drove. 

O.M. 75 NW. ; A. W. I. Stations VIII. IX. 

4. 5. Two barrows close together just S. of the Ox Drove, \ mile E. 
of Bigley Buildings, \ mile W. of No. 2, near Alvediston boun- 
dary. O.M. 74 NE. ; A. W. I. Stations VIII. IX. 

[Barrow Hill, \ mile S. of Church, testifies to former existence of 
a barrow here.] 

VOL. XXXVIII. — NO. CXX. S 



250 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

Earthworks. A small oblong enclosure in Church Bottom, S.E. of 
Prescombe Down, area f acre. Original entrance to S. W. bank partly 
destroyed, otherwise very perfect. Ancient Earthworks of Cran- 
borne Chase p. 45, plan 26. O.M. 60 NW. 

Half of a similar enclosure on Fifield Down, \ mile S. of Fifield Ashes, 
O.M. 70 NW. ; Ancient Earthworks of Cranborne Chase p. 45, plan 27. 

A ditch and double bank of about equal size runs from S. edge of 
East Combe Wood for about J mile NE. to SW. to about 50 yds. 
beyond Chase Barn, across the Ox Drove. S. of the Ox Drove 
partially effaced in a pasture. O.M. 75 NW. ; Earthworks of 
Cranborne Chase p. 65, plan 39. 

EDINGTON. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow just N. of track to Imber forming Heytesbury boundary 

and E. of Lady Well. Opened by Hoare but no interment found. 
[For barrow on opposite side of track see Heytesbury.] A. W. I. 
88 Station III ; O.M. 45 SE. 

2. W. of this, nearer Lady Well, 1 mile S.E. of South Down Farm, a 

large barrow called " Row Barrow," opened by W. Cunnington 
1801. At a depth of 4ft., and 2ft. or 3ft. above the floor, a heap 
of burnt bones with " spear, lance, and arrowhead of brass " 
(? bronze knife daggers). AM. I. 67, Station II. ; O.M. 45 SE. 

3. Another barrow just S. of Lady Well. O.M. 45 SE. ; not in A. W. 

4. Another S. W. of Lady Well on South Down Sleight. A.W.I. Station 

II. ; O.M. 45 SW. 

5. On Tenantry Down f mile N.E. of South Down Farm a barrow I 

which had been opened before Cunnington's time. A. W. I. 67, I 
Station II.; O.M. 45 NE. 

6. Barrow on Baynton Down near Coulston boundary, S. of Barn J 

Bottom. A.W. I. Station III. ; O.M. 45 NE. 

7. Tinhead Long Barrow, W. of Tottenham Wood, 1 mile S.E. of 1 

Tinhead. Opened by Thurnam, it had been rifled before, but 
skeletons were found. A. W. I. 88 ; Arch. xlii. 180 ; 0,M. 45 NE. ' 
See Appendix, Long Barrows. 
8 — 10. Three barrows in Luccombe Bottom i mile S. of Edington. 
O.M. 45 N W. ; A. W. I. Station II. shows only 1 barrow here. 
1 1. One barrow on Picquet Hill just N. of the last. O.M. 45 NW. 

ENFOED. 
Barrows. 

1. Large barrow just S.W. of Compton Farm. [One of largest 
round barrows in Wilts on ploughed ground but not ploughed 
itself. Has been dug into at top and on side though shown as 
unopened by Hoare. About 180ft. diam. and 15ft. high. M.E.C.] 
O.M. 47 NE. ; A. W. I. Station V. North ; Soc. Ant. Map 72. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 251 

2. Barrow just outside rampart of Lidbury Camp on Littlecott Down, 

on N.E. side. O.M. 47 NE. ; A. W. I. 192, Station VI. ; Soc. 
Ant. Map 31. 

3. Longstreet Down 1 mile S. of Chisenbury Warren, barrow N. of 

track. O.M. 48 NW. ; Soc. Ant. Map 34. 

4. Barrow just on S. edge of track i mile E. of the last. O.M. 48 

NW. ; A. W. I. Station VI. shows 3 barrows here, apparently 3 
and 4, and another further E. ; Soc. Ant. Map 35. 

5. 6. To S.W. of these last, W. of Dreweat's Clump, twin-barrows 

enclosed in one ditch. Opened by Hoare 1806 & 1811. Burnt 

bones and bone pin in one, an immense quantity of wood ashes, 

flint flakes, and animals' bones in the other. O.M. 47 NE. ; A. W. 

I. 193, figured as " No. 7 " p. 22 ; Soc. Ant. Map 32, 33. 
7. On Enford Down ^ mile N.W. of Clark's Penning, just S. of cross 

tracks, barrow shown in A.W. I Station V. North, probably a 

mound not marked " Tumulus " on O.M. 47 SW. 
[7a] Hoare A.W. I. Station V. North shows barrow just N. of last 

between track and ditch, close to S. side of ditch. Not on O.M. 
[7b.] Another barrow between track and ditch to W. of the last shown 

on A. W. I. Station V. North ; perhaps a " mound " close to 

corner of Upavon, on O.M. 47 NW. 
[7c] Hoare shows barrow actually in the track W. of Haxton and just 

S. of Fifield Folly. A. W. I. Station V. North. Not on O.M. 

47 SE. 

earthworks. Ditch running from Ell Barrow W. to E. crosses Charlton, 
Rushall, and Upavon and runs a mile into Enford. O.M. 47 NW. 
& S W. ; A. W. I. 175, Station V. North ; Soc. Ant. Map 70. 

Coombe Hill 2£ miles E. of Enford, N. of Beeches Barn, British village 
and double ditch pointing N. towards British village near Lidbury. 
A.W. I. 193, Station VI.; not in O.M. 48 NW. [These remains 
still very extensive and perfect, 1913. M.E.C.] 

Littlecott Down 2 miles E. of East Chisenbury. Lidbury Camp, small 
but perfect square earthwork, entrance to S., circuit 330 yds. Bank 
and ditch run S. from it into valley, on S.E. side of which is a 
British settlement with many banks, ditches and lynchets. O.M. 47 
NE. ; A. W. I. 192, Station VI. ; Soc. Ant. Map 30. 

Chisenbury Camp or "Trendle" (Hoare) on down about 2 miles N.E. 
of Enford village, near Upavon boundary, remains of circular 
earthwork. Area 5 acres, circuit 594 yds. Vestiges of outworks 
on S. side where Hoare supposed entrance to have been. Hoare 
thinks this one of the circular earthworks which were not defensive. 
O.M. 47 NE. ; A. W. I. 192, Station VI. ; Soc. Ant. Map 11. 

Hoare notes on the same ridge, a short distance W. of Chisenbury Camp, 
the remains of another earthwork forming the segment of a circle, 
with a bolder rampart. A. W. I. 192 ; not in O.M. [No trace of this 
to be found, 1913. M.E.C.] 

S 2 



252 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

At East Chisenbury in grounds of the Grove Mansion " a bold embank- 
ment carried across the valley with double ramparts" the space 
between them 9 paces. These earthworks, called " Gladiators 
Walk" in O.M., are to Hoare "unaccountable." O.M. 47 NE. ; 
A. W. 1. 193; Soc. Ant. Map, 29. 

At the Twin Barrows, 2 miles E. of Enford village, a bank and ditch 
going W. towards the Avon. Another running to barrows (3 & 4). 
A. W. I. 193, Station VI. ; not in O.M. 47 NE. or 48 NW. 
Soman. British village at Coombe Hill see under Earthworks above. 

S. of Lidbury Camp extensive British village, many banks, enclosures, 
&c. A. W. I. 192, Station VI. ; not in O.M. 

EELESTOKE. 

Barrows. A small barrow, diam. 50ft., height 5ft. 6in., just inside Hill 

Wood at top of hill near roadway, Pear Tree Lane. Opened B. H. 

Cunnington 1902. Burnt bones in shallow cist only. Not in A.W. 

or O.M. 45 NE. ; W.A.M. xxxii. 224 ; xxxiii. 297. 
Roman. Stone coffin (destroyed) and many coins found at " The Sands," 

and in 18th century many coins found on " The Sharp." W.A.M. 

xxxiii. 298. 



EVEELEY. 
Barrows. 

[Group of 4 barrows close together (1 to 4) 1 mile N. of Lower or W. 
Everley just S. of track Marlborough to W. Everley, close to Pewsey 
boundary. " Everley Barrows." O.M. 42 SW. ; A. W. I. Station VI. ; 
W.A.M. ii. 39 ; vi. 332 ; xxxvii. 123 ; Arch, xliii. 455 fig. ; not num- 
bered on Soc. Ant. Map.] 

1 . Fine bell barrow 13ft. high opened by Thurnam [No. 26]. In centre 

in slight cist in chalk a large deposit of burnt bones, nothing else. 
In upper part of barrow a skeleton at full length. ? Saxon. 

2. Fine bell barrow on W. side of last,ll Jft. high, opened by Thurnam 

[No. 27]. Burnt bones and small bronze knife dagger 3in. long, 
now in Brit. Museum, and close by a pile of wood ashes. 

3. A disc barrow on S. side of the bell barrows, opened by Thurnam, 

nothing found. 

4. Small mound on N. side between the bell barrows, opened by 

Thurnam, nothing found. " Probably not sepulchral." 



5, 6. [6a] Two barrows just S. of road from Devizes, f mile W. of 
Lower or W. Everley. O.M. 42 S.W. ; Soc. Ant. Map 15, 16. 
Thurnam opened 3 low barrows in ploughed field, 1853, and A. W. 
I. Station VI. shows 3. Nothing was found in the 2 smaller, but 
in the central one [No 25] 3ft. 6in. high, burnt bones and charcoal. 
W.A.M. vi. 332. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 253 

[6b.] [Hoare in Plan of " Chidbury Camp " A.W. I. 180 shows a barrow 
apparently in the S. point of Everley, just N. of Snail Down 
Square, not shown on O.M. 48 NW. or on A. W. I. Station VI.] 

7. Old Hat barrow at point of junction of Everley (Cow Down),Milton 
Lilborne, and Collingbourne Kingston. O.M. 42 SW. 

8. 1 mile S. of this exactly on boundary of Collingbourne Kingston, 
a barrow in a small circular clump just S. of Marlborough Road. 
O.M. 42 SW. ; A. W. I. Station VI. ; Soc. Ant. Map. 17. 

[For other barrows near Everley see Collingbourne Ducis, Colling- 
bourne Kingston, and Pewsey.] 
Earthworks. Somewhere S.W. of Lower Everley 1 near trackway from 
Coombe an imperfect circular earthwork, says Hoare. No signs of 
habitation found by digging. A. W. I. 193, Station VI. ; not on O.M. 
Saxon. Secondary interment in barrow 1 above. 



FARLEY, see PITTON. 

FIGHELDEAN. 
Barrows. 

1. Gallows Barrow at Cliffe End, E. of the river. Opened by Capt. 
W. Hawley (No. 12). Had been opened before, no cist found. 
Flint arrowhead. British Museum. O.M. 47 SE. ; not in A. W. ; 
W.A.M. xxxvi. 624 ; Soc. Ant. Map 142. 

2, 3. Group of 3 barrows close to river opposite Netheravon [one is 
in Fittleton (1)]. O.M. 47 SE. ; A. W. I. Station VI. shows only 
one ; Soc Ant. Map. 113. 

4. Barrow in Bourn ebottom Clump on Figheldean Down. O.M. 48 
SW. ; Soc. Ant. Map 115. 

5. AnotherjusttoS.W. of the last on W. side of track. O.MA8 SW.; 
Soc. Ant. Map 114. 

6. Barrow on Ablington Down, S.W. of Ablington Furze, E. of New 
Barn. O.M. 48 S W. ; not shown on A.W.I; Soc. Ant. Map 144. 

7 — 13. On Ablington Down at S. end of Bournebottom a group of 7 
barrows near together (7 — 16), of which 8 — 11 are in O.M. 48 
SW., and 12 and 13 in O.M. 55 NW. ; A.W. I. Station VI. ; 
Soc. Ant. Map 146, 150, 147, 148, 149, 151, 152. 

12. The westernmost of the two barrows on the S. side of the group 
just N. of the Drove Way, opened by Capt. W. Hawley (No. 10). 
Bowl-shaped cist in chalk, burnt bones with small bronze dagger 
with midrib and three rivets 4£in. long, and 8 cylindrical notched 
glass beads, 4 fusiform beads of lignite, and stud (like collar stud) 
of lignite. Brit. Museum. Proc. Soc-. Ant. xxii. 124 ; W.A.M. 
xxxvi. 622, figs, plan. 



254 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities, 

14 — [16d]. Group of small barrows 4 in a row (14, 15, 16, 16d), 

of which the three first only are shown on O.M. 55 NW., with 
3 smaller mounds close together just on N. side of them (16a, 
16b, 16c), all 5 mile SW. of last group just on N. side of Drove 
Way and Milston boundary, N.E. of Silk Hill Plantation. W.A.M. 
xxxvi. 616 plan : Soc. Ant. Map 156, 155, 154, 153. 

15. Small barrow opened by Capt. W. Hawley (No. 9), burnt bones 
in bowl-shaped cist, nothing else. W.A.M. xxxvi. 622 ; Soc. 
Ant. Map 155. 

16. Small barrow opened by Capt. W. Hawley (No. 8). Burnt bones 

in bowl-shaped cist in loose chalk of the barrow. 2ft. below this 
a cist 4ft. deep, 8ft. long X 3ft. 9in. wide, with skeleton buried 
at full length. Small pot at the feet and under the skull a broad- 
bladed bronze knife dagger with three large rivets, 4|in. long. 
Brit. Museum. W.A.M. xxxvi. 621, fig. ; xxxvii. 118 ; Soc. 
Ant. Map 154. 
[16a — 16c] Three small mounds on N. side of the row of 4 barrows, 
opened by Capt. W. Hawley. All contained burnt bones ; in one 
an urn "in a ruinous state." W.A.M. xxxvi. 622 ; not in OM. 



17 — 20. Group of 3 barrows close together just W. of track Marl- 
borough to Salisbury, at 12 miles from Salisbury, and one (20) 
in the track itself, W. of Brigmerston Plantation. O.M. 48 
SW. ; A. W. I. Station VI. shows 3 only ; Soc. Ant. Map. 
176—179. 

21, 22. Two barrows just E. of track 1 mile N. of the last group, at 
13th mile from Salisbury, near Fittleton boundary. O.M. 48 
SW. ; A.W.I. Station VI. ; Soc. Ant. Map 116, 117. 

23, 24. Two barrows just N. of Dunch Hill Plantation, E. of Marl- 
borough — Salisbury Bd., 12| miles from Salisbury. O.M. 48 
SW. ; A. W. I. Station VI. shows only one ; Soc. Ant. Map 119, 
120. 

25. Barrow in Barrow Clump | mile E. of Ablington Farm, f mile 
N.E. of Syrencot House, opened by Capt. W. Hawley. Had been 
previously partly destroyed. {1 was this the barrow opened by 
Mr. Dyke Poore 1849.) Three crouched skeletons almost touching 
each other, with skeleton of infant with uncut teeth just over 
two of them. Below these a rectangular cist 7ft. 3in. x 4ft 3in. 
X 5ft. deep, containing skeleton with pot at the feet and flint 
knife under the head (knife and pot at Stockton House). O.M. 
54 NE. ; not in A. W. ; W.A.M. xxxvi, 623 ; Soc. Ant. Map 143. 
If this was the barrow opened in 1849 a strong bronze dagger 
with rather flat blade, small knife dagger, 3 boars' tusks, 2 roe- 
bucks' horns, with cists and burnt bones were found in it. 
Blackmore Museum. Arch, xliii. 537 ; Arch. Journ. x. 248 ; 
W.A.M. iv. 249 ; xxxvii. 119 ; Evans' Bronze 242. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 255 

26. Barrow J mile S. of Alton Parva Farm, much ploughed down. 
Opened by Capt. W. Hawley (No. 16). Cist in centre 7ft. 6in. 
X 2ft. 6in. X 4ffc. 6in. deep, slightly crouched skeleton, 2 flint 
barbed arrowheads, small bronze knife dagger, grape cup, and 
urn. Brit. Museum. O.M. 54 NE. ; A. W. I. Station V. North 
shows another barrow to N. of this, not on O.M. ; W-A.M. xxxvi. 
625 figs. ; Soc. Ant. Map 237. 

27. Long barrow on Knighton Down £ mile W. of Knighton Barn. 
Stukeley Stonehenge p. 46 says a bronze celt 13in. long was found 
in this barrow. O.M. 54 NE. ; A. W. 1. 175 ; Soc. Ant. Map 234. 
See Appendix Long Barrows. 

28. Barrow i mile N. of Knighton Long Barrow, S. of Alton Barn, 
N. of Alton Furze. O.M. 54 NE. ; A. W. I. Station V. North 
shows 4 barrows near the Furze and Gorse ; Soc. Ant. Map 235. 

29. Barrow ■§ mile S.E. of last, J mile E. of Alton Furze, \ mile N.E. 
of Knighton Long Barrow. O.M. 54 NE. ; A.W. I. Station V. 
North; Soc. Ant. Map 236. [28 and 29 are low barrows not 
ploughed, 1913. M.E.C.] 

30. Barrow just S. of Robin Hood Ball and Netheravon boundary. 
O.M. 54 N.W. ; A. W. I. Station V. ; Soc. Ant. Map 230. 

[For barrow on Netheravon boundary in Robin Hood Ball plan- 
tation see Netheravon 8.] 

31. Long barrow just S. of the last, § mile S. of Robin Hood's Ball, 
\ mile E. of circular earthwork, opened by Thurnam. O.M. 54 
NW. ; A. W. I. 176; Arch. xlii. 180, 197 fig. ; Soc Ant. Map 231. 
See Appendix Long Barrows. 

32. Barrow on Netheravon boundary N.E. of Alton Gorse. O.M. 54 
NW. ; Soc. Ant. Map 232. [Oval barrow ditched all round, 
partly dug away at W. end, 1913. M.E.C.] 

33. Site of barrow just S. of the last. O.M. 54 NW. ; Soc. Ant. Map. 
233. [Barrow completely levelled but site still quite plain, 1913. 
M.E.C.] 

[Hoare opened " several barrows " N.W. of Knighton Long Barrow. 
In one was a whetstone with burnt bones, in another a small 
bronze tanged knife. A. W. I. 176 ; Arch, xliii. 450, PI. XXXII. 
5 ; Stourhead Cat. 29, 29a.] 

Earthworks. Double concentric circle | mile E. of Bustard, partly in 
Figheldean but chiefly in Shrewton, q.v. O.M. 54 NW. 
About f mile S. of Robin Hood Ball (1 in Figheldean or Durrington) 
square enclosure with bank and ditch going S. on theE. side and 
intersecting a disc barrow. Not in O.M. ; A.W. I. 176, Station 
V. North. 
Ditch runs S.W. from near Sidbury Hill to Dunch Hill Plantation 
where it enters Figheldean, goes on S.W. to Brigmerston Plantation, 
where it turns at right angles S.E. on to Brigmerston Down. O.M. 
48 SW. & 55 NW. 



256 List of Prehistoric , Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

A ditch at right angles to the last runs S.E. from Dunch Hill Planta- 
tion forming parish and county boundary of Figheldean and Milston. 
O.M. 48 SW. 
Roman. Small British village says Hoare at the square earthwork,, 
f-mile S. of Robin Hood Ball, see above. A. W. I. 176 Station V. 
North. Not in O.M. 

Apparently on Figheldean Down 2£ miles E. of Netheravon village, E. 
of Holmes Clump? A British village. A.W. I. 194 Station VI. 
Not in O.M. 
Saxon. Interment found 1913 in excavating for cellar of officers' mess 
at the new aviation barracks at Choulston opposite Netheravon. 
Skeleton at full length in grave 2ft. deep, head to W. Iron spear- 
head, bronze pin, iron strips and rivets of coffin or shield 1 Devizes 
Museum. 4 or 5 other similar interments found here later in 1913. 
No relics with them B, H. Cunnington. 

FISHERTON DELAMEEE. 

Roman. The line of the so-called Roman Road, a bank, forms S. boun- 
dary for about 1 mile. O.M. 58 SE. ; 59 SW. 



FISHERTON ANGER see SALISBURY. 

FITTLETON. 
Barrows. 

1. At the watercress beds S. of Haxton, close to the river, a group of 

3 barrows, of which 1 is in Fittleton and 2 in Figheldean. O.M. 
47 SE. ; A. W. I. Station VI. shows one only ; Soc. Ant. Map 113. 

2, 3. A barrrow, and site of another close together, just E. of track, 

4 mile W. of " Haxton O," \ mile S. of Beach's Barn. O.M. 48 
SW. ; A. W. I. Station VI. ; Soc. Ant. Map 74, 75. 

4. Barrow J mile S. W. of last. O.M. 48 S.W. ; A. W. I. Station VI. 
Soc. Ant. Map 73. 



On Haxton Down and Weather Hill about 1 mile N.W. of Sidbury 
Camp and f mile to 1 mile E. of Beach's Barn, O.M. 48 N W. 
and SW. marks 10 round barrows and one Long barrow. A. W. 
I. Station VI. shows 9 round barrows and two Long barrows. 
[5-14 are on O.M. 48 NW. ; 15 is on O.M 48 SW.J 

5. Long barrow lying N. and S. about f mile N.E. of Beach's Barn 
opened by W. Cunnington 1851, and by Thurman. O.M. 48 
NW. ; A. W. I. Station VI. ; Arch. xlii. 180 ; W.A.M. xxviii. 172 j 
Soc. Ant. Map. 80. See Appendix, Long Barrows. 

[5a.] A. W. I. Station VI. shows a second Long barrow a little way 
N. of (5). Not in O.M. 48 N.W. Does not now exist. 



By the Bev. E. H. Goddard. 257 

6 Barrow \ mile S. of Long barrow (5), nearly 1 mile E. of Beach's 

Barn. O.M. 48 NW. ; Soc. Ant. Map. 82. 
[6a.] Small barrow close on S.W. side of (6). Not in O.M. 48 NW. 

(1901), but shown in Soc. Ant. Map. (O-M. 1st Ed.) 81. 

7. Barrow just S. of (6). O.M. 48 NW. ; Soc. Ant. Map. 84. 

8. Small barrow close on W. side of (7). O.M. 48 NW. Soc. Ant. 

Map. 83. 

9. Barrow short distance S.W. of (8). O-M. 48 NW. ; Soc. Ant. 

Map. 76. 

10. Small i barrow just S.W r . of (9) f mile E. of Beach's Barn. O.M. 

48 NW. ; Soc. Ant. Map. 77. 

11. Small barrow just S.E. of (10). O.M. 48 NW. ; Soc. Ant. 

Map. 79. 
[11a.] Small barrow almost touching N side of (11) between (10) 
and (11). Not on O.M. 48 NW. (1901), but shown on Soc. Ant. 
Map. {O.M. 1st Ed.) 78. 

12. Disc barrow on Weather Hill touching W. side of track Marl- 

borough to Salisbury at 13 miles from Marlborough, a little 
distance S. of ditch, \ mile E. of (6) and (7). O.M. 48 NW. ; 
Soc. Ant. Map. 85. 

13. Barrow a little distance E. of (1 2) on N. side of track from E. 

to W. O.M. 48 NW. ; Soc. Ant. Map 87. 

14. Barrow about £ mile N. of (13) on S. side of ditch on Weather 

Hill. O.M. 48 NW. ; Soc. Ant. Map. 86. 

15. Disc barrow \ mile S.E. of (12), E. of track Marlborough to 

Salisbury, N. of track E. to W. O.M. 48 SW. ; Soc. Ant. 
Map. 88. 
The following barrows apparently belong to this group (6 — 15) 

but cannot be assigned exactly to their proper numbers. 
Large round barrow under cultivation on Haxton Down, opened 
by W. Cunnington 1894. Quantity of wood ashes on floor, flint 
scrapers and flakes scattered through mound. No interment 
found, but evidence of one by cremation. W.A.M. xxviii. 172. 
Another round barrow under cultivation \ mile E. of Coombe, 
opened by W. Cunnington 1894. Had been opened before. 
Parts of skeleton and fragment of urn. W.A.M. xxviii. 172. 
Low flat barrow \ mile E. of Beach's Barn, opened by Capt. W. 
Hawley. Skeleton at full length with two bronze coins of 
Constantine Junr., a Komano-British interment which had 
disturbed the original ; bones and Bronze Age pottery being- 
scattered through the mound. W.A.M. xxxvi. 626. 
Earthworks. A straight double ditch and bank or causeway runs N.W. 
from Sidbury Uamp following parish boundary of Fittleton and the 
two Collingbournes for a mile. O.M. 48 NW. On E. side of this, two 
parallel ditches running E. and W. enclosing between them the Snail 
Down group of barrows in the two Collingbournes, the northern 
ditch ending at the straight " causeway," the southern crossing it 



258 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

and continuing on W. \ mile into Fittleton to Weather Hill. A.W. 
I. 180 Plan and Station VI. however show only the northern of 
these two ditches on the East of the boundary but both of them on 
the W. side running into Fittleton joining S. of Long barrow (5) and 
running on towards Beach's Barn. 
Near Beach's Barn bank and ditch in the cultivated ground along side 
of hill. Remains of imperfect earthwork, and another square work 
perfect, with entrance to N., near which the bank and ditch alter 
their course. This apparently is (as shown on Station VI.) the 
continuation of the ditch mentioned above. A.W. I. 193, 194 ; 
Station VI. Not in O.M. 
Roman. In field 200 yards S. of Beach's Barn, adjoining old Salisbury — 
Devizes Rd., angular banks, &c, extending over several acres. W. 
Cunnington, 1894, dug and found abundant evidence of Romano- 
British occupation. Pottery including Samian, stone roofing tiles, 
brick tiles, nails, oyster and mussel shells, animal bones, &c. ; at one 
point pavement of oolitic tiles. W.A.M. xxviii. 172. 



FONTHILL BISHOP. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow in High Park Wood, lj miles N. of Church, between High 

Park Cottage and The Ranch. O.M. 58 SE. ; A.W.I. Station 
IV. [Low round barrow much spread by rabbits and planting, 
1913. M.E.C.] 

2. Barrow on Fonthill Down | mile S.W. of last. O.M. 58 SE. ; 

A. W. I. Station IV. 

3. Barrow in Fonthill Bushes | mile E. of last, just N. of Rd., S. W. of 

Woodbine Cottages. O.M. 58 SE. ; A. W. I. Station IV. (?) 
Finds, Neolithic. Long flint strike-a-light. C. V. Goddard. 
Roman. Fonthill Down or High Park Hill 1 mile N. of Church, exten- 
sive British Village with banks and enclosures covering large space. 
Pottery found. O.M. 58 SE., 64 NE. ; A. W. I. 105 Station IV. 
" Roman Road," so-called, forms N. boundary of parish for lj miles in 
High Park and Fonthill Bushes Woods. O.M. 58 SE. 



FOSBUBY, sec TIDCOMBE AND FOSBUKY. 
FOVANT. 

Earthworks. Chiselbury Camp in S.E. corner of parish 1J miles S.W. 
of Compton Chamberlaine village, on the ridge. Roughly circular, 
single vallum and ditch, with entrance and outwork towards S.E. 
Area 10^ acres, circuit 3 furlongs 154 yds. Height of vallum lift. 
No signs of habitation found inside camp (Hoare). Area of camp 
under plough, bastion on S.E. partly ploughed down (1913). A ditch 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 259 

between 2 banks leaves N. side of camp and runs to edge of escarp- 
ment. A ditch only, leaves bastion on S.E. and runs to Shaftesbury 
— Salisbury Rd. on S. side of which it re-appears as ditch between 
2 banks and runs to head of the combe. O.M. 65 SW., 70 NW. ; 
A. W. I. 217 Plan, 249, Stations VIII. and IX. ; Ancient Earthworks 
of Cranford Chase, p. 25, Plan 9. 
Finds, Neolithic. Polished celt of basalt (or other blue igneous stone) 
1912, many good arrowheads, barbed and leaf -shaped, scrapers, 
knives, &c. All the above in possession of Rev. G. H. Engleheart, 
of Dinton, 1913. 

FOXLEY. 

Roman. Fosseway forms N.W. boundary of parish. O.M. 8 SW. ; 13 

NW. 

FBOXFIELD. 

Roman. Rudge Farm, Villa and Pavement 17ft. + 15ft. with figure on 
it, found 1725. Inscribed and enamelled bronze cup now at Alnwick 
Castle, a votive cup recording the road traversed by the donor, 
found in well with several skeletons, animal bones, and coins. A. W. 
II. 121 fig. ; W.A.M. i. 118 fig. ; xxv. 204 ; xxxii. 263 ; Proc. Soc, 
Ant. xv. 87 ; Trans. Cumb. and West Ant. Soc. 1901 p. 70. 

PYFIELD. 
Barrows. 

1. Fyfield Down, S.E. of Wroughton Copse, and S. of British settle- 
ment. Opened, no record. O.M. 28 NE.f; Smith, p. 203, XV. 
K. V. b. [Another " Fyfield Down " in Milton Lilborne, q. v.]. 
[la.] In N. corner of parish, at Old Totterdown, just S. of track and 
parish boundary, a small flat barrow, not opened. Not in O.M. 28 
NE. ; Smith p. 135, X. I. IV. d. 
Earthworks. Wansdyke crosses parish in West Woods, a sharp corner at 

Daffy Copse where it forms boundary of parish. O.M. 35 NE. 
Roman. Extensive British settlement on Fyfield Down N. & W. of 
Wroughton Copse and S. of Totterdown Wood. O.M. 28 NE. 
A rude Roman pavement found on property of Mr. Tanner close to 

turnpike at Fyfield. A. W. Roman JSra p. 88 ; Smith p. 170. 
Coins found on Overton Hill. Stukeley Abury p. 27 ; J. W. Brooke, 
1891, W.A.M. xxvi. 413, 414. 

GKAFTON, EAST. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow about 1 mile S.E. of Church. O.M. 42 NE. 

2. Barrow just N.W. of Manor House at Marten. O.M. 43 NW. ; not 

in A. W. II. Station X. 



260 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

3. Disc barrow close to boundary of Shalborne and edge of G. Botley 

Copse. Small mound surrounded by filled-in ditch, another 
ditch with bank outside it. In the mound a skeleton with 
Saxon spearhead and bronze buckle at top, under this parts of 
another skeleton, and below this in cist in chalk burnt bones 
with small bronze awl, a bronze rivet near it. Opened by H. J. 
E. Peake and O. G. S. Crawford, 1910. Newbury Museum. 
O.M. 43 NW. ; A. W. I. Station VI. 

4. Bowl-shaped barrow beside track and close to parish boundary N. 

of the last and the copse, opened H. J. E. Peake and O. G. S. 
Crawford, 1910. In oval cist in chalk a large urn inverted over 
burnt bones ; another broken urn, and a rough pot at E. side of 
barrow. Secondary interment, a skeleton, probably Saxon. 
Newbury Museum. OM. 43 NW. ; A. W. I. Station VI. shows 
another barrow W. of 3 but not this one. 

5. Long barrow on Wexcombe Down f mile S. of Grafton village, 

N.E. of Jubilee plantation. Not opened. See Appendix, Long 
Barrows. 
[Near this Long barrow a group of 7 round barrows (6 — 7a) of 
which O.M. 43 NW. shows only two. O. G. S. Crawford, 1913. 
A.W- I. Station VI. shows 5 barrows apparently on Wexcombe 
Down.] 

6. High barrow N. of long barrow, opened, no record. O-M. 43 NW. 
[6a.] Low flat barrow close to last on N side, unopened. Not on O.M. 
[6b, 6c] Two small barrows close together just to N. of the last, 

unopened. Not on O.M. 

7. Barrow W. of long barrow and N.W. of Jubilee Plantation. O.M. 

43 NW. 
[7a.] Oval mound 45ft. X 25ft. 1 mile N.E. of Long barrow just on 
boundary of Tidcombe. Not on O.M. 



[Group of 4 barrows [8 — 11] \ mile W. of Scots Poor Wood. O.M. 
43 SW. ; A. W. I. Station VI. 

8. Barrow with ditch, opened, no record. 

9. Disc barrow partially destroyed. O. G. S. Crawford 1913. 

10, 11. Two disc barrows intersecting each other, both opened, no 

record. 
[11a.] Barrow \ mile N.E. of Marten, ^ mile S.E. of 6th milestone 
on Hungerford— Salisbury Ed. S. of North Hill. O. G. S. 
Crawford ; not on O.M. 37 S W. 
Earthworks. Vallum and ditch run along hillside touching ditch of disc 
barrow [3]. Pre-Roman and Roman pottery, coins of Valens, and 
fragment of brooch found in ditch. O. G. S. Crawford. O.M. 43 
NW. ; A. W. I. Station VI. 
Finds, Bronze Age. At Wilton in Batt's Meadow, in an ancient ditch, 
a cinerary urn containing a round-bottomed incense cup with burnt 
bones, 1902. A. D. Passmore. O.M. 36 SE. ; W.A.M. xxxiv. 308^s. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 261 

Soman. Roman Rd, Cunetio to Winchester, coming out of Savernake 
Forest, forms boundary between Grafton and Bedwyn from Crofton 
to Wilton then runs by existing road to Nag's Head, where it is lost 
for \ mile, joins existing road again at Marten and runs into Tidcombe. 
O.M. 37 SW. ; 43 NW. ; A. W. II. 70 plan. 
Bricks and pottery found in Batt's Meadow at Wilton. No details. 
W.A.M. xxxiv. 309. 
Saxon. Secondary interments in barrows, see Barrows 3 and 4, above. 

GKITTLETON, 

Koman. Fosse way forms parish boundary on W. O.M. 12 SE. 

In " North Field " lead coffin containing Roman coins found 1852. 

Jackson's Aubrey 128. 
Oak coffin (? Roman) found cir. 1856 near Fosseway. Part of it in 
Devizes Museum. Cat. II. 275 ; W.A.M. xxvi. 105. 

GKOVELY WOOD. 

Earthworks. Ditch branching out from " Roman Rd." to S.E. runs 1 
mile through wood into Wilton and over Grovely Hill. O.M. 65 
NE. 
Grovely Castle, see Langford, Little. 
Grovely Works, see Wishford. 

Finds, Neolithic. Several ground flint celts, whole and broken, a 
roughly-chipped flint celt, flint scrapers, flakes, cores, &c, a quartzite 
pebble hammer partly perforated, and a polished celt of limestone ? 
Rev. C. V. Goddard coll. A fine ground flint celt. Blackmore 
Museum. 

Soman. The track of the " Roman Rd." running out of Baverstock parish 
straight to Grovely Lodge, lost there for a space, is continued in 
more or less direct line along middle of Grovely Wood till it enters 
Wishford. O.M. 65 NE. ; A. W. II. Roman jEra 38, plan. 
Roman coins, see Langford, Little. 

HAM. 
Barrows. 

1, Barrow on county boundary on Inkpen Hill above Rivar Copse, 
[4 others on the hill are in Berks] opened by O. G. S. Crawford 
and H. J. E. Peake cir. 1908 ; 2 burnt interments, bones of sheep 
or goats, flint scraper on surface. Newbury Museum. O.M. 
37 SE. 
[la.] Barrow a little S. of Rd. going W. from Buttermere, about \ 
mile W. of Church, on open down. In Ham or Buttermere ? 
O. G. S. Crawford, 1913 ; not in O.M. 37 SE. 
Earthwork. Ditch running N. and S. on Ham Hill f mile S. of Ham 
and i mile W. of Buttermere. O.M. 37 SE. 



262 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

HANNINGTON. 

Roman. Hannington Wick lj miles N. of Hannington in " Old Ploughed 
Ground " on rt. hand side of Nellands Lane, site of Roman house un- 
covered by E. H. Goddard 1890. Plain red and white tessellated 
floors, fragments of Samian and other pottery, painted plaster, <fec. 
Devizes Museum. Cat. II. 473—478 ; O.M. 6 SW. ; W.A.M. xxv. 
232, 364. 

HAKNHAM, EAST. 
Barrows. 

[la]. "In the second field within the angle formed by the Odstock 
and Longford Roads on rising ground looking on the Avon " a 
tumulus, "Rowbarrow" 128ft. in diam. Opened by J. Y. 
Akerman, Sept. 13th, 1854. No interment found, only animals' 
bones and charcoal, probably opened before. Arch, xxxvi. 181. 
Not in A. W. or O.M. [? in the corner of E. Harnham, or Brit- 
ford]. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze Palstave, 1846. Evans' Coll. Evans 

Bronze 83 ; W.A.M. xxxvii. 132. 
Saxon. Cemetery W. of Church, N. of Harnham Hill, in the " Low Field," 
excavated by J. Y. Akerman 1852. 62 graves found. Arch. xxxv. 
259, 475 ; W.AM. i. 196; O.M. 66 SE. 

HAKNHAM, WEST. 

Finds, Neolithic. Flint celt. " Salisbury Race Plain." Blackmore 

Museum. 
Roman. Line of Roman Rd. to Old Sarum forms W. boundary of parish 

from Race Course to Bemerton. O.M. 66 SW. ; A.W. II. Roman 

Mra 25 -plan. 

HEDDINGTON. 

Barrows. King's Play Hill S.E. of village on highest point of down. 

[3 barrows [1—3] shown by O.M. 34 NW. ; A.W. II. Stations XI., 
XII. ; and Smith p. 62 IV. A. VII. a, b, c] 

1. (a) Bowl-shaped barrow on extreme point of down, no ditch, 

opened, no record. O.M. 34 NW. 
[la.] A very low barrow 25 yds. S.W. of (a), not on O.M. or Smith's 

Map ; opened by B. H. Cunnington 1907. In a deep grave a 

skeleton at full length on its back with iron nails round it — 

Saxon probably. W.A.M. xxxvi. 313. 
[lb] A low, circular mound, 175 yds. S. of (a), not on O.M. or Smith's 

Map, opened by B. H. Cunnington 1907 (No. III.) no signs of 

interment found. W.A.M. xxxvi. 314. 

2. (b) Small low bowl-shaped barrow, with ditch, not opened. O.M. 

34 NW. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 263 

3. (c) Small Long Barrow, with shallow ditches at the sides not 

continued round the ends, opened B. H. Cunnington, 1907. 

O.M. 34 NW. W.A.M. xxxvi. 311. See Appendix, Long Barrows. 

[3a.] Hoare in Plan of Wansdyke and Roman Boad shows a barrow 

close to the " Old Bear Inn," apparently in the corner of 

Heddington at the Bear Farm near Wans, (not shown on O.M. 

xxvi. SE.) ; A. W. II. 73, plan. 

Roman. Roman Road and Wansdyke conjoined forms whole N. boundary 

of parish. O.M. 26 SE. ; 27 S.W. ; A. W. II. 73 plan. 

Heddington Wick, Stukeley believed to be Verlucio. " In Week 

field . . . for a mile together, foundations, walls, coins, coals," 

"A gallon of coins taken up at a time." " Infinite quantities of 

antiquities found here." Iter. vi. 143. " Foundations of houses, 

hearthes, coles, and a great deal of Romane coine silver and brasse, 

whereof I had a pint." " Earthen pot of the shape of a Prentice's 

money box with a slit in it, containing about a quart near full of 

money " 1653. Jackson's Aubrey, 5, 45. Roman cinerary urn, 1863, 

W.A.M. ix. 27 ; xv. 138. Small vase. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 233. 

Roman lead coffin. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 233a. 1855. Arch. Journ. 

xii. 283 ; Devizes Gazette, Ap. 1855 ; W.A.M. ii. 323 ; v. 128 ; vi. 138. 

Saxon see Barrow [la] above. 

HEYTESBUEY. 
Barrows. 

1 . Bowles' Barrow.Long barrow. Opened 1801 and 1885. O.M. 52 NE. ; 

A.W. I. 88, Station III.; W.A.M. xxiii. 118 ; xxiv. 115. See 
Appendix, Long Barrows. 

2. Barrow \ mile E. of Bowles' Barrow. O.M. 52 NE. ; A. W. I. 

Station III. 

3. Barrow close on Edington boundary just S. of track to Imber, 

opened by Hoare. Skeleton found. O.M. 45 SE. ; A. W. I. 88, 
Station III. 
[The two neighbouring barrows are in Edington.] 

4. Heytesbury N. Field, Long barrow, 1| mile N. of village, opened 

1800 and later. O.M. 52 SW. ; A. W. I. 71, Station II. See 

Appendix, Long Barrows. 
[4a.] Heytesbury S. Field, barrow " nearly levelled by the plough," 

contained skeleton with bronze knife dagger. A. W. I. 98 ; not 

in O.M. 
[4b.] At upper end of Heytesbury Field near top of hill, a flat barrow 

ploughed down, opened by W. Cunnington 1800. Fragments of 

British pottery and 10 Roman coins. A.W. I. 87; W.A.M. 

xxxiv. 272 ; not in O.M. 
[4c, d.] On Conegar Hill, to W. of Knook Long Barrow, two small 

barrows opened by Hoare. In one was a crouched skeleton with 

a bone pin ; in the other, only 5ft. in diam., a cist 2ft. deep 

containing burnt bones and a long bronze pin (or awl 1). A. W. 

I. 82. Not shown in Station III. or O.M. 



264 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

[The mound attached to the earthwork in the Elder Valley adjoining 
this, proved not to be sepulchral. A.W. I. 82.] 

[4e.] Near Knook boundary, S. of Imber Firs, a low barrow opened 
by Hoare. Skeleton with head to N. at depth of 5ft. Drinking 
cup of red pottery at its feet. A. W. I. 86, Station III. ; not on 
O.M. 

[4f.] Tytherington. Low barrow on N. side of British village S. of 
Tytherington Hill, opened by Hoare. Crouched skeleton with 
2 rude flint arrowheads near head and drinking cup at feet. 
A. W. I. 104, Station IV. Not in O.M. 58 N W. 

5. Barrow 1 mile S.E. of British village on Tytherington Hill, on 

Boyton boundary. [Another close to it is in Boyton.] O.M. 58 
NW. ; A. W. I. Station IV. 

6. Barrow near S. end of parish, S. of Redding Hanging. O.M. 58 

SW. ; not in A. W. 
[6a.] Barrow inside an earthwork between Heytesbury House and 
Knook Barrow. A. W. I. 81 ; not in O.M. 
Earthworks. Old ditch runs N.W. to S.E. towards Knook Barrow. O.M. 
52 NE. ; A.W. I. Station III. 
Between Heytesbury House and Knook Barrow Hoare notes " a slight 
earthen work of an irregular shape with the vallum without " much 
ploughed down, a barrow inside it (6a). A. W. I. 81 ; not in Station 
III. or O.M. 
In Elder Valley (? in Heytesbury) N.W. of Knook Castle and Old 
Ditch and between that and Bowles' Barrow, an irregular pear-shaped 
vallum outside the ditch, and on one side of it a V-shaped vallum 
some distance away. A long mound, proved not to be sepulchral, 
touches this last. A. W. I. 82, plan p. 78, Station III. ; not in O.M. 
Roman. British village S. of Tytherington Hill on Sutton Veny boundary. 
Pottery, iron nails, T-shaped hypocaust, &c. O.M. 58 NW. ; A.W. 
I. 103, 104, Station IV. 
Roman coins in barrow, Constantine, Valentinian, and Arcadius, see 
Barrow 4b above. 

HEYWOOD. 

"Earthworks. Rectangular Moat, medieval 1 % mile N.E. of Storridge 
Farm. O.M. 44 NE. 

Finds, Neolithic. A ground celt of diorite 1 found with Roman objects 
at the iron works at Westbury. Devizes Museum. Cat. II. 721. 

Finds, Late Celtic. Much of the pottery in the Westbury collection at 
Devizes is of Late Celtic character. Cat. II. 600 — 723. 

Soman. The Romano-British settlement at Westbury is in the S. corner 
of Heywood parish, near Ham cottages just N.E. of Westbury Station, 
the Chippenham line runs through it. O.M. 44 NE. A large 
collection from the iron workings in Devizes Museum. Cat. II. 600 
—723. C19 — C21b, Q13— Q30. Bronze brooches, nail cleaner, rings, 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 265 

patellas, jug, lead piping, iron spade sheath, butcher's knife, keys, 
bone implements, amber bead, palette, iron weights, querns, leather 
shoe sole, cinerary urn, hypocaust tiles, Samian pottery with potters 
names, imported Belgic wares, coins Trajan to Magnentius. Stone 
foundations of large building and tessellated pavement found 
between Ham and Heywood House. A. W. I. 53 Station II. Well 
opened 1879 by H. Cunnington. W '.A.M. xxxvi. 464. List of potters' 
names, W.A.M. xxxvi. 467. 
Lead coffin found at Apsley Farm, 1910. Devizes Museum. W.A.M. 
xxxvi. 508. 



HIGHWAY. 

Roman. Coins found 1863. No details. W A.M. ix. 27. 

HIGHWORTH. 

Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze socketed chisel and palstave 1899 ; socketed 
looped celt 1905, A. D. Passmore colln. W.A.M. xxxiv. ZlQJigs. ; 
xxxvii. 132, 136, 139. 

HILL DEVERILL. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow in S. point of parish W. of Pertwood Wood. O.M. 58 
SW. ; A. W. I. Station IV. 
Roman. Extensive British settlement just W. & S.W. of Church. 
Pottery and brick flues found by Hoare in two fields immediately 
behind Church. O.M. 57 NE. ; A.W. I. 49 Station I.; W.A.M. 
xxxiv. 272. 
Between Hill Deverill and Brixton Deverill (? in which parish) much 
pottery, &c, found. A. W. I. 97. 

HILMARTOK 
Barrow. 

1. Cleveancy, just below and N. of farm, E. of road below the hill 
" Townsends Knoll" a large barrow? No record of opening. 
O.M. 21 SE. ; Smith p. 76 V.D. I. d. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Goatacre. Fragment of a Drinking Cup " found 

6ft. below the surface." Devizes Museum Cat. II. x89. 
Roman. Coins from Hilmarton and Goatacre 1863. No details. W.A.M. 
ix. 27. 
Corton Farm, in field just N. of rickyard, in drain cut from ironstone 
quarry 1880, a dwelling pit apparently partly lined with rag stones. 
Roman Brit, pottery, one fragment of Samian, &c, bones of horse, 
ox, deer. W.A.M. xxvii. 178. 

VOL. XXXVIII. — NO. CXX. T 



266 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

HINTON PARVA. 

Barrows. On " Shelbarrow Hill " Hoare A. W. II. 46 notes that old maps 
of Wilts show several barrows here, really natural mounds. 
1 [la]. On Hinton Down N. of Ermine Street. A. W. II. Stations 
XL, XII. shows 2 barrows some distance apart. O.M. 16 SE. 
shows only one, opened by Canon Greenwell. Arch, lii., 57, 58. 
(No. cclxxxvii) ; lxi. 125. 68ft. diam. X 8|ft. high. Saxon 
interment near surface. In centre a cist 3ft. 4in. long X 2ft. 
wide X 1ft. deep with burnt bones and a bronze dagger (W.A. M. 
xxxvii. 121) which had had a wooden sheath. Much charcoal 
all round the edge of the cist on original surface. The barrow 
has since been almost destroyed, a large shale bead found in it. 
A. D. Passmore coll. 

The Ridgeway crosses the parish S.W. to N.E. O.M. xvi. SE. ; A.W. 
II. 46. 

HOLT. 

Finds, Neolithic. Worked flints, a scraper, and many flakes occur in 
oolitic gravel dug near the station. Of doubtful age, no regular 
Palaeolithic implements, and all flints of small size. C. V. Goddard 
1906 ; W. G. Collins, 1911, W.A.M. xxxvii. 197. 

HOMINGTON. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow on boundary of Combe Bissett f- mile S.W. of Homington 
village. O.M. 71 NW. ; not shown in A.W. I. Station VII. 
In a barrow ? at Homington was found a skeleton " about 13 or 14 
inches below the surface," with an " urn " and a flat plain bronze 
knife dagger with five rivets, in the British Museum. Proc. Soc. 
Ant. iv. 329 ; Horoe Ferales, 158, PI. vii. 21 ; Arch, xliii. PI. xxxiii.; 
lxi. 119, fig. 65; Evans' Bronze 237, fig. 295; W. A.M. xxxvii. 
98, 118. 
[The barrows shown in A. W. I. Station VII. on Homington Down 
were apparently in Odstock.] 
Earthworks. Grims Ditch touches extreme S. corner of parish. O.M. 

71 SW. 
Finds, Neolithic. Ground flint wedge-shaped celt 1872. Blackmore 
Museum. 

HORNINGSHAM. 
Barrows. 

[1.] Barrow on N. side of Maiden Bradley — Longbridge Deverill 
Road, opposite track to Bidcombe Hill, opened by Hoare. 
Interment of burnt bones. A.W.I. 50 Station II. Not on O.M. 
57 NW. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 267 

Earthworks. Woodhouse Castle, moats and ditches, medieval 1 O.M. 

51 SW. 
Roman. At Baycliff Farm, near Maiden Bradley boundary on south side 

of Maiden Bradley — Longbridge Deverill Koad, " evident signs of 

British village " (Hoare). A. W. I. 50 Station I. 



HUISH. 
Barrows. 

[la.] Barrow on edge of Huish Hill a little S.E. of rectangular earth- 
work. A. W. II. Station X. ; not on O.M. 35 NE. 
Earthworks. On crest of Huish Hill, | mile N. of Oare, extensive earth- 
works, enclosures, &c, marking large British settlement, chiefly in 
Wilcot parish. O.M. 35 NE. ; A. W. II. 10, 11, plan, 
i mile N of Huish village, near Gopher Wood, on crest of hill, another 
British settlement with strong rampart with ditch, lost in the wood. 
Anotherditch with rampart on N.W. issues from wood and is lost in 
the vale. O.M. 35 NE. ; A. W. II. 11, plan. 
i mile E. of above, a small rectangular enclosure on top of hill. O.M. 

35 NE. 
Hoare records oblong and rectangular earthworks just N. of Church, 
below the hill. Roman things found in them. A.W. II. 11, Station 
X. ; not in O.M. 35 NE. 
Finds, Neolithic. Fabricator. J. W. Brooke. 
Roman, see Earthworks, above. 

HULLAVINGTOK 
Roman. Fosseway forms N.W. boundary of parish. O.M. 12 NE. 

IDMISTON. 
Barrows. 

1 — 8. On Idmiston Down If mile S.E. of Church, a group of 8 barrows, 
4 inside plantation (1 — 4), and 4 close together just E. of it (5 — 
8). 2 bell-shaped, 4 bowl-shaped, and 2 Druid (disc-shaped) 
says Hoare. 4 of these opened by W. Cunnington 1807. In one 
of the bell-shaped an interment of burnt bones only, in the other 
interment was not found. A. W. I. 216 note. One bowl-shaped 
opened, no interment found, the other 3 not opened. One of the 
disc barrows, in plantation (1 or 3), 194ft. diam., contained 2 
mounds. In one 3 urns within a few inches of each other just 
under turf inverted over burnt bones in each case, and below the 
urns a shallow cist with heap of burnt bones. In the other 
mound burnt bones, with small plain incense cup, many amber 
beads, and bronze awl. O.M. 61 SW. ; A. W. I. 216, 217, notes ; 
Stourhead Cat. 258, 294 figs. 



268 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

9. Barrow § mile S.E. of last group. O.M. 61 SW. 
[9a, b.] A. W. I. Station V. South marks 3 barrows W. of ditch, where 
only 9 is shown on O.M. 



lO, 11. Two barrows near together ^ mile N.W. of 1 — 4. 



[11a, c] A. W. I. Station V. South, on Idmiston Down, where O.M. 
61 SW. marks 10 barrows (1—8 and 10, 11), shows 13. 
[The 3 barrows close together to N of the Idmiston Down group 
in A. W. I. Station V. South, not shown on O.M. 61 SW., were 
probably in Boscombe parish.] 



[lid, e.] Two barrows one on each side of the Roman Rd. in the 
lower Ground i mile E. of Idmiston Church. A. W. I. Station 
V. South ; not in O.M. 61 SW. 



12—15. On Porton Down, 1 mile E. of Porton Station at Porton 
Down Farm just N. of track, group of 4 barrows together. O.M. 
61 SW. 

[15a — d.] A. W. I. Station V. South shows 4 others at this point, not 
in O.M. 61 SW. 



16 — 21. On Porton Down, a mile further S.E. a scattered group of 6 
barrows. O.M. 61 SW. 16, 17 are N. of the track, 18—20 
just to S.W., and 21 near Winterslow Firs to the S.E. 



22. Large barrow close on Winterslow boundary about \ mile E. of 

20. O.M. 61 SE. ; A. W. I. Station V. South. 

23. Large barrow close on Winterslow boundary, a little distance E. 

of last. OM. 61 SE. ; A.W.I. Station V. South. 
[23 a, b.] A.W. I. Station V. South shows 2 small barrows just on 
S.E. side of 23. Not in O.M. 61 SE, 



24. Barrow | mile N.W. of Gomeldon. O.M. 60 SE. ; A. W. I. Station 

V. South. 

25. Barrow S. of Porton Firs If miles S.E. of Amesbury Workhouse 

O.M. 60 NE. ; A. W. I. Station V. South. 
[Barrow on Amesbury boundary N.E. of Porton Firs= Amesbury 
85.] 



[25 a— e.] On E. side of railway line about | mile N.E. from Winter- 
bourne Gunner Church and near the " Horse Barrow " ( Winter- 
bourne Gunner 1.) E. A. Rawlence opened 1897 & 1901 5 
ploughed-down barrows [25 a — e] not shown on O.M. 61 SW. 
or A. W. I. Station V. South. W.A.M. xxxiii. 411—414. 



By the Bev. E. H. Goddard. 269 

(1) Nearest Horse Barrow. Layers of ashes and a few animals' 
bones, no interment. 

(2) In line with (I). Crouched skeleton in grave. 

(3) Further N. Cist in chalk with burnt bones covered by large 
flints, and fragments of urn. 

(4) Grave with skeleton, a heap of burnt bones between its elbows 
and knees. 

(5) Skeleton of young woman just under surface, under this 
skeleton of child of 6 or 7, with one bead. Considerable quantity 
of burnt bones in heaps near both skeletons, with fine cin. urn 
14in.high. Salisbury Museum. W.A.M. xxxiii. 413 fig. Human 
remains in Edinburgh Anatomical Museum. 



From a barrow at Idmiston, 1873, bronze knife dagger with 6 rivets. 
Blackmore Museum. Evans' Bronze 237, fig. 296. 

Earthworks. Hoare, A.W. I. 216, 217, Station V. South, shows' ditch 
beginning to N. of Roman Road in Boscombe, running S.E. over 
Idmiston Down, just W. of the Barrows 1 — 11 to near Winterslow 
Hut where with other ditches it forms a large oblong. O.M. 61 
S.W. and S.E. show it near the barrows for f mile, but not N. 
of this. 

Finds, Neolithic. Near the " Horse Barrow " on boundary of Winter" 
bourne Gunner, close to W. side ; of L. & S. W. R., E. A. Rawlence 
excavated 1897 a singular circular trench filled with flints, about 
150ft. diam., and 3ft. wide, enclosing in centre a grave with crouched 
skeleton and one worked flint. A second similar circle lies partly 
under railway embankment. Neolithic or Bronze Age 1 W.A.M. 
xxxiii. 410. 
Oblong axe of dark green stone with shallow depression in middle of 
each side, from ploughed land near Porton. C. V. Goddard Coll. 

Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze looped palstave. Gomeldon. Blackmore 
Museum. 

Roman. Line of the Portway, Old Sarum to Silchester, enters parish at 
Gomeldon, crosses Bourne, and runs N.E. through the parish parallel 
with and just on W. side of L. &, S. W. R. O.M. 61 SW. ; A. W. I. 
Station V. South ; II. Roman Mra 46 'plan. 

IMBER. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow close to British village 1 mile N.W. of Imber, \ mile E. of 

Wadman's Coppice. O.M. 45 SE. ; A.W. I. Station III. 

2, 3. Two barrows on Rough Down, 300 yds. apart, \ mile N.E. of 

Imber. O.M. 45 SE. ; A. W. I. Station III. 
4. Barrow in extreme corner of parish just W. of Bath to Salisbury 
Old Rd. at 15j miles from Salisbury. Low round barrow with 
ditch and vallum outside ditch. Two entrances E. and W. 
O.M. 46 SW. ; A. W. I. 88, Station III. 



270 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

[4a]. A long or oval barrow on down just S. of Imber village. A. W. 
I. Station III. Not on O.M. Does not now exist. M.E. 
Cunnington, 1913. 
Earthworks. Large oblong enclosure in British village 1 mile N.W. of 
Imber Church, E. of Wadman's Coppice. O.M. 45 SE. 
Ditch runs N.W. to S.E. for \ mile from corner of W. Lavington 
parish. O.M. 45 SE. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Hoare found interment of skeleton with drinking 
cup without any barrow, within the " British Village " at Wadman's 
Coppice. O.M. 45 SE. ; A. W. I. 87 ; W.A.M. xxi. 259 fig. 
Roman. "British Village" 1 mile N.W. of Imber, E. of Wadman's 
Coppice. Pottery, animals' bones, fragments of Bath stone found by 
Hoare. O.M. 45 SE. ; A. W. I. 86. 
British village shown on A.W. I. 89 Station III. W. of Salisbury R., 
S.W. of Penning Barn (in Lavington), apparently near East Farm 
Cottages. Not in O.M. 46 SW. 



KEEVIL. 

Finds, Neolithic. Ground flint celt, found near foundations of old 
Church in " Couple Church Field " 1913. In possession of Rev. E. 
P. Knubley, of Steeple Ashton. 

Roman. In field W. of village, Roman coins and pottery of various ages 
(some Norman), &c. W.A.M. xxxiii. 430. 



KENNETT, EAST. 
Barrows. 

1. Long barrow f mile S. of Church. O.M. 35 NW. ; Smith, p. 179, 
XI [. H. VIII. a.; Stukeley Abury 46. See Appendix Long 
Barrows. 

[la— c]. Close on the N. or E. side of the Long barrow, A. W. II. Station 
X shows 2 round barrows close together, with one on the S. or 
W. side. Smith p. 180 XII. H. VII. b, c, shows one on each side 
only. 

(b) Wide low barrow much ploughed down on N. of Long barrow. 
Opened? Not in O.M. 35 NW. 

(c) Wide low barrow, much ploughed down on S. of Long barrow. 
Not in O.M. 35 NW. Opened dr. 1854. A grave 5ft. deep by 
5ft. long, with skeleton, drinking cup, bronze knife dagger, and 
perforated stone axe hammer, vaulted over with sarsens. " In a 
small adjacent barrow (1 b) bones of deer, wild boar, and birds 
in very large quantities." Arch. Journ. xxiv. 29 ; Proc. Arch. 
Inst. Salisbury, 110, figs. 12 — 14; Evans' Bronze, 226; Evans' 
Stone 173 ; Proc. Soc. Ant. 2nd Ser. IV. 339 ; Arch, xliii. 452 PI. 
XXXIII. 2. [Little or no sign of these 2 barrows now, 1913. 
M.E.C.] 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 271 

2, 3. T wo barrows close together J mile S. of Long barrow (1), close to 
Stanton boundary on Thorn Hill. O.M. 35 NW. ; A. W. II. 
Station X ; not in Smith. 



[On Lerkeley Hill a remarkable pit 5ft. 6in. X 4ft. 4in. x 12ft. 4in. 

deep, cut in the chalk with sides lined with clay, filled with a 

wall of large sarsens with a very large stone on top. Opened 1882> 

nothing found. Smith p. 180, XII. H. VII. e.] 

rhe Ridgeway runs through the parish from the S. corner northwards 

passing the village on E. side. O.M. 35 NW. 

KENNETT, WEST, see AVEBUEY. 

KILMINGTOK 
Barrows. 

1. " Jack's Castle," or " Selwood Barrow," a little N. of Alfred's Tower, 
close on parish and county boundary. Burnt bones in cist, 
perforated stone hammer axe of syenite and bronze knife dagger 
in wooden sheath. O.M. 56 SE. ; A. W. I. 39 PI. I. Station I. ; 
Arch. lxi. 112 ; Stourhead Cat. 283, 284 figs. ; Evans' Stone, 189, 
fig. 140 ; Evans' Bronze 226. 



Whitesheet Hill. O.M. 57 SW. shows 3 barrows (2—4) N.W. of 
camp and ditch, and 1 (5) N.E. of camp, all S. of Rd. A. W. I. 
42, 43, Station I. shows 4 opened in 1807. 

2. Barrow now most westerly, on edge of hill and quarry, apparently 

Hoare's No. 2. Burnt bones only. O.M. 57 SW. 
[2a.] Hoare's No. 1, just W. of (2), not on O.M. 57 SW., apparently 
quarried away. Primary interment of burnt bones in urn in 
shallow cist, over this a skeleton. 

3. Hoare's No. 3, just on E. side of (2). Cist contained nothing, but 

above it a skeleton with drinking cup. O.M. 57 SW. ; Stourhead 
Cat. 368. 

4. Large barrow a little E. of the others. Contained skeleton, but 

had been opened before. O.M. 57 SW. 

5. Barrow on S. edge of Rd. just N.E. of camp in projecting part of 

Kilmington. O.M. 57 S W. ; not in A. W. I. Station I. 



[6.] Long Knoll. At W. end on highest point of hill and on parish 
boundary. Opened by Hoare. Skeleton which had been dis- 
turbed before. Marked but not called " tumulus " on O.M. 56 
NE. ; A. W. I. 42, Station I. 
Earthworks. Bank and ditch cut across isthmus of down and Rd. N. of 
Whitesheet Castle. O.M. 57 SW. ; A. W. I. Station I. 



272 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

KINGSTON DEVEEILL. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow on W. edge of track just S. of Monkton Deverill boundary 

S.E. of Cold Kitchen Hill. 0. M. 57 NE. ; A. W. I. Station I. 
[For neighbouring barrows see Monkton Deverill and Brixton 
Deverill.] 

2. Barrow \ mile W. of (1) at W. end of Cold Kitchen Hill near 

Brixton Deverill boundary. Apparently this is the largest and 
most westerly (No. 5) of the group of 5 barrows [2a — 2e] close 
together at this spot opened by Hoare 1803. A.W. I. 41, Station 
I. ; as follows. Only (2) is shown on O.M. 57 NE. 
[2a-2e.] 

(1) Very low barrow. Burnt bones in circular cist. 

(2) Deep circular cist filled with wood ashes but no bones. 

(3) The most easterly of the group. Nothing found. 

(4) "A very small oblong barrow." A cist at the N.E. end con- 
taining only ashes. At S.W. end another cist containing large 
urn inverted, with burnt bones and bronze awl. 

(5) Had been opened before. 

3. Barrow on Brimsdown Hill, 1 mile N.W. of last group, close to 

Brixton boundary in N.W. corner of parish, just E. of Duke's 
Clump and W. of Woodcombe Wood. O.M. 57 N.W. ; A. W. I. 
Station I. 

4. Barrow a little S.E. of last on Brimsdown Hill, on parish boundary 

OM. 57 N W. ; apparently not shown in A. W. Station I. 

5. Large low barrow on Middle Hill just W. of Rd. opposite Dee 

Plantation, 1 mile S.W. of Kingston Deverill Church. Opened 
by Hoare. Cist with burnt bones, necklace of over 40 beads 
and 6 large perforated plates of amber, cylindrical notched glass 
beads, beads of horn and jet, and bronze awl. O.M. 57 S.E. ; 
A.W. I. 45, 46, PI. III. Station I. ; Evans' Stone, 413. 

6. Barrow in village just W. of Church. O.M. 57 S.E. ; not in A. W. 

I. Station I. 

7. 8. Two barrows close together on King's Hill, E. of Rd., J mile S. 

of Kingston Deverill Church. O.M. 57 SE. ; A. W. I. Station I. 

9. Barrow close to Mere boundary W. of Rd., \ mile N.E. of Mere 

Down Farm. Opened by Hoare. Contained urn standing 

upright with burnt bones. O.M. 57 S W. ; A. W. I. 46, Station I. 

10. Barrow $ mile N. of last, S. of Danes Bottom, 42ft. diam. X 1ft. 2in. 

high. Opened by Hoare. Contained oval cist 3ft. long X lft. lin. 
deep with pile of burnt bones, bone tweezers, jet and amber 
beads, glass notched beads. O.M. 57 SW. ; A. W. I. 46, PI. III., 
Station I. 

11. Very high steep barrow on Court Hill just E. of plantation, \ 

mile W. of Kingston Deverill village. [Has been dug into but 
never ploughed, 1913. M.E.C.]. O.M. 57 SW.; A.W. I. 47, 
Station I ? 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 273 

[11a.] A "small Long barrow near Rodmead Penning, opened by 
Hoare. Several skeletons disturbed before. A. W. I. 47 Station 
I. ; not in O.M. 57 SW. [Probably ploughed down, 1913. M.E.C.] 

12. Barrow on E. continuation of Rodmead Hill N. of the Park, S.E. 

of Truncombe Wood. O.M. 57 SW. 
On the extreme point of Rodmead Down facing Kingston Deverill, 
Hoare opened a large conspicuous barrow 13ft. high made of 
large flints, without result. 3 urns and bronze knife dagger were 
afterwards found in it. ? Was this 12. A.W I. 48; W.A.M. 
xxi. 258 fig. 

13. Barrow £ mile W. of last, on Rodmead Hill, S. of Truncombe Wood. 

O.M. 57 SW. ; A. W. I. Station I. 

14. Barrow in valley J mile 1ST. of last, E. of trackway, N. of Turncombe 

Wood, and just N. of Wily stream. O.M. 57 SW. ; A. W. I. 40, 
Station I. shows a barrow S. of the stream here but none to N. 
of it. 
[14a, 14b.] Hoare mentions two barrows on the other side of the 
lane, opposite to 14 as having been destroyed before his time. 
A. W. I. 40. 

15. Barrow in valley f mile N.E. of 14, N. of Wily stream and just 
N. of British trackway. O.M. 57 SW. ; A. W. I. 40 Station I. 

Earthworks. Oblong earthwork enclosure with entrance to E., S. of 

Dane's Bottom. O.M. 57 SW. 
Fragments of ditch running E. & W. along S. slopes of Cold Kitchen 

Hill. O.M. 57 NE. ; not on A. W. I. Station I. 
A ditch cutting across ridge and boundary of Brixton Deverill at W. 

end of Cold Kitchen Hill, and another crossing boundary at E. end. 

O.M. 57 IS E. ; A. W. I. Station I. 
Fragment of ditch between Hiscombe Wood and Holcombe Hole. 

O.M. 57 NW. 
Another just N. of Kingston Deverill village. O.M. 57 NE. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze socketed looped celt found in ploughed 

fields. Devizes Museum Cat. II. B20 ; W.A.M. xxvii. 284 fig. 



KINGTON, WEST. 
Barrows. 

1,2. 2 round barrows close together just within the county boundary 

on S. side of Rd. at 12J miles from Bristol on Rd. to Christian 

Malford. [2 others 200 yds. N. in Tormarton and Gloucestershire.] 

O.M. 18 NE. 

3. Barrow \ mile S. of county boundary and Rd. at 13 miles from 

Bristol on Christian Malford Rd. and f mile W. of Kington 

Down Farm. O.M. 19 NW. 

Earthworks. Aubrey (Jackson's Aubrey p. 86) says " In this parish is a 

Downe called Ebdowne, westward from the Church where is a Roman 

Camp . . . acres (it has no graff ; a slight rampart ; no vestigia of any 



274 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

ports Mori. Brit) : and on the other hill opposite to it another lesser 
Roman Camp." [Hoare A. W. I. 247 curiously transfers this account 
bodily to "Knighton," in Broad Chalke.] This camp \ mile W. of 
Ebdowne Farm is really in West Littleton and Gloucestershire, the 
county boundary follows its rampart. 



KNOOK. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow | mile S. of Knook Ch., near Boyton boundary. O.M. 52 

SE. ; not in A. W. I. Station III. 
[la.] Barrow N of Old Ditch, S.E. of Long Barrow (2), on E. edge 
of a track, small barrow opened by Cunnington. Urn inverted 
over burnt bones and small bronze knife dagger. A. W. I. 82, 
Station III. ; Stourhead Cat., 27 ; not shown on O.M. 52 NE. 
[Still existing but low and disfigured by rabbits, 1913. M.E.C.] 

2. Knook Long Barrow i mile NE. of Knook Castle. Opened by 

W. Cunnington 1801, 1802. O.M. 52 NE. See Appendix Long 
Barrows. 

3. Small round barrow just S. of long barrow (2), opened 1800. Large 

urn with burnt bones and small bronze knife dagger. O.M. 52 
NE. ; A. W. I. 83, Station III. 

4. Small barrow beside track and on Chitterne All Saints boundary, 

1 mile N.E. of long barrow (2), opened by Hoare. Burnt bones 
in circular cist. Near the top, skeleton of horse and "brass 
buckle." O.M. 52 NE. ; A. W. I. 86, Station III. [Much defaced 
by rabbits, 1913. M.E.C.] 
[4a, b.] Two other low barrows much spread by rabbits on down 
quite near the last, not in O.M. M.E.C. 

5. Small Long barrow £ mile N of last, opened 1801. O.M. 52 NE. ; 

A. W. I. 86, Station III. See Appendix Long Barrows. 
[5a.] Just N. of (5) on N. side of a track, barrow, opened. A. W. I. 
Station III. (but not mentioned by Hoare). 1 1n Knook or 
Heytesbury. Not in O.M. 52 NE. 
Earthworks. [Knook Castle is in Upton Lovell. O.M. 52 SE.] ' 

Old Ditch runs N. from W. side of Knook Castle and forms boundary 

of parish for f mile. O.M. 52 SE. & NE. ; A.W.I. Station III. 
Another branch of Old Ditch running at right angles to the last, W. 
from Knook Castle turns N.W. and runs into Heytesbury. O.M. 52 
SE. & NE. ; A. W. I. Station III. 
Roman. For British village see Upton Lovell. 



KNOYLE, EAST. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow just N. of Amesbury Rd. I7f miles from Amesbury, opened, 
no record. O.M. 63 NE. ; A. W. I. Station I. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 275 

[la.] Long Barrow just N. of the last. A.W. I. Station I. ; not in 

O.M. 63 NE. See Appendix Long Barrows, 
[lb, lc] Two barrows, unopened, in angle of Salisbury and Amesbury 

Rds., E. of Willoughby Hedge, S.W. of Long barrow (1). A. W. 

I. Station I. ; not in O.M. 63 NE. 

2. Barrow f mile W. of Hindon, just N. of Mere Rd. O.M. 64 NW. ; 

not m A.W. I. Station IV. 

3. [3a, 3b.] Barrow \ mile S.W. of Hindon on Hindon boundary. 

O.M. 64 NW. ; A. W. I. Station IX. shows 3 barrows here. 

4. Barrow just S. of Rd. § mile W. of Knoyle Down Farm, E. of 17th 

milestone from Amesbury. O.M. 64 NW. ; not in A. W. I. 
Station IV. 
Finds, Neolithic. Partly ground flint celt. Blackmore Museum. 
Roman. British village, banks, &c, on Two Mile Down 1 mile N.W. of 
Hindon Church. O.M. 64 NW. ; A.W. I. 253; not shown on 
Station IV. 

KNOYLE, WEST. 
Barrows. 

1. [la, lb.] Barrow N. of Rd. between Old Willoughby Hedge and 

Willoughby Hedge. O.M. 63 NE. A. W. I. Station I. shows 2 
barrows here close together and a third a little distance NE- 
(possibly in Monkton Deverill), all opened. 

2. Barrow on high ground of the Warren, | mile E. of Church, opened 

by Hoare, " a vacant cist without signs of charcoal or cremation." 
O.M. 63 NE. ; A W. I. 254, Station IX. 

3. Large barrow in Windmill Ground on E. side of Barrow Street 

Lane S. of Pinnocks Coppice and The Middles, not opened, a 
windmill built upon it, now destroyed, site only shown on O.M. 
63 NE. ; A. W. I. 254, Station IX 

Hoare opened 1803 1 mile S. of Keesley Lodge " a neat circular 
barrow on the brow of the hill," 39ft. diam. 5 ft. high, containing 
oval cist 5ft. long X 3ft. wide with large beads of jet and amber, 
and over this near the surface, skeleton of large man. Was this 
No. I? A.W. I. 49. 

Hoare also opened 1807 two very low barrows near together on 
down attached to W. Knoyle Farm. The smallest contained in 
large cist Saxon skeleton at full length with iron umbo of shield 
between legs and spearhead and knife at side. Devizes Museum. 
A. W. I. 48 ; Stourhead Cat. 299, 305. The adjoining barrow 
contained an " imperfect interment of burnt bones," mixed up 
with the soil. A. W. I. 48. 

Further W. towards Willoughby Hedge " in a paddock to the left " 
a barrow was opened by W. Cunnington 1803, containing burnt 
bones in cist under a pile of flints. A.W.I. 48. 

I have not been able to identify these barrows. E.H.G. 
Finds, Saxon. See interments in barrows mentioned above. 



276 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

LACOCK. 

Earthworks, &c. The line of the Wansdyke and Roman Road combined 

forms S. boundary of parish. O.M. 26 SW. ; A.W. II. 16—20, 81, 

plan. 
Roman. Leland {It. II. 29) says that in " Silverfield," near here, much 

Roman money has been found. In Wick Field at Lackham Roman 

coins. Jackson's Aubrey 5, 95. • 



LANDFOED. 
Barrows. 

[la,] A. W. I. Station VII. shows a barrow apparently on Landford 
Common about | mile S. of Rectory, not in O.M. 77 NE. 



LANGFOED, LITTLE. 

Earthworks. " Grovely Castle " about | mile S. of village. Intrenchment 
on elevated site. Single rampart from S.W. towards the E. No 
defence on N. k N.E. isides. Area 14 acres. Circuit 4 furlongs, 
132 yards. Bank and ditch running through it are modern, says 
Hoare, Digging showed no sign of ancient habitation. Hoare 
thought the camp unfinished. O.M. 59 S.E. ; A.W. 1. 109, 111, plan, 
Station IV. [Half of the area under plough, 1913. M.E.C.] 
The winding ditch which coming from Dinton Beeches forms N. 
boundary of Grovely Wood is S. boundary of parish. O.M. 59 SW., 
SE. ; 65 NE. 

Roman. In an earthwork on N. side of Grovely, apparently Grovely 
Castle, 2 pots of coins found by flint-digger 1906. One pot contained 
1000 bronze coins of 4th cent, in bad condition, the other 300 silver 
coins A.D. 337 — 408, 2 bronze coins, 6 silver rings and rim of glass 
vessel. Claimed as treasure trove and dispersed by sale. Described 
Numismatic Chron. 4th Ser. vi. ; W.A.M. xxxv. 115, 327 ; O.M. 59 SE. 



LANGFOED, STEEPLE. 
Barrows. 

1, 2. Two barrows close together (1 N., 2 S.) on Cow Down \ mile 
S. of Yarnbury. O.M. 59 NE. ; not in A. W. I. 95 Station III. (?) 

3. Barrow J mile E. of last, near Stapleford boundary. O.M. 59 

NE. ; A. W. I. 95 Station III. 

4. Barrow 1 mile S.E. of last close to Stapleford boundary. O.M. 

59 NE. ; A. W. I. Station III. 

5. 6. Two barrows almost touching just N. of Deptford— Amesbury 

Rd. at 8th milestone from Amesbury, S.W. of Yarnbury, justN. 
of Field Barn. O.M. 59 NW. ; A. W. I. Station III. 
7. Barrow just to N.E. of two last. O.M. 59 N W. ; A. W. I. Station III. 



By the Bev. E. H. Goddard. 277 

8. Barrow 1 mile N. of (5—7), N.W. of Yarnbury. O.M. 59 NW. ; 

A. W. I. Station III. 

9. A " mound " on boundary of Little Langford \ mile S.E. of Hollo- 

way Hedge Barn. O.M. 59 SE. 
10. Slight mound in centre of " East Castle" earthwork 1 mile S. of 
village, opened by Hoare, no interment, only pottery and bone 
pin found. Not shown as barrow in O.M. 59 SW. ; A. W. I. Ill 
Station IV. 
[10a — d.] Group of 4 small barrows just S.E. of East Castle. A. W. 

I. Station IV. ; not in O.M. 59 SW. 
[lOe — lOf.] Two larger barrows E. of Church End Rings on West 
Hill on N. Edge of Grovely. A.W.I. Station IV. ; not in O.M. 
Earthworks. Yarnbury Castle, § of camp in this parish, \ in Berwick 
St. James. Very strong inner rampart, two weaker outer ones close 
together. Six existing entrances, but only two certainly original. 
Principal entrance to E. defended by outwork. On W. side an annexe 
of irregular shape with slight ditch. Area 28£ acres. Circuit 1716 yds. 
Greatest height of vallum 52ft. (Hoare). O.M. 59 NE. ; A. W. I. 89, 
plan 90. 
East Castle, 1 mile S. of village near Little Langford border, " curious 
little earthen work at first sight having the appearance of a Druid 
barrow " says Hoare. Area | acre. Circuit 204yds. O.M. 59 SW. ; 
A.W. 1.111, Station IV. 
Hanging Langford Camp, an extensive series of irregular banks and 
ditches and enclosures, on W. Hill on Wylye boundary N.E. of 
Din ton Beeches. See below, Roman. O.M. 59 SW. ; A.W.I. 108 
plan. 
Church End Ring a separate enclosure occupying bottom of nearly 
circular head of deep combe below Hanging Langford works with 
which it is connected by a bank and ditch, a very sheltered position, 
unlike any other in Wilts. The banks of the enclosure seems to 
have been built entirely of flints which have been much dug away. 
1913. M.E.C. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Yarnbury Castle. Bronze looped palstave, in 

possession of V. Moore, of Wilton, 1911. W.A.M. xxxvii. 455. 
Finds, Late Celtic. British coin, base silver, disjointed horse type like 
fig. 5 PI. I. of Hawkins' Silver Coins of England, found at Hanging 
Langford, in possession of Miss Graham, of Dinton 1911. 
Roman, Site of British village at Hanging Langford Camp. 2 bronze 
bow brooches, penannular iron brooch, Miss Graham 191 1. Bronze 
brooch, pottery, &c, R. S. Newall. W.A.M. xxxvii. 456 ; A. W. I. 
106, 108. 
Yarnbury Camp. Pottery, querns, bronze brooches, coins, iron objects, 
brick flues, &c, found in interior. A.W.I. 89, 90; W.A.M. xxxiv. 272. 
British village with rectangular enclosures S. of Yarnbury, S. of 
Amesbury Rd., W. of track to Steeple Langford, above small covert. 
C. V. Goddard 1913. Not in O.M. 59 NE. ; or A. W. I. Station I. 



278 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities, 

LANGLEY BUREELL. 

" Barrow Farm," \ mile S.W. of Ch. testifies to former existence of a 
barrow. O.M. 20 SW. 

LATTOK 

Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze palstave. A. D. Passmore coll. W.A.M. 

xxxiv. Z\0fig. ; xxxv. 133. 
Finds, Late Celtic. Remarkable pottery vessel of pedestal type. A.D. 

Passmore coll. W.A.M. xxx. 303 fig. ; xxxv. 392. 
Roman, A mosaic pavement of black, white, and red chequers 2in. or 3in. 
square found in ploughed field 1670. Jackson's Aubrey 152. 
Eoman coffin 1 861 in N.E. corner of parish and county E. of Vine's- 

brake. O.M. 5 NW. 
52 Roman coins, iron spearhead, bridle bit, bronze bow brooch, and 
bracelet found in making new straight watercourse to the Thames 
1856 and 1874, near Ermine Street, opposite High Bridge, Cricklade. 
O.M. 5 SW. ; W.A.M. ix. 232. 
A hoard of 2d. brass coins, in Cirencester Museum. W.A.M. xiv. 188. 
Ermine Street coming from Cirencester runs for 2| miles perfectly 
straight through the parish, as a modern road, until as it enters 
Cricklade its course is lost for f mile. O.M. 4 NE. ; 5 NW. and SW. ; 
A. W. II. Roman JEra 96 plan. 

LAVEESTOCK. 
Barrows. 

1,2. Two barrows close together on Laverstock Down E. of Burrough's 
Hill, \ mile E. of Laverstock Mill (1 the northernmost). O.M. 
66 SE. ; not in A. W. I. Station VII. 
[2a — 2c] A. W. I. Station VII. shows 3 barrows apparently on Ford 

Down E. of Broken Cross. Not in O.M. 
3, 4. O.M. 66 NE. shows f mile N. of Ford, just S. of the Portway, 
an indistinct Long barrow. This is apparently the " Hand Bar- 
rows," 2 round barrows close together. Hoare however believed 
it to be really one Long Barrow, though in both plans he shows 
two round barrows. A. W. I. Station V. South ; II. ' Roman 
Mra 46 plan. 
Eoliths from plateau gravel on Thorny Down. H. P. Blackmore, Black- 
more Museum. 
Finds, Neolithic. Flint scrapers and adze-shaped celt. Blackmore 

Museum. Flint celt. W.A.M. x. 36. 
Roman. The Portway, Old Sarum to Silchester, runs from E. gate of Old 
Sarum by existing Rd. straight through Laverstock for 1 mile N.E. 
into Winterbourne Earls. O.M. 66 NE. ; A. W. II. Roman JEra 46 
plan. 
Roman Rd. to Winchester leaves E. gate of Old Sarum running straight 
E. and forms boundary of parish for f mile to Ford. O.M. 66 NE. ; 
A. W. II. Roman JEra, 58 plan. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 279 

LAVLNGTON, MAEKET, OE EAST. 
Barrows. 

1, 2. Two large barrows close together f mile S. of Cadley Farm, \ 
mile E. of Frieth Farm, close on N side of Rowbery Lane. 
O.M. 40 SW. ; not in A. W. 

3. Barrow on Summer Down N. of track and close to corner of 

Tilshead. O.M. 46 SE. ; A. W. 1. Station III. 

4. Another | mile N. of last. O.M. 46 NE. ; A. W. I. Station III. 
The Ridgeway runs through parish coming from Gore Cross going NE. 

and following the escarpment into Easterton. O.M. 46 NW. ; 
A. W. I. 94 Station III. 
Earthworks. Near the Ridgeway at Gibbet Knoll " the mutilated banks 
of a square earthen work." O.M. 46 NW". ; A. W. I. 94 Station III. 

LAVINGTON, WEST. 
Barrows. 

[la, b.] 2 large barrows close together touching E. side of Rd. Bath 
to Salisbury at about 19£ miles from Bath. A. W. I. Station III. ; 
not in O.M. 
Ridgeway runs through parish from Gore Cross heading NE. along the 

escarpment into Market Lavington. O.M. 46 NW. ; A. W. I. 94. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze awl, flanged celt, palstave, socketed celt, 
found on Downs. Devizes Museum Cat. II. Bl5, B17, Bl9 ; W.A.M. 
i. 62 ; vi. 259 ; xxxvii. 130, 133. 
Finds, Late Celtic. 3 bronze bow brooches, La Tene I. type. Devizes 
Museum Cat. II. 300, 302, 303 ; W.A.M. xxxv. 399, 400. figs. ; 
Reliquary xiv. 95, 97, figs. 
A later type of brooch of 1st cent. B.C. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 
310 ; W.A.M. xxxv. 402 figs. ; Reliquary xiv. 98 figs. 
Finds, Roman. 8 Bronze bow brooches. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 308, 
315—318, 333. Penannular brooch, Cat. II. 336. Bronze bracelets, 
Cat. II. 345, 377. 

LEIGH DELAMEEE. 
Barrows. 

1. " Site of tumulus " at Green Barrow Farm. O.M. 19 NE. 

LIDDINGTON. 
Barrows. 

Two barrows [la, lb] on Liddington Warren Farm opened by A. 
D. Passmore 1893. W.A.M. xxvii. 175, 176 ; not in O.M. 23 NE. 
[la.] Barrow near green road from Shepherds' Rest to Marlborough, 
bowl-shaped, ploughed down. Cist in centre with burnt bones 
with the rim of an urn over them, and a conical button of shale. 
Not in O.M. 23 NE. 



280 List of Prehistoric, Human, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

[3b.] Barrow in ploughed field near 6th milestone on Swindon to 
Hungerford Ed., has the appearance of a twin barrow. In centre 
of easternmost mound burnt bones on floor of barrow with portion 
of incense cup 2ft. away. Not in O.M. 23 NE. 
Earthworks. Liddington Castle [or Badbury Camp], Oval, *l\ acres, 
circumference 751 yds. Height of rampart 40ft. (Hoare). Entrance 
to E. O.M. 23 NW. ; A. W. II. 38, Plate VII (plan), Stations XL & 
XII. 
A ditch running S. from W. side of the camp along the side of the hill 
through Aldbourne parish to Church End in Ogborne St. George says 
Hoare. Shown on O.M. 23 NW. Also another ditch running more 
than a mile S. into Aldbourne from E. side of camp, with some cross 
ditches. 
The Ridgeway runs across parish from S. W. to N.E. just N. of Liddington 

Castle. O.M. 16 SW. ; 23 NW. 
Finds, Neolithic. A number of good flint arrowheads, scrapers, knives, 
chipped and ground celts, a perforated stone hammer, &c. A. D. 
Passmore Coll. 
A polished celt of dense hard gritstone 8|in. long, in possession (1913) 
of R. S. Newall, of Fisherton Delamere, bought at sale, labelled 
" Leddington, Wilts," has a regular groove cut out down each edge. 
W.A.M. xxxvii. 613.;% 
Finds, Bronze Age. Large bronze awl, square section. (1 Bronze Age.) 

Liddington Castle. A. D. Passmore Coll. 
Finds, Late Celtic. Inside Liddington Castle a number of fragments 
of pottery with impressed and incised Late Celtic patterns, and 
fragment of iron band of Late Celtic bucket. A. D. Passmore Coll. 
W.A.M. xxxv. 392. 
Soman. The line of the road from Covingham Farm (Nidum?) to Cunetio 
runs S. from its junction with Ermine Street forming E. boundary 
of parish for \ mile, is then lost for $ mile, and resumes its course 
along a modern road at Common Head, into Chiseldon. O.M. 16 
NW. & SW. ; A. W. II. Roman JEra 92 plan. 
Coins and remains found. No details. W.A.M. vii. 122 ; xxvi. 414. 
Small enamelled object, with pattern of Late Celtic type. A. D. 
Passmore Coll. 

LITTLETON DEEW. 

Barrows. Lugbury is in Nettleton, q. v. 

Roman. The Fosse Road forms parish boundary on E. O.M. 12 SE. 

LONOBRIDGE DEVEEILL. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow on Cow Down f mile S.E. of village. O.M. 57 NE. ; 
A. W. I. Station I. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 281 

2. Barrow i mile S. E. of last, i mile N.E. of Lord's Hill Farm. O.M. 

57 NE. ; A. W. I. Station I. 

3. Barrow on Westcombe Downs 1 mile S. of last (2) near parish 

boundary W. of Warminster — Shaftesbury Ed. at 5 miles from 
Warminster. O.M. 57 NE. 
[3a.] A. W. I. Station I. shows another barrow near the last, perhaps 

in Hill Deverill ; not on O.M. 57 NE. 
[3b.] Barrow, opened, E. of the oval earthwork near Southleigh 
Wood, just N. of Greenhill — Longbridge Deverill Rd., apparently 
in this parish. A. W. I. Station II. ; not in O.M. 52 SW. 
[3c]. Barrow on road to Baycliff (? in what parish) opened by Hoare, 
contained burnt bones. A. W. I. 50. 
Earthworks. Just N. of road to Sutton Veny, and close to Southleigh 
Wood and Sutton Veny boundary, a singular oval earthwork 
" resembling an amphitheatre in miniature " (Hoare), with vallum 
18ft. high from ditch, outside, and ditch inside, enclosing level 
oval space higher than the ditch of less than J acre ; breadth of 
ditch 7ft. Longest diam. inside 111ft. O.M. 51 SE. and 52 SW. ; 
A. W. I. 50, Station II. 
On Cow Down 1 mile E. of village, on N.W. point of down, a small 
earthwork like the letter D reversed with entrance on straight side 
on the E. In the ditch beside entrance Roman pottery, Samian, 
&c. O.M. 58 NW. ; A. W. I. 103, Station IV. 
Roman. 7 Roman coins found in earthen vessel 1854. W.A.M. ii. 34. 
Brick flues found, no details. W.A.M. xxxiv. 272. 



LUCKINGTOK 
Barrows. 

1. " Giants' Caves," chambered long barrow close to county boundary 
and corner of Badminton Park where Allengrove Lane joins lane 
coming from Malmesbury Rd. O.M. 12 NW. ; A. W. II. 101 ; 
W.A.M. vii., 323. See Appendix Long Barrows. 
O.M. 12 NW. shows in the second field S. of the Giants' Caves, 
just on S. side of the lane, another large long barrow marked 
" Tumulus." This, however, is an error. [ " Nothing but a slight 
natural inequality of surface," 1913. M.E.C.] 

[la, b.] Between Luckington and Badminton Hoare saw 2 small 
barrows A. W. II. 102 ; not on O.M. 



LUDGERSHALL. 
Barrows. 

1, 2. Windmill Hill Down. 2 barrows on highest part of hill, a 
little distance apart, both close to N. Tidworth boundary. 1 
the northernmost, O.M. 48 NE. ; 2 the southernmost O.M. 48 
SE. ; neither marked on Soc. Ant. Map. A. W.I. Station VI. 
VOL. XXXVIII. — NO. CXX. U 



282 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

Earthworks. Probably the castle was built on the site of a prehistoric 
camp and the earthworks adapted to its defence. O.M. 48 NE. ; 
Soc. Ant. Map. 106. 

Finds, Bronze Age. Socketed looped celt. Devizes Museum Gat. II. 
B 22 ; W.AM. vii. 246 ; xxxvii. 136. 

LYDIAED TBEGOZE. 

Roman. At Basset Down, at top of hill just above farm road up the 
hill at back of the grounds, a quantity of fragments of Boman pottery 
including Samian, and portion of quern, found 2ft. under ground 
digging a post bole : further digging showed the spot to be a Boman 
rubbish heap. 1913. E. H. Goddard. 

Saxon. At Basset Down, just at the top of the hill behind the house, a 
number of skeletons were found during the making of the pleasure 
grounds iu 1822, among them two interments, each with spear, knife, 
umbo of shield, and a pair of saucer-shaped brooches. Bronze earpick,. 
tinned spoon, hairpins, amber beads, crystal bead, glass beads of 
different shapes, and bronze bow brooch. Devizes Museum Cat. II.. 
S8— S25 ; W.A.M. xxviii. 101 figs. Further to the W. in 1839 more 
skeletons were found. Apparently this was a Saxon cemetery. 

LYNEHAM. 

Barrows. The name " Barrow End " testifies to the former existence of a 
barrow here. O.M. 21 NW. 
At Preston, W. of Clyffe — Lyneham Bd., on Mr. Hathway's farm,, 
and on the Lyneham side of the brook, in field called " Witch- 
hills," a high round mound from side of which badgers dug out 
a skull. The whole surrounding ground has been quarried, and 
digging by E. H. Goddard, 1913, proved that the mound is only 
natural ground heightened by quarry rubbish. Bemainder of 
skeleton at full length on its back was found, but nothing to 
indicate its age. 
Human remains found 1863 (no details) near Brick Eiln Copse 
just N. of Calne — Wootton Bassett Bd. and E. of Rd. to Great 
Wood. O.M. 14 SW. 
Earthworks. In field at S. end of Hillocks Wood an entrenchment 
marked "Camp." O.M. USE. 
Bradenstoke. " Clack Mount," just N.E. of the Priory (Abbey) in next 
field, entrenched space with mound in centre marked " Tumulus," on 
O.M. 21 NW. Ditches prolonged on either side as if portions of 
an outer bailey. Age doubtful, rather like Binknoll, but not on 
promontory. E.H.G. 
Roman. Bradenstoke. Boman coins found near the Priory, Gallienus, 
Constantinus II., Valentinian, dr. 1893. E. C. Trepplin. W.A.M. 
xxvii. 177. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 283 

MADDINGTON. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow just E. of Melsome's Copse. O.M. 53 SE. ; noting. IF. 
Station V. North, or Soc. Ant. Map. (O.M. 1889). 
Finds, Neolithic. Flint scrapers, a globular flint muller, ground flint 
celt, &c, from surface. C. V. Goddard. 



MAIDEN BEADLEY. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow just W. of village between Church and Church Farm. 

O.M. 57 NW. ; A. W. I. Station I. 

2. Barrow just S.E. of cross roads in village. O.M. 57 NW". ; not in 

A. W. I. Station I. 

3. Barrow on extreme W. point of Brimsdown Hill 1 mile E. of 

village, opened by Hoare 1807. Burnt bones in cist with long 
bone pin with perforated head, and small bronze knife dagger. 
O.M. 57 NW. ; A. W. I. 41 Station I. ; Stourhead Cat. 286. 



On Rodmead Hill E. and S.E. of Rodmead Farm O.M. 57 SW. 
shows 5 barrows (4 — 8) scattered over space f mile N. and S. 

4. Barrow on edge of Rodmead Hill f mile E. of Rodmead Farm. 

O.M. 57 SW. ; not in A.W. Station I. 

5. Barrow a little distance S. of last. O.M. 57 SW. 

[It is apparently here that A.W. I. Station I shows a group of " 3 
small barrows [5a — c] placed in a triangular form, scarcely 
elevated above the surface, and seem to have been ploughed over 
in former times." Opened by Hoare. A. W. I. 47 ; not in O.M. 
57 SW., unless 5 is one of them. 

[5a] Contained burnt bones, amber beads, and plates, jet ring and 
beads. 

[5b.] Rude cinerary urn in shallow cist with burnt bones and bronze 
awl. 

[5c] No interment found. 

6. Large barrow \ mile S.W. of (5) and just N.W. of the earthwork. 

Opened by Hoare 1807. Saxon interment, skeleton at full length 
bronze patella covered with wooden bowl, iron umbo of shield, 
two-edged sword 2ft, 6in. long, 2 knives, and 3 spearheads, 
O.M. 57 SW. ; A. W. 1. 46,47,P1. IV., Station I. ; II. 27 ; Stourhead 
Cat. 290—292. 

7. Small barrow adjoining S. side of last, opened by Hoare, nothing 

found. O.M. 57 SW. ; A. W. I. 47, Station I. 

8. Barrow i mile S.E. of last and of earthwork. O.M. 57 SW. ; not 

in^.F. I. Station I. 

U 2 



28 4 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and PaganSaxon Antiquities. 

[8a] On point of down E. of the earthwork on Rodmead Hill A. W. 
1. 47 Station I. shows a Long barrow not on O.M. 57 NW. Opened 
by Hoare. " A small long barrow near Rodmead Penning " 
contained " remains of several skeletons that had been disturbed 
before." [Apparently destroyed. Not to be found 1913. M.E.C.] 
[For barrow on S. boundary of parish see Mere.] 
Earthworks. " Vestiges of an ancient ditch " on the ridge of hill between 
Little Knoll in Bradley Park and Long Knoll. Coins of the Lower 
Empire found in ditch. A. W. I. 41, 42, Station I. 
On Rodmead Down, to the E. of the barrows, a small irregular earthen 
work with an entrance towards the E. " A great deal of very black 
earth & fragments of rude British pottery." O.M. 57 SW. ; A: W. I. 
47, Station I. 
Soman. Supposed course of Roman Rd. marked on O.M. 56 NE. ; 57 NW. 
from Bradley Lane 1 mile W. of village, through Penstone's Wood 
toGareHill. 



MALMESBURY WITHOUT. 

Earthworks On Cams Hill i mile N. of Cole Park a circular mound and 
a small rectangular 1 earthwork in adjoining fields, shown on O.M. 
13 NE. 

Soman. 3 bronze brooches and ring (? Roman) found near the Fosse Road. 
No details. W.A.M. viii. 12. 



MANNINGFORD BOHUNE. 
Barrows. 

1. Bohune Down. A barrow -J mile N. of Devizes— Andover Rd. at 

12 miles from Devizes. O.M. 41 SE. ; A. W. I. Station VI. 

2. A barrow about f mile E. of the last, just on border of Upavon. 

O.M. 41 SE. ; A. W. I. Station VI. 
Tinds, Neolithic. " At Manningford " flint celts. W.A.M. i. 59 : vii.248. 



MANNINGFORD BRUCE. 

Earthworks. Manningford Hill, S. W. of field barn, a small square earth- 
work with ! entrance to S.E., and ditches near, to E. of it. O.M. 41 SE. ; 
A. W. I. 191, 192. 

Pinds, Neolithic. Ground flint celt, broken. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 
13. 

Roman. Vase of New Forest Ware found near. Devizes Museum Cat. 
II. 238, 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 285 

MARDEN. 

The Ridgeway coming from Gore Cross to near Broadbury Banks cuts 

across Marden on edge of the escarpment. O.M. 41 SW. 
Earthworks. [Hatfield Barrow & entrenchment though close to Marden 

village were in Beechingstoke. q.v.] 
"Long Ditch" runs W. to E. over Marden Down. O.M. 46 NE. ; 47 

NW. ; Soc. Ant. Map 22. 
Roman. British village shown on O.M. 41 NW. just E. of Church & school 

and S.W. of Hatfield Earthworks. 

MARLBOROUGH. 

Barrows. See Preshute, Ogbourne, &c. 

Finds, Neolithic, from the neighbourhood. A large number of flint 
implements, scrapers, fabricators, chipped knives, &c. J. W. Brooke 
Coll. 
Perforated oval chert hammer stone. Arch. Journ. xxv. 250. 
Ground flint celt from barrow "on downs near." Stourhead Cat. 347. 
Finds, Late Celtic. On site of college Sanatorium. Bronze bow brooch 
of 1st cent. 1906. J. W. Brooke Coll. W.A.M. xxxv. 403 fig. 
In 1897 in digging foundations of new wing of College Sanatorium 
5 wide-mouthed urns were found standing upright within space of a 
few yards about 1ft. 6in. below surface. Only relic found with them 
indicative of date, a horn knife handle with iron tang. The vessels 
unlike others found in county, with rough incised or combed orna- 
ment. Probably Late Celtic. Coll. Museum. Marlborough Coll. 
Nat. Hist. Soc. Report 1897 . figs.; W.A.M. xxx. 67; O.M. 29 SW. 
Roman. Bronze bow brooch, Aucissa type, "neighbourhood of Marl- 
borough." 1910. W.A.M. xxxvii. 477. 
Small relief of Fortune, defaced, probably from Cunetio, built into 
interior E. wall of S. aisle of St. Mary's Ch. W.A.M. xxxiv. 141, 
203 fig. 

MARSTON, SOUTH. 

Earthworks. An entrenchment of rectangular form formerly existed in 
field at Rowborough Farm, \ mile S.E. of Church, mentioned as 
" Roman " by Alfred Williams, A Wiltshire Village, p. 12. Entirely 
ploughed down and not shown on O.M. 11 SW. 

MELKSHAM. 

Earthworks, &c. The line of the Roman Road & Wansdyke combined 
forms the N. boundary of the parish throughout as far as Bowden 
Hill. O.M. 25 SE., 26 SW. ; A. W. II. 27, 81 plan. 

Human Remains. Skeleton, one leg stretched out, the other bent, found 
in gravel digging near the Grove. Skull brachycephalic. ? Of what 
age. Cambridge Museum No. 260. 



286 List of Prehistoric, Boman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

MEKE. 
Barrows. 

1, 2. Two barrows on Castle Hill. O.M. 63 NW. ; not in A.W. I. 

Station I. 
3. Barrow just N.E. of Burton Farm beside track. O.M. 63 NW. ; 

A.W.I. 254, Station IX. 



4, 5. Whitesheet Hill. Two small barrows close together just inside 
rampart in S.W. corner of camp. O.M. 57 SW. ; not in A. W. I. 
Station I. [Half the camp is in Stourton.] 

6. Barrow \ mile E. of camp, just W. of ditch. O.M. 57 SW. ; A. W. 

I. Station I. 
6a. Barrow just E. of ditch where S. end of ditch ends at edge of the 
down. Opened by Fenton. Cist 6ft. long containing skeletons of 
man and younger person embracing each other, with drinking 
cup, tanged copper knife dagger, slate wristguard, bone imple- 
ment, and two discs of thin gold with cruciform ornament. Not 
in O.M. 57 SW. ; A. W. I. 44, PI. II, Station I. ; Stourhead Cat. 
41, 81— 81b; Arch, xliii. 527 fig. 218; lxi. 105; Evans' Bronze, 
223 ; Evans' Stone 382 ; W.A.M. xxi. 257 ; xxxvii. 98 {fig.) 117. 

7. Barrow ^ mile E. of ditch, and of the last (6), S. of trackway. O.M. 

63 NW. ; A.W. I. Station!. 

8. [8a] Barrow on top of down projecting \ mile S.E. of camp. 

O.M. 63 N W. ; A. W. I. Station I. shows 2 barrows, opened, here. 
In the southernmost (8 or 8a ?) Hoare found fragments of large 
urn in cist. A.W. I. 44. 



9. Barrow £ mile N.E. of Whitesheet Castle, i mile N. of trackway. 
O.M. 57 SW. ; not in A.W. I. Station I. 
10, 11. Two barrows near together (NW. & S.E.) | mile S.E. of last 
(9), S. of the Druses. O.M. 57 SW. : A. W. I. Station I. (?). 

12. Barrow just N.W. of Mere Down Farm in roadway and on boundary 

of Maiden Bradley. O.M. 57 SW. ; A.W.I. Station I.- 

13. Barrow a little distance N.E. of last (12) just S. of roadway, N. of 

Mere Down Farm. O.M. 57 S W. ; A.W.I. Station I. 

[13a — c] Hoare notes here 3 low small barrows on the S.W. side of 
the trackway ploughed down, which he opened. The largest 
contained an urn inverted over burnt bones, the two smaller only 
charcoal. " Other insignificant barrows were opened in this 
neighbourhood, which afforded nothing worthy of attention." 
A. W. I. 46 ; not in Station I. or O.M. 

[13d.] Hoare opened a barrow on " Black Heath," apparently that 
shown in A. W. I. Station 1. as just N. of the earthwork touching 
N. side of trackway | mile E. of turning to Mere Down Farm. 
No cist, but a knob of chalk on which a round-bottomed cooking 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 287 

vessel, with ears for suspension, was inverted with burnt bones 
placed round it. This round-bottomed bowl regarded as Neolithic 
by Reginald Smith. Stourhead Cat. 288. Not in O.M. 63 NE. ; 
A. W. I. 45 ; WA.M. xxvi. 318 fig. 

14. A barrow apparently actually forming corner of earthwork and 

touching N. side of trackway f mile S.E. of Mere Down Farm, 
shown on O.M. 63 NE. ; not in A. W. I. Station I. 

15, [15a, b.] Large barrow at Chaddenwick Furze \ mile E. of last 

(14), N. of trackway. Apparently the larger of three barrows 
close together in line, the two smaller on the W. side of the 
larger, shown in A. W. I. Station I. Opened by Hoare 1804. 
Large barrow had circular cist with vast quantity of charred 
wood in which was imbedded a small rude urn with 4 perforated 
ears. Stourhead Cat. 28~->fig. The 2 smaller barrows produced 
nothing. A. W. I. 45 PI. I. ' 
A similar vessel with 4 ears in British Museum said to have come 
from a barrow here. 



[15 c . . . g.] Group of 5 barrows close together on Mappledore Hill 
shown N. of the county boundary 1 mile S.W. of Mere Church 
in A. W. I. Station IX. Hoare speaks of many low barrows 
partly levelled, " vases of rude pottery " found in one of them. 
None shown on O.M. 63 SW. 



Barrow Street Farm, 1 mile S. of Chaddenwick Farm, shows former 

existence of barrow here. 

Earthworks. Earthwork enclosure on N. edge of British trackway f mile 

S.E. of Mere Down Farm. O.M. 63 NE. ; A. W. I. 44 Station I. 

Strong ditch on White Sheet Hill cutting across ridge and trackway 

| mile E. of White Sheet Castle. O.M. 57 SW. ; A. W. I. Station I. 

Small irregular earthwork enclosure on Rodmead Down. O.M. 57 SW. ; 

A.W.I. Station I. 
White Sheet Castle, camp, half in Stourton q.v. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze celt. W.A.M. vii. 247; xxxvii. 138. 

Bronze socketed looped celt, Chaddenwich 1909. Mere Church Museum. 

WA.M. xxxvii. 136. Another similar, Chaddenwich 1911. A. R. 

White, of Mere. W.A.M. xxxvii. 455. 

Finds, Late Celtic. Gold uninscribed British coin, 1868, " between 

Maiden Bradley and Mere," formerly in possession of Ed. Stevens. 

Roman. British village round site of earthwork on N. edge of trackway 

f mile S.E. of Mere Down Farm. O.M. 63 NE. ; A. W. I. 44, Station I. 

Chaddenwich Farm, cir. 1911. Several coins, 2 bronze bow brooches, 

bowl of spoon, &c. A. R. White. W.A.M. xxxvii. 457. 
Coins, 270 denarii in vase found at cemetery, 1856, ] 74 different types, 

A.D. 60—166. WA.M. v. 128 ; xxvii. 176, 177. 
Many coins found, mostly of Constantine period, large number of 
Carausius. W.A.M. xxix. 227. 



288 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

MILDENHALL. 
Barrows. 

1. Poulton Down, f mile E. of Ogbourne St. Andrew Church and close 

to parish boundary, large bowl-shaped barrow with deep pond- 
like depression each side. O.M. 29 NW. ; Smith p. 220, XVIIb. 
N. IV. d. 
[la.] Barrow formerly existed N. of B,abley Wood, now destroyed. 
Smith p. 220 XVIIb. N. IV. b. ; not in O.M. 29 NW. 

2. Barrow N. of Church in village. Hoare noted that it had been 

dug into for stone but not properly examined. O.M. 29 NW. ; 
W.A.M. xxii. 235 ; not in Smith. 

[2a.] Barrow Field [? in Mildenhall or Preshute], Hoare notes that 
a barrow had existed here in memory of man, but was destroyed 
before his time. W.A.M. xxii. 235. 
Earthworks. Ditch coming out of Aldbourne Chase Wood, Yielding 
Copse, and Ogbourne St. George runs S.E. towards Smatcham's 
Copse, W. of Mildenhall Warren Farm. O.M. 29 NE. ; Smith XVIIc. 
N. IV. a. Hoare A. W. II. 37, Stations XI. XII. shows ditch for 
short distance N. of Woodlands, on Mildenhall Down, and another 
larger " covered way " pointing to British village on Aldbourne Chase 
\ mile further N. 
Finds, Late Celtic. British coins, W.A.M. xix. 86. 
Roman. Hoare places site of Lower Cunetio at Mildenhall village, square 
earthwork to N.E. of Church. O.M. 29 SW. ; A. W. II. 34, 91, plan 
106. 

Black Field E. of Church and S. of Kennet Rd., part of the site, great 
number of Boman objects found here. Well 25ft. deep opened by 
Bev. C. Soames dr. 1860, filled with pottery fragments, oyster and 
mussel shells, Samian ware, &c. Another well 40yds. away not 
opened. Great number of coins found in this field, also at Bectory 
and in Churchyard. Marlborough Coll. Museum. W.A.M. vii. 121 ; 
xix. 85 ; xxii. 235 ; xxvi. 413. 

Coins of Allectus and Carausius, gold coin of Valens. W.A.M. xix. 85. 

Bronze bracelet and pottery. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 237, 344. 

Site of Upper Cunetio at Folly Farm, opposite Savernake Cottage 
Hospital on Forest Hill, E. of road up hill, irregular banks and 
ditches, which Hoare thought Pre-Boman, and inside these " un- 
doubted remains of. a Boman settlement with a portion of its square 
circumvallation with the usual rounded oorners." Cremated inter- 
ment under arch of brick, coarse mosaic pavements, bronze spoon, 
and female statuette (A. W. II. Boman JEra, 71, 72, Plate). Boman 
well. O.M. 29 SW. 

Stitchcombe, small freestone relief, figure in niche. Devizes Museum. 
Cat. II. 273. 

Boman Road to Cirencester coincides with modern road straight N.E. 
from school at Mildenhall into Ogbourne St. George. O.M. 29 SW. 
& NW. ; A. W. II. Roman JZra, 92, plan. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 289 

Roman Road to Winchester runs from Folly Farm parallel with Grand 
Avenue, on E. side of it. Fragment crosses Hungerford Rd. at 2f 
miles from Marlborough. O.M. 29 NW. A. W. II. Roman JEra, 67, 
plan 91. 
Roman Rd. Cunetio to Spinae not traceable by Hoare. A. W. II. Roman 
JEra, 35. 
Saxon. Skeleton with pair of fine saucer brooches, pin, and number of 
glass aud amber beads found 1827. H. Stoughton Money. W.A.M. 
vi. 259; xxxvii. QWfigs. Devizes Museum. 



MILSTON AND BRIGMERSTON. 
Barrows. 

1. Long barrow, Brigmerston Field, \ mile W. of Nine Mile Water, 
| mile S. of Silk Hill. O.M. 55 NW. ; A. W. I. Station VI. ; Soc, 
Ant. Map 241. See Appendix Long Barrows. 
2— [21a.] On Silk Hill and to S. W. of it, W. of Nine Mile Water, O.M. 
55 NW (1900) shows 21 round barrows (2— 21a), one in Silk 
Hill Plantation, 14 above the 400ft. contour line, 6 below this 
line to S.W. of hill. 
[21b.] O.M. 1883. Soc. Ant. Map shows an additional small barrow 
touching S.E. edge of 8, numbered 166, not in O.M. 55 NW. 
1900. 
A.W. I. Station VI. shows 30 round barrows here. 
Soc. Ant. Map 145=2, 160—165=3—8, 167—170=9—12, 159= 
13, 158=14, 157=15, 240=16, 172—175 = 17—20,242=21 
171=21a. 
Of these barrows Hoare opened five which cannot be exactly 
identified. 

(a) Largest and most conspicuous barrow on the hill, contained 
burnt bones on the floor of the barrow with small bronze knife 
dagger in wooden sheath, 2 perforated whetstones, and a bronze 
crutched and twisted pin. A.W. I. 194, PI. XXIII. ; Evans' 
Bronze 336,,fig. 448 ; Evans' Stone 242 ; Arch, xliii. 467 ; Stourhead 
Cat. 117; W. Cunnington MSS. IV. 17. Nearer the surface a 
skeleton with iron spearhead. Saxon ? 

(b) Another large and conspicuous barrow, no interment found. 
A. W. I. 194. 

(c) Disc-shaped barrow without central mound, but beautifully 
formed vallum. Interment of burnt bones some distance from 
centre. Figd. as " Barrow No. XL A. W. I. 195." 

(d) Barrow with circular excavation at top, 15 (157). Small 
cinerary urn filled with ashes only, standing upright, 5in. high, 
bone object, flint flakes, and pyrites. A.W. I. 195; Evans* 
Stone 252 ; Stourhead Cat, 124 c, d. 



290 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities, 

(e) Disc-shaped barrow, with very high vallum round it. Figd. 
as "Barrow No. X." Only animals' bones found, no signs of 
cremation. 

In one of the barrows here was found by W. Cunnington, F.S.A., 
a broad flat bronze knife dagger with wooden handle and 31 rivets. 
Evans' Bronze 2Zi,fig. 287; Arch, xliii. 458, PI. XXXIV. 2; lxi. 
119, ^.7. 64; Stourhead Gat. 115, fig.; A.W. I. 195 note, PI. 
XXXIII. ; W.A.M. xxxvii. 98 {fig.) 



22. Long barrow on Brigmerston Down, just S. of small earthwork 

i mile S.E. of 23, 24. 122 ; O.M. 55 N W. ; Soc. Ant. Map 183 ; 
not in A.W. I. Station VI. See Appendix Long Barrows. 

23. Barrow just S. of line of Brigmerston Firs, within the plantation. 

Opened by Lt.-Col. W. Hawley [No. 5]. 3 small cinerary urns 
with burnt bones close together at the side. In centre, in shallow 
bowl-shaped cist, burnt bones with a bone bead, and impress of 
cloth in which bones had been wrapped. O.M. 55 NW. ; W.A.M. 
xxxvi. 620 ; Soc. Ant. Map 181. [This barrow is now just on the 
edge of wood. 1913. M.E.C.] 

24. Barrow close on 1ST. side of last, actually on Figheldean boundary. 

in the line of firs. Opened by Lt.-Col. W. Hawley [No. 7]. A 
rectangular cist 3ft. deep with crouched skeleton, and pot or food 
vessel. O.M. 55 N" W. ; W.A.M. xxxvi. 621 plan ; Soc. Ant. Map 
180. 
24a. Barrow on the boundary on W. side of 24 opened by Lt.-Col. 
W. Hawley. Nothing found. W.A.M. xxxvi. 621 ; O.M, 55 N W ; 
Soc. Ant. Map shown but not numbered. 



From a barrow at Brigmerston, no details known, a high-brimmed 
globose drinking cup found with red deer's horn. Devizes 
Museum Cat. II. xlO ; W.A.M. xxxv. 177. 



On Milston Down and in track to N.E. of it between Nine Mile 
Biver and the Hampshire border, O.M. 55 N W. shows 23 (or 24 ?) 
round barrows and 2 Long barrows, not including Bulford 66 
which is on the Bulford boundary to the S. O.M. 55 NW. 25 
—41 are E. of the ditch. 

25 — 27. Three barrows in line near together just W. of trackway and 
E. of ditch, S.E. of point where 6 tracks meet at the ditch. A. W. 
I. Station VI. ; Soc. Ant. Map 185—187. 

28 — 30. Three barrows in line near together E. of the last and just 
S. or E. of a trackway in wooded ground. 28 lies alone, 29 and 
30 close together to the N.E. [The northernmost (30) is a disc 
barrow with the unusual feature of the ditch being outside the 
vallum. 1913. M.E.C.] Soc. Ant. Map 188—190. 



By the Rev. E. H. Ooddard. 291 

31. Long barrow just to E. of 30. Soc. Ant. Map 191. [A true Long 

Barrow. M.E.C.] See Appendix Long Barrows. 
32 — 34. Three barrows in line near together, E. of the last. Soc. 

Ant. Map 192—194. 
35 — 38. Group of 4 barrows near together close to Hampshire border 

(38 actually on border) to N. of last. Soc. Ant. Map 195—198. 
39, 40. Two Long barrows close together, 52yds. apart, close to 

Hampshire border S.E. of 32—34. Soc. Ant. Map 278, 279 ; 

A.W. I. Station VI. shows only one Long barrow here. See 

Appendix Long Barrows. 
41. Round barrow close to Hampshire border S. of the Long barrows 

and just N. of point where line of ditch cuts the border. Not 

on Soc. Ant. Map, OM. 1883. [Pole for electric wire planted in 

centre of this barrow. 1913. M.E.C.] 



42—50. W. of the ditch, and between it and the Nine Mile Biver 
O.M. 55 NW. shows 9 barrows, 42 — 50, 8 of them near together, 
and one (42) to S.W. This .last is not marked as a barrow 
(though shown on the map), or numbered in Soc. Ant. Map, on 
which 275—277=43—45, 274=46, 271 =47, 270=48, 272, 273 
=49, 50. 



51. Barrow really just on Hampshire side of boundary just S of 
Dunch Hill plantation. O.M. 48 SW. ; Soc. Ant. Map 199. 
Earthworks. A bank and ditch coming from Sidbury Camp, running 

S.W. through N. Tidworth to Dunch Hill Plantation in Figheldean, 

and thence to Brigmerston Plantation, where it enters Milston, turns 

at an angle S.E. and runs in this direction straight across the parish 

to the Bulford boundary, where a ditch at right angles meets it. A 

line of ditch roughly parallel starting from Dunch Hill and running 

S. down the Hampshire border is shown by Hoare, A.W. I. Station 

VI. ; O.M. 55 NW. ; Soc. Ant. Map 121. 
Brigmerston Down. Small circular earthwork enclosure just N. of 

small Long barrow 22, just W. of ditch. O.M. 55 NW. ; Soc. Ant. 

Map 182. 
Milston Down. Small nearly square enclosure just on W. side of ditch 

| mile S. of the last, E. of Nine Mile Water. O.M. 55 NW. Soc. 

Ant. Map 184. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Fragment of bronze spearhead with lunate openings 

in blade. Brigmerston Down. British Museum. W.A.M. xxxvi. 

627. 
Bronze socketed spear head with loops at base of blade and engraved 

ornament on socket. Brigmerston Down. Brit. Museum. W.A.M. 

xxxvii., 627 fig. B.M. Guide to Bronze Age fig. 74. 
Bronze dagger, small blade with strong midrib. Brigmerston Down. 

British Museum. W.A.M. xxxvii., 122. 



292 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

MILTON LILBOUENE. 
Barrows. 

Group of 5 barrows (1—5) close together | mile N.E. of Milton Hill 
Farm, another (6) a little distance to E. near Easton boundary. 
O.M. 42 NW.; A.W. I. 190, Station VI. ; W.A.M. xxii. 236. 
[Group in good condition, not ploughed. All except disc barrow 
(1) seem to have been opened. 1913. M.E.C.] 

1. Fine disc barrow with two mounds within the vallum, at N.W. 

corner of group. 

2. Fine bell-shaped barrow almost touching E. side of last. 

3. Small bowl-shaped barrow. [Impinging on banks of both bell 

barrows (2 and 4) and obviously thrown up after them. M.E.C.] 

4. Fine bell-shaped barrow on S. side of 3. 

5. Small bowl-shaped barrow a little E. of 1—4. 

6. Bowl-shaped barrow about \ mile E. of 1— 5, near Easton boundary. 



7. Fyfield Down S.E. of Milton Hill Clump. " Giant's Grave " Long 

Barrow. Opened by Thurnam 1865. O.M- 42 NW. ; A. W. 1. 190, 
Station VI. See Appendix Long Barrows. 

8. Barrow E. of Milton Wood in S. extremity of parish near Everley 

boundary. O.M. 42 SW. ; A. W. I. Station VI. 

Earthworks. On the E. side of Martinsell Camp are rows of "Pit 
dwellings." O.M. 36 NW. ; A. W. II. 10. Several were opened by 
W. Cunnington 1865, and B. H. Cunnington & Col. Dunn 1894, when 
no relics of human occupation were found in them. W.A.M. xxviii. 
256. 

Finds, Neolithic. Flint barbed arrowhead. Evans' Stone 348. 

Roman. Broomsgrove Farm. Rom.-Brit. kilns just S.W. of farm, opened 
by B. H. Cunnington 1893. Pots and querns found. O.M. 36 SW. ;. 
W.A.M. xxvii 294— 301 j% ; xxxiii. 195 ; DevizesMuseumCai.il 
735— 739a. 

Extensive British village round ''Giant's Grave" Long Barrow on 
Fyfield Down 1| miles S. of village. A.W. I. 190 Station VI. ; not 
in O.M. 43 NW. [Mostly under cultivation. 1913. M.E.C.] 

MONKTON DEVEKILL. 
Barrows. 

1, 2. Two barrows near together \ mile W. of Warminster — Shaftes- 
bury Rd. at 7 miles from Warminster, 1 mile E. of Keysley 
Farm, and just N. of the British Settlement. O.M. 57 SE. ; 
A. W. I. Station I. 

3. Barrow on Keysley Down 5 mile S. of last, W. of Warminster — 
Shaftesbury Rd. Opened, no record. O.M. 57 SE. ; A. W. I. 
Station I. 



By the, liev. E. H. Goddard. 293 

4. Barrow just S.W. of Keysley Farm. Opened by Hoare, without 

finding interment. O.M. 57 SE. ; A. W. I. 45 Station I. 

5. Barrow ^ m ile S. W. of last, j ust E. of track, close to parish boundary, 

Opened by Hoare, burnt bones in shallow cist. O.M. 57 SE. ; 
A. W. I. 45 Station I. 
[Other barrows " on the western declivity of the hill " were opened 
by Hoare, but produced " nothing worthy of remark."] 

6. [6a] Barrow in N.W. corner of parish, S.E. of Cold Kitchen Hill, 

S. of Boars Bottom, £ mile W. of corn mill on Wily Stream. 
O.M. 57 NE. 6 is probably the most Easterly of 3 barrows 
shown by Hoare, A. W. I. Station I., E. of the ditch here. [6a] 
to the W. of it is not on O.M. 57 NE. The third is in Kingston 
Deverill (1). 

Roman. On Keysley Down about f mile E. of Keysley Farm, W. of 
Warminster — Shaftesbury Rd. a large British settlement with many 
banks and signs of cultivation. Hoare found pottery and animals' 
bones. O.M. 57 NE. ; A. W. I. 49 Station I. 



MONKTON FAKLEIGH. 

Barrows. 

1. A large round barrow close to Kingsdown Plantation, near N. 
boundary of parish. O.M. 32 N W. 

Earthworks. Wansdyke. Hoare A. W. II. 16 — 33 Station X. traces its 
whole course with plan, and discusses other writers' accounts. 
Collinson says it comes from Portishead, Hoare cannot trace its 
existence beyond Maes Knoll Camp, S.E. of Bristol. Thence by 
Stantonbury Camp, Englishcombe to Cross Keys turnpike— then a 
gap— fragments in Prior Park, Bath, nothing at Claverton — from 
Bathampton Camp it descends to cross Avon — lost again— reappears 
on Farleigh Down— but between Farleigh Clump and Morgans Hill 
no trace of it as a ditch. Hoare believes that it is later than the 
Roman Road and in this part of its course, it appropriated the exist- 
ing Roman Road as a part of its line of demarkation. 

Stukeley regarded it as a Belgic boundary, Hoare believes it Saxon, 
A.W. II. 16—30, 27, 28. It always has its ditch to the north. 
Hoare believes Maes Knoll, Stantonbury, and Bathampton Camps 
to be later additions to the Dyke. Coming out of Somerset about 
£mile N. of the Manor House, Monkton Farleigh, it forms N. 
boundary of the parish throughout. O.M. 32 NW. ; W.A.M. xx. 
70, 72. 

Roman. Roman Road, see Wansdyke, above. 

" About a pecks weight " of coins of Antonine period found in a jar, 
1826, in plantation called Inwoods at Farley Wick, with large blocks 
of hewn stone. W.A.M. xx. 72. 



294 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

NETHERAVON. 
Barrows. 

1—3. [3a— 3d.] Just S.E. of Newfoundland Farm. O.M. 47 SW. 
shows 3 small barrows close together. A. W. I. 178 Station V. 
North shows group of 7 small barrows. Soc. Ant. Map 136 — 138. 
[The 7 mounds still exist ; 5 are quite distinct, the other 2 very 
faint. 1913. M.E.C.] 

4. A large barrow just N. of the last. O.M. 47 SW. ; A. W. I. 178 

Station V. North ; Soc. Ant. Ma]? 135. [Large round barrow 
much spread by former cultivation, now down to grass. 1913. 
M.E.C.] 

5. Barrow | mile E. of the group of three (1—3). O.M. 47 SW. ; 

A. W. I. Station V. North ; Soc. Ant. Map 141. 

6. Long barrow N.E. of Robin Hood Ball and Netheravon Bake. 

O.M. 54 NW. ; A. W. I. Station V. North ; Soc. Ant. Map 139. 
See Appendix Long Barrows. 

7. Round barrow just S- of the Long Barrow. O.M. 54 NW. ; A.W^ 

I. Station V. North ; Soc. Ant. Map. 140. 

8. Barrow on Figheldean boundary in Robin Hood Ball plantation 

i mile S W. of last. O.M. 54 NW. ; A. W. I. Station V. North ; 
Soc. Ant. Map 229. 
Earthworks. Hoare notes bank and ditch near group of barrows 1 — 3. 

A. W. I. 178 Station V. North. Not in O.M. 
Roman. In the grounds of Netheravon House Lt.-Col. W. Hawley and 
Rev. G. H. Engleheart uncovered, 1907, a small room about 13ft. 
square, plainly paved with red and white tessera?, with not very 
definite wall foundations, the ground round seemed to have been 
disturbed and no extensions could then be found, and the work of 
excavation was never completed. A " bath " 5ft. X 5ft. x 2ft. deep 
is said to have adjoined the room. 
In the same grounds a hoard of bronze coins found many years ago, of 
which no record. 

NETTLETON. 
Barrows. 

1. Lugbury Long Barrow, called by Hoare " Littleton Drew Long 
Barrow," i mile E. of Nettleton, 200 yds. W. of Fosse Way, N. 
of Fosse Farm, near Littleton Drew boundary. Standing on 
E. end one large slab leaning against two uprights. Opened 
Hoare 1821, and Thurnam 1854. O.M. 19 NW. ; A. W. II. 102 ; 
W.A.M. III. 164. See Appendix Long Barrows. 
[la.] Aubrey says " neer to this stone (on Lugbury) was a little round 
barrow, before it was ploughed away since A.D. 1630." 
Roman. Fosse way runs from S.W. to N.E. for 2 miles through the parish, 
forming boundary for short distance near Fosse Bridge. O.M. 19- 
NW. & NE. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 295 

At Nettleton Shrub (or Scrub) about f mile S.E. of Nettleton, close to 
Fosseway, a lime kiln built 1912 on site of Roman building, walls 
and pennant flooring found, with pottery, iron key, and good relief 
of Diana and hound, now at Castle Combe Manor. O.M. 19 NW. ;, 
Proc. Bath Branch Som. Arch. Soc, 1912, p. 177 ; W.AM, xxxviii. 
11^ fig. 

NEWNTON, LONG. 

Roman. Fosseway forms S.E. boundary of parish for short distances but 
the parish extends irregularly across its line, the only parish in this 
part of Wilts that does so. O.M. 8 NW. ; A.W. II. Roman JEra, 
98 plan. 

NEWTON SOUTH. 
Barrows. 

1. " Newton Barrow " just W. of Salisbury — Devizes Rd 4j miles from 
Salisbury. Opened by Hoare 1805, had been opened before. 
Skeleton in deep grave, had been disturbed before, bones stained 
with bronze object which had gone. Amber bead and necklace 
of perforated wolves' teeth. O.M. 60 SW. ; A. W. I. 214, Station 
V. South; Stourhead Cat. 206, 206a, fig. 
[la, b.] Two small flat barrows " on the apex of the adjoining hill." 
Opened by Hoare, had been opened before, nothing found. A. W. 
I. 214 ; not in O.M. 60 S W., or A. W. I. Station V. South. 
Earthworks. Hoare says the ditch coming from Hamshill Ditches in 
Barford and winding along S. side of Grovely crosses Wylye River 
at Chilhampton and crosses Devizes — Salisbury Rd. between 19th 
and 20th milestones and on into Woodford. A. W. 1. 1 10, 214, Stations 
IV. V. ; not in O.M. 66 NW. 
Finds, Neolithic. Chipped flint celt, 2 rough adze-shaped chipped celts, 
scrapers, flakes, fabricator, and quartzite rubber. Blackmore Museum. 
Roman. The line of the Rd. from Old Sarum to the W. cuts across parish 
between Folly Farm and Chilhampton Farm. Nothing visible. O.M. 
66 NW. 

NEWTON TONY. 
Barrows. 

[la — le.] 5 barrows in a line about lj miles S. of Wilbury Ho. "in 
a shallow vale immediately under the hills to the S.E." much 
ploughed down. Opened by Cunnington 1807. 3 bowl-shaped, 
2 disc shaped. 

(1) Bowl-shaped. 74ft. in diam. 3ft. 9in. high. An oblong cist 
with burnt bones and bronze awl. Over the cist was the skeleton 
of a dog. 

(2) Bowl-shaped. 69ft. in diam. 4ft. high. Burnt bones only. 



296 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities, 

(3) Disc or flat barrow. Burnt bones. 
(4 & 5) Had been opened before Cunnington's time. 
Not in O.M. 61 NW. or NE. ; not apparently in A. W. I. Station 
V. South. May possibly have been in Allington or Boscombe. 
[If — It.] A.W. I. Station V. South shows 1 barrow at "Benson's 
Folly " now Tower Hill, on the Hampshire border, if miles S.E. 
of Newton Tony village ; a group of 8 close together, also on the 
county boundary a little to the N. of this, two of the barrows 
being in Hampshire ; a group of seven close together just to the 
S. W. of the last, all these being S. of the line of the Portway and 
modern railway ; a single barrow just N. of the line. None of 
these in O.M. 61 NE. 
[Barrow at Milborough Wood on Cholderton border, see Cholderton 

(2). O.M. 55 SW. 
[Group of 9 barrows called " Newton Barrows " in .4. IF. I. Station V. 
South, see Amesbury (76—84). O.M. 61 NW. 
Roman. The line of the Portway runs parallel with and on N. side of 
L. & S.W.R. for about 2 miles through parish, leaving the county at 
Hampshire Gap. O.M. 61 NW. & NE. ; A. W. I. Station V. South ; 
II. Roman JEra, 46 plan. 

NO MAN'S LAND, near EEDLYNCH. 

Finds, Neolithic. Polished flint celt ifonnd 1908 at Dazell. Liven's 
Hist, of No Man's Land. 

NORMANTON, see WILSFORD. 

NORTON (Noeth Wilts). 

Roman. Fosse Way forms N.W. boundary of parish. O.M. 12 NE. ; 
A.W. II. Roman Mr a, 46 plan. 

NORTON BAVANT. 
Barrows. 

Scratchbury Camp. A. W. I. 68, 70, Plan shows and describes 7 barrows 
within the camp, but Station II. shows only 6. O.M. 52 SW. 
shows 4 only (1 — 4), but indicates also No. 6 of Hoare though 
it does not mark it " Tumulus." All these barrows were opened 
for Miss Benet, of Norton House. The second numbers in 
brackets are Hoare's. 

1. (1) Large low barrow in centre of camp. Burnt bones with small 
bronze knife dagger, part of bronze pin with round flat head and 
twisted stem, a bronze awl (?) twisted like a screw, over 50 beads 
and a " large ring " of amber. Close by a pile of ashes with 
fragments of burnt bone. These objects were preserved at 
Norton House but are now lost. O.M. 52 SW. ; A. W. I. 70 ; 
Arch, xliii. 466 fig. 167, 468 fig. 169 : Evans' Bronze 369 fig. 455. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 297 

2. (2) Barrow at NE. corner of camp. Burnt bones with 3 bone 

implements, one part of a wristguard, another a pointed polished 
implement. Devizes Museum. O.M. 52 SW. ; A. W. I. 70; 
Stourhead Cat. 19a, 19b. 

3. (3) Barrow just W. of the last. Nothing found. O.M. 52 SW. ; 

A. W. I. 70. 
[4.] (7) Large barrow at S.W. corner of camp, 100ft. diam. X 12jft. 

high. No interment found, but stags' horn fragments, boars' 

teeth, charcoal, and great quantity of burnt stones. O.M. 52 S W. ; 

A. W. I. 70. 
£4a.] (6) Small barrow in extreme S.E. corner of camp on inner edge 

of rampart, indicated on O.M. 52 SW. but not marked "Tumulus." 

Nothing found. 
[4b, c] Nos. 4 and 5 of Hoare, small barrows on inside of rampart on 

S.W. side between 4 and [4a], not shown on O.M. 52 SW. 

No. 4 produced nothing, No. 5 an interment of burnt bones. 



5 — 10. Group of 6 barrows near together on down half-way between 
Scratchbury and Cotley Hill, I mile E. of railway. O.M. 52 SW. 
Only 5 shown in A. W. I. Station II. Some of them opened by 
W. Cunnington contained " chiefly interments of burnt bones " 
and a great deal of " rude British pottery." A flat barrow 50ft. 
diam. X 1 Jft. high contained large urn inverted over bones im- 
perfectly burnt. A small barrow 40ft. diam. X 2|ft. high, con- 
tained burnt bones in a cist. No further details. A. W. I. 71. 



11. Large barrow? on summit of Cotley Hill \ mile S.E. of last, on 

boundary of Heytesbury, within a circular earthwork, opened by 
W. Cunnington 1801. No interment found, but iron nails, Roman 
pottery, <fcc. O.M. 52 SW. ; A. W. I. 71, Station II. 

12. Another barrow S. of last, on slope of hill. O.M. 52 SW. ; not 

in A. W. I. Station II. 



13. Norton Down l£ mile N.E. of Scratchbury. Long barrow lying 
E. and W. Opened by Thurnam 1866. O.M. 52 NW. ; A. W. I. 
Station II. ; Arch. xlii. 180, 195. See Appendix Long Barrows. 

14. Middleton Down, \ mile W. of (13) on point facing Middle Hill, 

Long barrow not opened by Hoare. O.M. 52 N W. ; A. W. I. 67, 
Station II. See Appendix Long Barrows. 
Earthworks. Scratchbury Camp, irregular shape, single deep ditch with 
high rampart inside and slight rampart outside on three sides. Three 
entrances. Area 40 acres. Circuit 1 mile 86 yards. Greatest height 
of rampart 66ft. (Hoare). An inner roughly circular earthwork in 
centre of camp on the highest point of the hill, much ploughed down. 
O.M. 52 NW. ; A. W. I. 70, plan, Station II. 
VOL. XXXVIII. — NO. CXX. X 



298 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

Cotley Hill. Circular vallum diam. 160 yds. with ditch inside bank. 

S.W. side tolerably perfect in Hoare's days, remainder defaced by 

ploughing. A barrow in centre (11). A. W. I. 71. 
Old ditch running N.W.— S.E. from Bishopstrow Down crosses parish 

N. of Middleton and Norton Downs, roughly S. of and parallel with 

Warminster — Salisbury Road and near N. boundary of parish. O.M. 

52 N W. ; A. W. I. Station II. 
Finds, Neolithic. 2 ground celts, one of flint, and one of black stone, 

found in Scratchbury Camp. A. W. I. 70 ; Stourhead Cat. 11, 19. 
Roman. Cotley Hill, S.E. of Scratchbury. Pottery, Samian, &c, iron 

nails, flue tiles, &c, in mound and depressions on the down. A. W. 

1.71. 
Scratchbury Camp. Bronze spoon, 1804. J. Benett Stanford. 
Scratchbury Camp. Coins. W.A.M. xxxiv. 272. 
In field called " Blacklands " many Roman remains, no details. A. W. 

1.96. 
Roman urn, 1856. W.A.M. III. 267. 

NUNTON AND BODENHAM. 

Earthworks. Clearbury Ring. Part of the camp is in this parish but 
the larger part in Standlynch and Charlton q.v. O.M. 71 SE. 
Grimsditch running west out of Standlynch crosses the southern part 
of Nunton and Bodenham, and so west into Odstock, &c. O.M. 71 
SE. ; A. W. I. 232, Station VII. : Ancient Earthworks of Cranborne 
Chase. Plan. 

OAKSEY. 

Earthworks. Norwood Castle, a small mount and bailey earthwork of 
Norman period in field adjoining Dean Farm. O.M. 4 SW. 

OAKE. 

Finds, Late Celtic. At Withy Copse, on N. side of Martinsell Camp, 
just within parish boundary, a midden 63ft. X 43ft., of from 50 B.C. 
to 50 A.D., opened 1907, 1908, by Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington. 
Quantities of animals' bones and pottery, including imported Arretine 
and Gaulish wares, but no Samian. Bronze brooches, bone weaving 
comb, iron sickle-shaped keys, arrowhead, nails, &c. Devizes Museum 
Cat. II. 848—878 ; W.A.M. xxxvi. 125 figs. 

ODSTOCK. 
Barrows. 

[la— lo.] A. W. I. Station VII. shows two groups of barrows, 4 and 
5, just N. of Grimsditch, S. of Homington, apparently in Odstock, 
as well as a group of 6 small barrows close together just S. of the 
ditch. None of these are shown on O.M. 71 SW. & SE. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 299 

Earthworks. Grimsditch running W. through Standlynchjand Nunton 
crosses the southern end of Odstock and so to the county boundary 
in Coombe Bissett. O.M. 71 SE. k SW. ; A. W. I. 232, Station VII. ; 
Ancient Earthworks of Cranbome Chase, plan. 
Remains of camp in Odstock Copse on Odstock Down \ mile N.W. of 
Clearbury. Single bank and ditch except on E. where a berm pro- 
jects with two outer banks and ditches. Area probably about 10 
acres. Cultivated before 1894, when it was planted with trees. 
O.M. 71 SE. ; Early Wars of Wessex 12, 29, plan ; Ancient Earth- 
works of Cranbome Chase, 28, 33 plan. 

Finds, Neolithic. Flint scrapers, &c. Blackmore Museum. 

OGBOURNE ST. ANDREW. 
Barrows. 

Rockley. A. line of barrows along S. or W. side of Marlborough Rd. 
in plantations and meadows of Rockley House. Smith p. 198, 
XIV. L. III. f. g. h. i. k. [It is difficult to identify these with 
the 6 shown on O.M.~\ 

1. (f) Large barrow at N. end of plantation opened 1879, marks of 

cremation only found. O.M. 28 NE. 

2. (g) Large barrow in plantation just S. of last. Opened 1879 by 

Wilts Arch. Soc. Nothing found. O.M. 28 NE. 

3. (h) Large barrow in plantation. O.M. 28 NE. 

4. (i) Large barrow in plantation to S. of last. OM. 28 NE. 
[4a.] (k) Low tumulus ?a barrow, close to (i), apparently not shown 

on O.M. 

Following the road S. Smith p. 199, XIV. L. IV. b, e, d, c, shows 
4 barrows on W. side of the cross roads. Apparently b and d 
are shown on the O.M., in the plantation, and not the others. 

5. (b) Large bowl barrow with ditch, 110ft. diam. 7ft. high, opened 

1879 by H. Cunnington. In centre a grave 6ft. X 4ft. X 3Jft- 
deep, lined with flat sarsens, containing a crouched skeleton 
with flat sarsens over it, covered with a large cairn of sarsens 
within which in cists prepared for them were two cinerary 
urns standing upright containing burnt bones, and the fragments 
of a small food vessel probably broken before it was placed in 
the barrow. These interments were apparently made at the time 
of the erection of the barrow. Urns in Devizes Museum. O.M. 
28 NE. ; W.A.M. xix. 67— 69 Jigs. ; Smith p. 200; Ar. xliii. 457. 

6. (d) Large bowl -shaped barrow in plantation. Not opened. OM. 

28 NE. 
[6a.] (e) Low bowl-shaped barrow in plantation. Not in O.M. 
[6h.] (c) To S. of these, in meadow E. of Rockley House, bowl-shaped 

barrow, not opened. Not in 0. M. 

X 2 



300 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

Rockley. On N. (or E.) side of Wootton Bsssett— Marlborough 
Rd. a group of 5 barrows is shown by Smith p. 197, XIV. L. III. 
a, b, c, d, e, near together. O.M. 28 NE. shows only 4 of these. 

7. (a) Low wide bowl-shaped barrow, 3ft. high, no ditch, opened 1879 

by H. Cunnington and Rev. A. C. Smith. In centre over a small 
cist, an urn inverted over burnt bones, near it a fine flint scraper. 
Much wood ashes on floor of barrow. 1ft. below surface of barrow 
a layer of small sarsenscoveringa heap of burnt bones and ashes. 
To N. of this just under surface of barrow a skeleton with fine 
leaf-shaped flint arrowhead. OM. 28 NE. ; W.A.M. xix. 70, 71, 
figs. ; Smith p. 197 figs. 

8. (b) Bowl-shaped, no ditch. Opened, no record. O.M. 28 NE. 
[8a.] (c) Small low bowl-shaped, with ditch, opened by H. Cunnington, 

1879. Cist 2|ft. diam. X lOin. deep contained burnt bones 
and ashes only. In the body of the mound the fragments of a 
smairfdrinking cup found, not accompanied by any interment. 
Smith 198 ; W.A.M. xix. 70. 

9. (d) Tall and fine bell-shaped barrow, with large raised lip, and 

large ditch. Opened, no record. O.M. 28 NE. ; Smith, p. 198. 
10. (e) Large low, ploughed-down barrow, to N. of (d). Opened, no 
record. O.M. 28 NE. 



On down E. of Rockley, W. of Ogbourne Maizey Rd. , a small low 
barrow, no ditch, not opened. Not in O.M. Smith p. 198, XIV. 
L. III. m. 

11. Ogbourne St. Andrew Churchyard. A large barrow, lift. high. 

Opened 1885 by H. <fe W. Cunnington. About 20 skeletons at 
depth of 2 — 3 feet, probably medieval interments. Near the 
centre, at depth of 5ft., a skeleton in wooden coffin with iron' 
clamps, Saxon ? with much wood ashes round it. At 7ft. a heap 
of burnt bones which had been wrapped in a cloth and placed on 
a plank of wood, with a well-made flint knife. 1 yard away was 
a small rude food vessel. On the floor of the barrow wood ashes 
were scattered, and remains of planks of wood, and a trench 6 or 
7 feet long lined with wood. A fine leaf-shaped flint arrowhead 
found near the top, and several flint implements and sarsen 
mullers in the body of the mound. O.M. 29 NW. ; WA.M. xxii. 
345 ; Smith p. 198, XIV. M. III. a. ; A.W. II. Stations XL XII. 

12. Smeathe's Ridge. Small barrow just on parish boundary S. of 

track 1 mile S.E. of Barbury Castle. O.M. 22 SE. ; Smith p. 
191, XIII, L. I. c. 

13. Very large bowl-shaped barrow on crest of down, 1^ mile S.E. of 

last, just S. of track and Ogbourne St. George boundary and E 
of Smeathe's Plantation. O.M. 23 SW. ; Smith p. 191, XIII. L" 
I. b.: A.W. II. Stations XL XII. 



By the Bev. E. H. Goddard. . 301 

14. S.E. of Barbury Kill, midway between Barbury Castle Farm and 

Four Mile Clump, large bowl-shaped barrow, no ditch. Opened, 
no record. O.M. 22 SE. ; Smith p. 191, XIII. K. II. b. (?) ; A. W. 
II. Stations XI. XII. 

15. Ogbourne Maizey Down \ mile S.W. of the last,a small barrow on 

E. side of track. O.M. 22 SE. ; not in Smith's Map; A.W. II 
Stations XI. XII. 

16. \ mile S.E. of the last a tumulus just W. of the track, doubtful if 

it is a barrow. O.M. 22 SE. ; Smith p. 191, XIII. K. II. c ; 
A. W. II. Stations XL XII. 1 

17. J mile further S.E., W. of track, a small barrow. O.M. 22 SE. ; 

not in Smith's Map ; A. W. II. Stations XI. XII. ? 
[17a.] On Lower Barn Hill (? in Ogbourne), about l£ mile S. of Bar- 
bury Castle, and S. of Barbury Barn, Smithy. 191 XIII. K. II. a. 
shows a low flat barrow. Opened, no record. Not in O.M. 

18. Coombe Down. Bowl-shaped barrow near boundary of Ogbourne 

St. George. No ditch. O.M. 23 SW. ; Smith p. 191, XIII. M. II. a. 

19. Buined cromlech, or kistvaen, on N side of Temple Bottom Barn, 

now entirely destroyed. Site marked on O.M. 28 NE. ; Smith 
p. 195, XIV. K. III. a. See Appendix Long Barrows. 
This was the chamber at the East end of a Long Barrow. It was 
excavated by the Bev. W. C. Lukis and the Bev. A. C. Smith 
1861. On the floor of the chamber was charcoal, and human 
bones, some calcined, and some unburnt, with a stone muller and 
a bone chisel, now at Devizes. Proc. Soc. Ant. Jan., 1866 ; Smith 
p. 196,/<7S., XIV. K. III. a. ; A.W. II. 42. 

20. Above and to E. of Wick Bottom Barn a low wide barrow, no 

ditch. Opened, no record. O.M. 28 NK. ; Smith p. 187, XIV. 
K. III. b. 
[20a.] To E. of this and on further side of long plantation a very low 
indistinct barrow, no ditch. Opened, no record. Not in O.M. 
Smith p. 197, XIV. K. III. c. 
Ridgeway forms parish boundary on N. to the W. of Barbury. O.M. 22 

SE. 
Earthworks. Barbury Castle, half in this parish, see Wroughton. O.M. 
22 SE. 
Just N of Wootton Bassett Bd. 4 miles from Marlborough at Dean 
Bottom, large square enclosure with banks and cultivation enclosures 
round. O.M. 22 SE. 
Indistinct enclosures N. of Barbury Castle Farm. O.M. 22 SE. 
Roughly rectangular enclosure, with bank and ditch, the former highest 
at the corners, on Ogbourne Down, N.E. of Training Course opposite 
Rockley, close to Rd. from Ogbourne Maizey. O.M. 28 NE. ; Smith 
XIV. L. III. 1. 
S. of this a bank with ditch to S. comes down from the down and runs 
from N.E. to W. lj miles across Marlborough— Wootton Bassett Rd. 



302 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and, Pagan Saxon Antiquities, 

and the group of barrows just£N\ of Rockley plantation. O.M. 28 

NE. ; A. W. II. 40, Stations XL, XII. 
Finds, Neolithic. Flint implements. Rockley. J. W. Brooke. 
Finds, Bronze Age. On Smeathes Ridge, a skeleton and fragments of 

drinking cup or food vessel found by flint-diggers 1913. No sign of 

a barrow. A. D. Passmore. 
Bronze socketed looped celt. Temple. J. W. Brooke. Beliquary, 

xiv. Z48fig. 
Very small bronze knife dagger, much worn, 2 rivets, lfin. long, found 

casually by roadside in flint heap at Rockley 1908. H. J. G. Hole. 

Man March 1909, ZQfig. ; W.AM, xxxvi. 142. 
Bronze awl, 2f in. long, with spindle whorl. Wick Bottom. J.W.Brooke. 
Roman. Coins and pottery found 1892, 1 mile W. of Ogbourne Maizey, 

nr. track S. of Park Barn. O.M. 29 NW. ; W.A.M. xxvi. 412. 
In Cowcroft, bronze nail-cleaner and tweezers combined. 1906. J. W. 

Brooke. 
Earthwork enclosures between Barbury Castle and Farm no doubt 

site of British village. [Rom.-Brit. pottery, nails, bronze brooch, &c, 

on Down just S.W. of Camp. M.E.O] 

OGBOURNE St GEORGE. 
Barrows. 

1. Gipsy Lane, \ mile N. of Herdswick Farm, a wide low barrow 

ploughed down just S. of lane. O.M. 23 SW. ; Smith p. 191. 
XIII. L. I. e. [For barrow on opposite side of lane see Chisel- 
don.] 

2. | mile E. of this, a high bowl-shaped barrow in S. hedge of lane E. 

of Draycot— Ogbourne Road. O.M. 23 S.W. ; Smith p. 191. 
XIII. M. I. a. 

3. Coombe Down. \ mile W. of Ogbourne St. George, a very large 

bowl-shaped barrow on highest point of hill. OM. 23 SW. ; 
Smith p. 192 XIII. M. II. b.; A. W. II. Stations XL, XII. 

4. 5. Church Hill, \ mile N.E. of village, 2 large barrows close 

together much ploughed down. OM. 23 SW. ; A. W. 11.38; 

Smith p. 219. XVII. N. II. b, c. (b) was opened by J. W. Brooke 

Sept. 30th, 1909. an empty cist was found, the barrow having 

been previously opened. 

Earthworks. On Church Hill near barrows 4 and 5 a small square 

earthwork with entrance to N. Below this a bank and ditch and 

nearer base of hill a bank and ditch follow the line of the hill N. 

through Ogbourne St. George and Aldbourne to Liddington Castle. 

O.M. 23 SW. ; A. W. II. 38, Stations XL, XII. 

On Round Hill Down a ditch runs W. to E. from the British settlement 

into Aldbourne parish. O.M. 23 SW. 
In woods lj mile E. of Ogbourne St. George village between Moore's 
Wood and Yielding Copse a ditch runs N. and S. O.M. 23 SE. 



Bj/ the Rev. E. H. Godclard. 303 

Finds, Neolithic. Many chipped and ground flint celts, scrapers, knives, 
a long leaf-shaped arrowhead, and arrow or javelin head of unusual 
size. J. W. Brooke and A. D. Passmore. 

Soman. British settlement on Round Hill Down, 1^ mile N.E. of Ogbourne 
St. George village. Hoare found Samian pottery, bronze brooch, &c> 
here. O.M. 23 SW. ; A. W. II. 39, Stations XI. and XII. 



ORCHESTON ST. GEORGE. 
Barrows. 

1. Orcheston Down. N. of Church Pits, S.W. of Salisbury — Devizes 

Rd. at 13 miles from Salisbury. O.M. 46 SE. ; A. W. I. Station 
III.; Soc. Ant. Map. 111. 

2. Barrow f mile N of Elston Hill, S.E. of Greenland Farm. O.M. 

53 NE. ; A. W. I. Station III. ; Soc. Ant. Map 132. 

3. Barrow in extreme N.E. corner of parish | mile S. of Slay Down 

Farm. O.M. 47 SW. ; not in A.W. I Station III. ; Soc. Ant. Map 
112. 

Earthworks, Ditch coming from East Down in Tilshead where it crosses 
Old Ditch, runs over Orcheston Down pointing S.E. towards Winter- 
bourne Stoke Down. Only partly shown on O-M. 46 SE ; A. W. I, 
93, Station III. ; 116, Station V. ; Soc. Ant. Map 109. 

Roman. British village at " Church Pits " on Orcheston Down % mile N. 
of Greenland Farm, W. of Rd. to Salisbury. O.M. 46 SE. ; A- W. 
I. 93, 116, 175, Station V.; Soc. Ant. Map 131. Roman urn and 
fragments of two others found at " Orcheston," 1856. W.A.M. iii. 
268. 

Saxon. Elston. Iron knife found with skeleton, 1856 (? Saxon). W.A.M. 
iii. 267. 

ORCHESTON ST. MARY. 
Barrows. 

1. "Silver Barrow" on Orcheston Down just E. of Old Ditch, | mile 
S.E. of Tilshead Church. Oval, with ditches at sides. Opened 
1801 by Mr. Tucker and Mr. Bartlett, of Tilshead. On a pave- 
ment of rude stones the bones of about 7 persons were laid very 
irregularly. With them is said to have been found an iron knife 
and bone handle of Roman type and a vessel of lathe-turned 
pottery, perhaps of Roman date. O.M. 53 NE. ; A.W. I. 93, 
Station III. ; Arch, xliii. 472, note ; Soc. Ant. Map 128. [Hoare's 
description of this barrow does not in any particular agree with 
its present appearance, which is that of a rather high and slightly 
oval mound not at all like a Long Barrow. The ground round 
it shows no sign of modern cultivation. The ditch is not very 
distinct, but such as it is, it appears to go round the mound and 
not end on either side as described by Hoare. Hoare describes it 
minutely as having all the characteristics of a Long Barrow, side 



304 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

ditches, &c. Is it possible that his description really refers to 
some other barrow 1 1913. M.E.C.] 

2. Round barrow S.W. of Silver Barrow, close to line of Old Ditch. 

O.M. 53 NE. ; A. W. I. Station III. ; Soc. Ant. Map 127. 

3. Barrow on West Down 1| mile E. of Tilshead Church, 1 mile N.E. 

of Silver Barrow, E of line of Old Ditch and Tilshead boundary, 
just on W. side of track. O.M. 46 SE. ; A. W. I. Station III. ; not 
numbered on Soc. Ant. Map. 

4. 5. Two barrows on West Down, one (4) just W. of the ditch, the 

other (5) to S.W. of this. O.M. 46 SE. : A. W. I. Station III. ; 
Soc. Ant. Map 129, 130. 
Earthworks. Ditch running S.E. from Tilshead East Down past Barrow 
4 on West Down and on to Winterbourne Stoke, only portions shown 
on O.M. 46 NE. ; A. W. I. 116, Station V. 
Line of Old Ditch forms parish boundary on W. for 2 miles. O.M. 46 
SE. ; 53 NE. ; Soc. Ant. Map 126. 
Finds, Neolithic. West Down Camp. Ground axe perforated, of hard 
stone. C. V. Goddard. 

OVEKTON, WEST. 

Barrows. Overton Hill, " Seven Barrow Hill." 

1. S. of Bath Rd. and just E. of Ridge way, a large bowl-shaped 

barrow, without ditch, 75ft. diam. Opened by Hoare (No. 1.) 
In grave in centre, a crouched skeleton which had been enclosed 
in a tree trunk coffin (?) with bronze knife dagger, bronze 
crutched spiral pin, and small flanged celt. Re-opened by 
Thurnam, and skull figured in Cran. Brit xi. 7. O.M. 28 SW. ; 
A. W. II. 90 ; Arch, xliii. 466 fig. ; lxi. 121 ; Evans' Bronze 51, 
134 ; W.A.M. vi. 329 ; Smith p. 167 XI. H. VI. k. 

2. Just N. of the Bath Rd. a fine bowl-shaped barrow without ditch 

70ft. diam. opened by Hoare (No. 2). Burnt bones and incense 
cup in centre 8ins. below floor of barrow. O.M. 28 SW. ; A. W. 
II. 90 ; Smith p. 167 XI. H. VI. i. 

3. Just N. of this, a very large bell-shaped barrow, 110ft. diam. and 

10ft. high. Opened by Hoare (No. 3). Burnt bones only in 
cist. O.M. 28 SW. ; A. W. II. 90 ; Smith p. 167 XI. H. VI. h. 
This barrow with the two following is enclosed within a single 
ditch of hour-glass shape. 
[3a.] The centre barrow, a very small one, 3ft. high, opened by 
Thurnam, 1854, contained burnt bones in a shallow cist with a 
bone pin 5in. long. Smith p. 166 XI. H. VI. g. Not shown 
. on O.M. 

4. The third barrow of the triplet is a large bell-shaped barrow with 

ditch, 105ft. diam. and 10ft. high, opened by Hoare (No. 4), 
contained a heap of burnt bones on the floor, with a bronze 
knife dagger and a bit of ivory belonging to its sheath 1 Above 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 305 

this, near the top, a large urn inverted over burnt bones. O.M. 
28 SW. ; A. W. II. 90 ; Smith p. 166 XI. H. VI. f. ; W.A.M. 
vi. 330. 

5. A little to N.E. of the triplet, a large bowl-shaped barrow with 

slight ditch, opened by Hoare. (No. 5). Burnt bones in cist. 
O.M. 28 SW. ; A. W. II. 91 ; Smith p. 166, XL H. vi. e. 
[A. W. II. Stations XI. and XII. shows 5 barrows in the above 
group.] 

6. [6a. — b.] Just N. of the junction of Eoman Rd. with Bidgeway, both 

Hoare and Thurnam mark a group of 3 (?) very small barrows 1 or 
"miniature mounds." Thurnam opened two of them, found 
nothing in one, and traces of burnt bone, with fragments of 
bronze and pottery in the other. W.A.M. vi. 330. Smith and 
O.M. 28 SW. mark only one, p. 165 XL H. VI. d. ; A.W.IL 
70 plan, and Stations XL & XII. show 4, including the next 
barrow 7. 

7. Close to this on the 1ST. a very small low barrow. O.M. ; Smith p. 

170 XL H. VI. o. 

8. N. again and close to Ridgeway a bowl-shaped barrow, 67ft. diam., 

7ft. high, opened by Hoare (No. 6). Burnt bones on floor of 
barrow, and above near the surface, a large urn inverted over 
burnt bones, and a second heap of burnt bones alone. O.M. 28 
SW. ; A. W. II. 91 ; Smith p. 165, XL H. VI. c. 
Hoare notes several other " flat barrows " which he opened here. 
All had been opened before, and nothing was found, but evidence 
of cremation in all of them. Not in O.M. or Smith's map. 

[8a.] N. again, a very small barrow formerly existed. Not in O.M. 
Smith?- 170 XL H. VI. n. 

[8b.] Probably hereabouts stood the barrow mentioned by Aubrey. 
" Opened in Kennet parish, Anno 1643, two stones eleven feet 
long laid side by side, and a corps between, with a sword and 
knife. Another like stone laid over all." Stukeley Abury, 45 ; 
Smith?. 170 Jig. 
In one of the barrows on this hill Thurnam found a skeleton with 
the fine drinking cup and perforated axe hammer of veined 
stone now in the British Museum. Arch, xliii, 392, 410 figs. ; 
Smith?. 168, 169 figs. 



9. In the northern corner of the parish, just E. of Ridgeway, and N. 
of the point where the track from Avebury to Rockley crosses 
it, a small barrow, opened by Dean Merewether 1849 (No. 6). An 
oval cist in floor 2ft. X l|ft. X 2ft. deep, with burnt bones 
covered with charcoal dust with which the cist was filled. In 
the body of the mound fragments of pottery and animals' bones. 
Near the surface an urn. O.M. 28 NE. ; Proc. Arch. Inst. 
Salisbury p. 84 ; Smith p. 134 X. H. IV. q. 

[9a — c] N. of this, and near Ridgeway, 3 very low i ndistinct barrows 
close together. Not in O.M., unless a barrow shown on W. 



306 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiauities. 

edge of Ridgeway on Avebury boundary, is one of them. See 
Avebury (44). Smith p. 135 X. I. TV. a, b, c. 



10. In the belt on White Hill | mile S.E. of Church, a barrow. Not 

shown by Smith. O.M. 28 SE. 

11. "Bytham Barrow," large wide bowl-shaped barrow, ploughed 

down, just W. of belt and 200 yds. S. of the last. O.M. 28 SE. ; 
Smith p. 172, XI. I. VI. a. 

12. Barrow in "Barrow Copse" on S. edge of West Woods, S. of 

Wansdyke. Large, bowl-shaped. Not opened. O.M. 35 NE. ; 
Smith p. 210 XVI. K. VII. b. 

Stone Circle. "Aubrey mentions as existing in a lane leading from 
Kennett to Marlborough, and fallen down, ' Eight huge large stones in 
a circle which never could be by chance, and besides they are rudely 
hewen.'" A. W. II. 96 ; W.A.M. xix. 55. Smith p. 173 says " The 
only spot where I find any remains of sarsens which might once have 
formed a circle is near the village of Overton." 

Earthworks. Wansdyke enters S. W. extremity of parish and runs past 
Shaw Farm, where it is very strong, into the centre of West Woods 
and the parish boundary. O.M. 35 NE. 
Ditch crosses Ridgeway in N. corner of parish running E. & W. O.M. 
28 NE. 

Ridgeway forms whole W. boundary of Overton along crest of Hackpen 
Hill. 0. M. 28 S W. ; A. W. II. 46. 

Finds, Neolithic. Pick Rudge 1848. Large flint arrowhead and re- 
markable ground oblong " flaying knife " found together. Blackmore 
Museum. Arch. Joum. xii. 285 ; Evans' Stone fig. 255 ; W.A.M. 
III. 17. 
Muller found with interment under large sarsen in Piggle Dean. 
Devizes Museum Cat. II. X95a. 

Finds, Bronze Age. Small urn about 5in. high, with two ears, which 
contained charcoal, found about 2 ft. 6in. deep in West Woods. T. 
Leslie ; A. D. Passmore Coll. 

Roman Road to Cunetio, a fragment of its course on Overton Hill, E. of 
Ridgeway N. of Marlborough Bd. O.M. 28 SW. 

PEWSEY. 
Barrows. 

1. Pewsey Hill. A barrow \ mile W. of Winters Penning just S. of 

Marlborough— Andover Rd. O.M. 41 NW. 
[A. W. Station VI. marks 4 barrows apparently on this down.] 

2. Pewsey Down. Barrow f mile W. of Bouverie Penning. O.M. 42 

SW. 
3 — lO. In S.E. corner of parish W. of Everley Ashes Wood and S. 
or W. of Marlborough Rd. near Down Farm, a group of 8 bar- 
rows close together. Hoare opened 4, and figures 2 of them 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 307 

amongst examples of barrows. One sharply conical with a ditch, 
• is his No. 8, it contained burnt bones in deep cist in the chalk, 
and above this another large deposit of burnt bones with a very- 
small bronze knife dagger. This was apparently an " oval " 
barrow. Another long low barrow surrounded by a circular 
ditch and having the appearance of three mounds in a row, is 
figured as No. 12. This was opened and under the easternmost 
mound were burnt bones with 2 jet beads, bronze awl, and frag- 
ments of a " very rude little cup." The two smallest of the 
bowl-shaped barrows were opened at the same time. In one no 
interment was found, in the other a crouched skeleton. O.M. 
42 SW. ; A. W. I. 191 Station VI. 
Earthworks. In extreme N. corner of parish, Martinsell Camp, oblong 
square, single vallum and ditch, no signs of habitation discovered by 
Hoare. Area 3 L acres. (The rows of pits on the E. side of the camp 
are in Milton Lilbourne.) From the N.E. angle of the camp a strong 
bank and ditch run west, in Pewsey and over Wilcot boundary (q.v.). 
O.M. 35 NE. ; 36 N W. ; 36 S W. ; A. W. II. 9, 10, plan. 
On Pewsey Hill, 2 miles S.E. of town (apparently ?) Hoare shows two 
circular earthworks with slight vallum and ditch outside, connected 
together by a ditch. In the westerly one pottery and animals' bones 
found. O.M. 42 N W., SW. ; A. W. I. 191, Station VI. 
On Everley boundary, just S. of barrows 3 — 10 Hoare describes an 
oblong earthwork 200ft. X 150ft, with vallum perfect on 3 sides, 
destroyed on S. All round it a British village. A.W. I. 190, 
Station VI. O.M. 42 SW." shows a bank only as forming parish 
boundary on N. side of barrows, Everley 1 — 4. 
Finds, Palaeolithic? Greensand object like Pakeolithic Celt found in 
making railway cutting, 1862. Devizes Museum. W.A.M. xxxvii. 
497. 
Finds, Neolithic. Chipped flint celt, and ground flint celt Devizes M. 
Cat. II. 32. A very large ground celt of grey stone, and a long and 
narrow one of black stone said to be from " Pewsey Vale," Bath 
Museum. A very fine ground Mint celt, one of the largest found in 
Wilts, S. B. Dixon Coll. Stone celt hollowed at the sides. W.A.M. 
xix. 98. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze celt from Martinsell. W.A.M. xix. 24. 
Late Celtic. Midden at Withy Copse, see Oare. 

Roman. British village at Pewsey Gorse near Everley boundary. A. W. 
I. 190, Station VI. 

PITTON AND FARLEY. 
Barrows. 

[la.— c] A.W. I. Station VII.; II. Rom. jEra plan, shows at 
" Crows' Rump " two round and one Long or oval barrow close 
together, just S. of the Roman Rd. apparently at Winterslow 
corner ; not marked in O.M. 67 NW., on which the spot is 
called " Piccadilly Clump." See Appendix Long Barrows. 



308 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

PRESHUTE. 
Barrows. 

1. Manton Down, \ mile N.W. of Manton House, E. of track, a fallen 

cromlech, with part of the mound, a Long Barrow, which once 
covered it, and some of the stones which surrounded the mound. 
The covering stone was split in two by workmen. O.M. 28 NE. ; 
A. W. II. 43 ; Smith p. 198 fig. XIV. K. IV. a. See Appendix 
Long Barrows, 
[la.] Manton in " Barrow Piece," 100yds. N. of the Bath Rd., a low 
ploughed-down barrow opened 1906 by B. H. Cunnington. In 
centre a crouched skeleton on the floor of the barrow and beside 
it small bronze dagger knife If in. long, a smaller blade Jin . 
long, amber pommel of dagger knife, lignite bead with gold 
bands, necklace of 150 flat lignite beads, 3 bronze awls, 5 amber 
beads, disc of amber framed in gold, " lancet " of bronze in gold 
handle, grape cup and straight-sided incense cup. 9ft. from the 
skeleton a cinerary urn upright with nothing in it. The body 
had been wrapped in cloth of which the impress remained on 
the soil. Triangular flint arrowhead on the floor of the barrow. 
All objects found in possession of Dr. Maurice, of Marlborough. 
W.A.M. xxxv. 1 figs. ; Smith p. 204 XV. L. VI a. ; not in O.M. 
28 SE. 

2. Clatford Down, just S. of track to Avebury, W. of Manton House, 

very low barrow 1ft. 6in. high. Opened, no record. O.M. 28 NE. ; 
Smith p. 199, XIV. K. IV. b. 

3. Just N. of Bath Rd. at entrance to Clatford Bottom, wide flat 

barrow, ploughed down. O.M. 28 SE. ; Smith, p. 204 XV. K. 
Via. 
3a. In Clatford Bottom, remains of Long Barrow on which " The 
Devil's Den " stands. See below under " Megalithic," and in 
Appendix Long Barrows. 



Rough Hill, just N. of Temple Farm, 5 barrows (4— 8) in line E. 
and W., close together. O.M. 28 NE. ; Smith p. 130,. X. I. III. 
b, c, d, e, h. 

4. (b) Low barrow, no ditch, defaced, but apparently not opened. 

5. (c) Low barrow, not opened. 

6. 7. (d) and (e) Bowl-shaped barows, opened, no record. 

8. (h) Very low barrow, no ditch, not opened. 

9. At the end of the line (f) is a deep pit surrounded with banks, a 

" Pond Barrow " 1 



[9a.] On W. side of Rockley — Marlborough Road about | mile S.E. 
of Rockley, a low barrow, no ditch, mutilated, not in O.M. 28 
NE. ; Smith p. 199 XIV L. IV. a. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 309 

On Marlborough Common, on N. side of Rockley Rd. 4 barrows 
(10—13) near together. O.M. 29 NW. & SW. ; A.W. II. 40, 
Stations XI. XII. ; Smith p. 203, XV. M. V. a, b, c, d. 

10. (a) Large bowl-shaped barrow, no ditch, now made square. O.M. 

29 NW. 

11. (b) Large irregular barrow, no ditch. O.M. 29 SW. 

12. (c) Very low wide bowl-shaped barrow, no ditch. O.M. 29 SW. 

13. (d) Very low barrow, do ditch, not opened. O.M. 29 SW. 



" The Mount " at the College, second only to Silbury in size, 1000ft. 
in circumference at base. Of Norman origin ? Excavations at 
the base 1912. A layer of charcoal found on original floor, and 
fragments of deer horns, apparently used as picks, in the body 
of the mound. W.A.M. xxxviii. 112 ; O.M. 29 SW. ; A. W. II. 
15 ; Smith p. 204, XV M. VI. b. 
14. Preshute Down, f mile S. W. of Barbury Castle, SW. of Barbury 
Farm. Conspicuous on crest of hill, a large high bowl-shaped 
barrow, no ditch. Opened, no record. O.M. 22 SE. ; Smith p. 
122, IX. I. II. c. 
[For cromlech or chambered barrow at Temple see Ogbourne St. 
Andrew.] 

Earthworks. Many cultivation enclosure marks on Preshute Down near 
barrow ( 14). 

Wansdyke to W. of West Woods S. of Foxbury Copse forms S. boundary 
of parish for \ mile and continues on N. of Gore Copse. O.M. 35 
NE. 

Just S. of Wick Farm an oblong enclosure with banks in which sarsen 
stones are imbedded, other banks and cultivation marks around it. 
O.M. 28 NE. ; A. W. II. 41, Stations XL, XII. ; Smith X. I. III. i. 
[About 100ft. of one of the banks about 1ft. 6in. high, of the enclo- 
sure, removed 1913, when medieval or modern pottery was found 
under the bank. Apparently the earthwork is not ancient. E.H.G.] 

Small faintly-marked enclosure with slight bank and ditch and on W. 
a row of half -buried sarsens \ mile S.E. of the last, just E. of barrow 
(9) on Rough Hill, believed by Smith to be Stukeley's " Roman 
Camp opposite to Barbury Castle on Temple Down." W.A.M. xi. 
343 ; Smith p. 130, X. I. III. g. ; O.M. 28 NE. shows only a trace of 
it. 

At Totterdown " a very curious square pit (not a pond) with a long line 
of sarsens running up the hill westwards ; also a circular depression 
to the E. marked out with sarsens." Smith p. 135, X. I. IV. e. 

At S. angle of Marlborough Common an earthwork, area above f acre, 
with S. and W. sides rectangular, other sides irregular, entrance to E. 
(Hoare) A. W. II. 40. 



310 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

Between "Old Chapel" and Glory Ann, apparently in this parish, 
Hoare noted " a singular excavation " described by Stukeley as " a 
pyriform concavity set with stones on the inside. It is styled Bal- 
more Pond . . . 150 cubits broad, 180 long." A. W. II. 43. 

Megalithic. " N.E. of Glory Ann " (says Hoare), on " Temple Downs " 
(says Stukeley), stood the remarkable relic described by Stukeley 
under the name of " Old Chapel." " 'Tis a large square entrench'd, 
110 Druid cubits by 1 30 like a little BomanCamp, with one entrance 
on the south-west side towards Abury ... It is made of a 
vallum and ditch ; beyond that a row of flat stones set quite round 
and pretty close to one another like a wall ; beyond that another 
lesser ditch ; there are stones too set on each side the entrance. , On 
the north-west side is a large long barrow, 50 cubits in length with 
two great stone works upon it ; one on the end next the great en- 
clos'd place we have been describing ; another stone work towards 
the other end ; which seems to have been a semi-circular cove, or 
demi-ellipsis, consisting of five great stones ; a Stonehenge cell in 
. miniature, but now in ruins : this probably gave the name of Old 
Chapel to the place ; the barrow likewise has been set quite round 
with great stones. In the second stone-work, one stone lies flat on 
the ground along the middle line of the barrow. On each side a 
flat stone stands upright and two flat stones stand upright at right 
angles, as wings to 'em : upon them, [ suppose other stones were pil'd, 
as a Kistvaen. . . . The stones are generally very large, about 
10ft. long." Stukeley, Abury 47, 48. In Hoare's time only one flat 
stone remained at the E. end of the Long Barrow. A. W. II. 42. 
The barrow has now disappeared and its site is unknown. Smith p. 
129. 

Apparently in this parish or Fyfield, " on the brow of a hill towards the 
East," from Monkton Down, Dean Merewether noted " a circle 16ft. 
in diameter, of sarsen stones, of which seven only now remain, 
although the dips in the earth show where the others have been. In 
centre of these are five of the same character and size, surrounding 
one lying flat and impacted between them." Under this central stone 
was, on the surface, a fragment of Samian pottery, and below this 
numbers of fragments of British pottery, animals' bones, and numerous 
flint flakes and scrapers. Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury p. 105 (No. 29), 
Jigs, e.e., f.f. 

N.W. of Wick Cottages 3 large sarsen stones " seem to mark either 
some burial place or other monument of old time." Smith p. 122, 
IX. I. II. e. ; not in O.M. 22 SE. 

Devil's Den, in Clatford Bottom, dolmen now standing ou remains of 
mound, regarded by Hoare as kistvaen at the E. end of a long barrow, 
perhaps never entirely covered by the mound. O.M. 28 SE. ; A. W. 
II. 43, PI. IX. ; Stukeley's Abury pp. 62—66, Tabs 32—34 ; Smith 
p. 202, XV. K. V. a. See Appendix Long Barrows. 

Finds, Neolithic. Flint scrapers, <kc. Manton. J. W. Brooke Coll. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 311 

Finds, Late Celtic. In St. Margaret's Mead, N. of Midland Station 
(Marlborough), interment in "The Marlborough Bucket" found cir. 
1807. Wooden bucket with bands and handles of iron and 3 broad 
bands of thin repousse bronze, with sea horses, human heads, &c, in 
high relief. Sir A. Evans believes it imported from Armorica in 1st 
cent. B.C. Of same type as the Aylesford find. Most important 
Late Celtic object found in Wilts. Devizes Museum. O.M. 29 SW. ; 
Stourhead Cat. 88 ; A. W. II. 35 PI. VI. ; B.M. Guide to Early Iron 
Age, 28, fig. ; W.A.M. xxxv. 391. 
Roman. British settlement, with banks and enclosures, S. of training 
course on Barton Down f mile S.E. of Manton House. O.M. 28 NE. 

Another on Granham Hill, S. of College, close to White Horse. O.M. 
29 SW. 

Many Roman objects found in St. Margaret's Mead, near Midland 
Station. Interments, coins, pottery, ampulla, New Forest vase, &c. 
W.A.M. xxii. 235 ; xxiii. 223 ; Stourhead Cat. 301 ; A.W. II. 35. 

Interment of female in cist in chalk, at full length, with skull between 
feet and ampulla in place of head. Opened J. W. Brooke 1891. \ mile 
W. of fallen dolmen on Manton Down. W.A.M. xxvi. 412. 

In neighbourhood of Temple Downs. Many Roman pots found 1886 — 
1892. 

Roman remains found 1883 just N.E. of Manton House, {O.M. 28 NE.) 
refers doubtless to set of 12 large pewter dishes and other smaller 
vessels with coins and pottery fragments found there. Of these 2 
large dishes were given to Devizes Museum 1910. Cat. II. 281, figs. 
The remaining dishes were (1912) in possession of Admiral the Hon. 
Sir Hed worth Lambton, and the smaller vessels in possession of Mr. 
Marsham Townshend. E.H.G. W.A.M. xxxvii. 205. 
Saxon. Summerfield, S. of College cricket ground, W. of Gun Lane. 
Saxon pottery; &c, found 1888. O.M. 29 SW. 



PUKTOK 

Earthworks. Ringsbury Camp, \ mile W. of Bestrop, on point of hill 
overlooking the valley. Area 5 acres. From this point an irregular 
bank and ditch extends for more than a mile along the high ground 
just W. of the two Pavenhill Farms, turning E. at the N. end. O.M. 
10 SW.; A. W. II. 40. 
Bury Hill Camp, in W. extension of parish just N. of Gloucester Rail- 
way and Lower Buryhill Farm. O.M. 9 NE. 

Roman. 3 small pots, coins, &c, found at the brick kiln. G. D. Leslie. 
A. D. Passmore Coll. 

Saxon. At " The Fox," S. of Wheatfield Cottages, in Quarry field, 4. 
skeletons at full length with iron seax, knives, and beads, found 1912. 
Devizes Museum. Other skeletons found here before in quarrying. 
W.A.M. xxxvii. 496, 606, figs. 



312 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities, 

EAMSBUEY. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow between Marridge Hill Wood and Ballard's Copse, \ mile 

S.E. of Marriage Hill. O.M. 24 SW. ; not shown in A. W. 

2, 3, [3a], Two barrows just N.E. of Witcha Cottages. A. W. Stations 

XI., XII. shows 3 barrows in this group unopened. O.M. 24 SW. 

Earthworks. Merabury Camp* or Fort, near county boundary, f of 

camp in Ramsbury and Wilts, \ in Lambourne and Berks. Area 37 

acres. Entrances N. & S. (a road through it now). Strong ditch 

and rampart 1 650 yds. in circumference. On south side of camp 

another small earthwork enclosure. Hoare relates story of treasure 

found in the camp. O.M. 24 SW. ; A. W. II. 36 PL VII. 

Finds, Neolithic. Flint chipped celt in River Kennet, 1913. A. D. 

Passmore. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze looped palstave. Evans' Bronze 87 ; Proc. 

Arch. Inst. Salisbury 112, fig. 37. 
Roman. Littlecote Park. \ mile N.W. of house, near river, Roman villa 
found, 1730, with urns, coins, &c. Pavement 41ft. long by 28ft. 
broad, finest ever found in the county, entirely destroyed. Engraved 
by Vertue, 1747. O.M. 30 NW. ; A. W. II. 117 figs. ; W.A.M. xxii. 
235 ; Lyson's Brit. Rom. ; Britton's Beauties of Wilts III. 262. 
Small pottery vase found at head of skeleton, 1881. Devizes Museum 
Cat. II. 234. 

KEDLYNCH. 
Barrows. 

Group of 6 barrows (1 — 6) close together on both sides of Rd. in Bury 
Hill and Bath Hole plantations $ mile S.E. of Hamptworth 
Lodge, W. of Home Farm. 1, 2 on N. of Rd. 3—6 on S. of it. 
OM. 77 N W. ; A. W. I. Station VII. shows apparently 5 barrows 
on this spot and 3 others in line close together just to E. of them. 

1 . Touching N. side of road. 

2. Just N.W. of (1). 

3. Tonching S. side of Rd. nearly opposite (1). 

4. 5, 6. Close together in line E. and W. just SW. of (3). 

[6a— c] 3 barrows in line just E. of this group shown in A.W. I. 
Station VII ; not in O.M. 77 NE. 

7. Barrow at Risbury Hill on Hamptworth Common. O.M. 77 SE. ; 

not in A. W. I. Station VII. 

8. Barrow just N.W. of Templeman's Farm, | mile N. of Redlynch 

House. OM. 77 N W. ; not in A. W. I. Station VII 
Finds, Neolithic. Flint knife. Blackmore Museum. Evans' Stone 300. 

KOLLESTONE. 
Barrows. 

1 — 8, [8a]. On S. side of Shrewton boundary and track just E. of Net 
Bush, and W. of Rollestone Clump, OM. 54 NW. shows 8 



By the liev. E.H. Goddard. 313 

barrows more or less in line along the boundary, 1 being the 
Southernmost. A. W. I. Station V. North, shows 9 barrows 
here, S. of the boundary. Soc. Ant. Map 202 — 209. 
9—11 [11a, b]. A little distance S.E. of last group and S.W. of 
Rollestone Clump, O.M. 54 NW. shows 2 barrows close together, 
9, 10, and another just to the E., 11. Soc. Ant. Map 210—212. 
A. W. I. Station V. North appears to show 5 barrows in this 
group. 
12, 13. Two barrows close together E. of Devizes — Salisbury Rd. and 
Rollestone Bake Farm. A. TF.*I. Station V. North ; Soc. Ant. 
Map 219, 220. 



14—19 [19a, b]. Just S.E. of the last, and | mile E. of 10th milestone 
from Salisbury on Devizes Rd.,a group of 6 barrows close together, 
16 and 17 being disc barrows. Soc. Ant. Map 221 (14), 223 (15), 
227 (16), 228 (17), 225 (18), 226 (19). This map (O.M. old 
edition) shows a small barrow, 222, just on W. side of 14, and 
another small barrow (224) just on N. side of 18, 19. Neither 
of these are shown on O.M. 54 NVV. A. W. I. Station V. North 
appears to show 6 barrows here. [The disc barrows 16, 17, 
have been much ploughed over but are now down to grass again. 
Six other round barrows are still quite distinct though only 4 
are shown on O.M. The track has become a metalled road and 
the southernmost barrow 14 has been partly cut away. 1913. 
M.E.C.]. 



20, 21. Two barrows a little distance apart, E. of Middle Farm. 

O.M. 54 SW. ; Soc. Ant. Map 283, 284. 
22—30 [30a, b]. S.E. of the last a line of 9 barrows just inside the 
parish boundary, and one large disc barrow actually on the 
boundary. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. Station V. North appears 
to show 10 barrows here ; Soc. Ant. Map 299, 298 (22, 23), 285 
— 291 (24—30). Several of these barrows were opened by W. 
Cunnington previous to his work with Hoare and there is no 
record of their contents. In 28, large disc barrow on parish 
boundary, fragments of large urn and burnt bones were found. 
A. W. I. 174. 
In " Rollestone Field Group " a barrow opened by W. Cunnington con- 
tained skeleton with perforated stone axe hammer in grave 6ft. deep. 
Devizes Museum. Stourhead Cat. 18 ; Evans' Stone 165 ; Arch. lxi. 
122 ; A. W. I. 174, PI. xx. 
In a bell-shaped barrow in same group Hoare found no interment. 

A.W. I. 174. 
A bronze tanged razor in Stourhead Coll. said to have come from a 
" Barrow on Rolleston Down " but it is not mentioned in A. W. ; 
Stourhead Cat. \8a,.fig. ; Arch, xliii. 451, PI. xxxii. fig. 6. 
VOL. XXXVIII. — NO. CXX. Y 



314 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

Earthworks. Hoare mentions " a small square work with strong ram- 
parts " just S. of Maddington Rd. and W- of the Church at Rollestone. 
A. W. I. 173 Station V. North ; not in O.M. 53 SE. [No trace to be 
found of it. 1913. M.E.C.]. 

Finds, Neolithic. Scrapers and worked flints on surface. Rev. C. V. 
Goddard. 

KOUNDWAY. 

Barrows. [The letters in brackets thus (c) are those in Smith's map.] 

1. (c) Small barrow just on edge of hill, at head of combe E. 

of Oliver's Camp. Opened, 1840, by E. F. Colston. On floor 
of barrow a skeleton lying E. & W. with remains of wooden 
coffin with strong iron clamps, a small bucket with thin bronze 
mounts, 2 gold pins joined by gold chains with circular medallion 
in centre, with cruciform ornament on it, and a number of gold 
pendants forming a necklace, oval, circular, and triangular, set 
with uncut garnets or paste ; and barrel-shaped beads of gold 
wire. All these of fine workmanship. Saxon. O.M. 34 NW. ; 
Smith p. 67 IV. A VIII. c. ; WA.M. i. 197 ; vi. 164 (No. 7) ; 
A. W. II Stations XL XII. ; Devizes Museum Cat. II. S 6a— S 7 ; 
Akerman Pagan Saxondom PI. I. 
[la.] (b) Close to this Smith IV. A. VIII. b. shows another mound, 
but doubts if it is a barrow. Not in O.M. 34 N W. ; or A. W. II. 
Stations XI. XII. 

On upper edge of Roundway Hill Covert 3 barrows 2 — 4. 

2. (d) Low bowl-shaped barrow with slight ditch, outside plantation, 

53ft. diam. Opened by W. Cunnington 1883. Large cist ap- 
parently rifled before. O.M. 34 N W. ; Smith p. 68, IV. A. VIII. d • 
WA.M. xxii. 340. 

3. (e) Inside plantation. Opened, 1883, by W. Cunington. Large 

cist found empty, rifled before. O.M. 34 NW. ; Smith p. 68, IV. 
A. VIII. e. ; WA.M. xxii. 340. 

4. (f) Inside plantation. Opened, no record. Regarded as doubtful 

barrow by Smith. O.M. 34 NW. ; Smith p. 68, IV.' A. VIII. f ; 
WA.M. xxii. 340. 

5. (No. 6) Large oval barrow about 1 mile N.E. of last group, just 

W. of Roundway Hill Farm. Surrounded by ditch, 134ft. x 
95ft. X 7ft. high. E. end opened by W. Cunnington 1856. Large 
grave 5ft. 8in. long X 2ft. 5in. wide X 2ft. deep. Contained 
small heap of burnt bones, and piled in a heap near 2 hollow 
grooved whetstones, a plain whetstone, flint arrowhead, knife, 
and flakes, small bronze knife dagger, deer's horn netting needle ? 
and 3 mesh rules 1 W. end opened 1858. In a grave 5ft. 4in. X 
3ft. X 3ft. 6in. deep a heap of burnt bones apparently deposited 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 315 

in a wooden chest or coffin and small bronze knife dagger. Later 
interment of skeleton found at highest point of E. end. Devizes 
Museum Cat. II. X 57— X 69 ; Smith p. 68 IV. A. VIII. g ; 
W.A.M. vi. 162 ; Evans' Stone 241 ; O.M. 34 NW. 

6. S.E. of the last a very low barrow opened 1855 by W. Cunnington 

(No. 1 ). Nothing found but a fragment of burnt bone and pottery. 
O.M. 34 NW". ; Smith p. 69, IV. A. VIII. i. ; W.A.M. vi. 159. 

7. S. of the last, near edge of hill, barrow, about 2jft. high, on boun- 

dary of Bishops Cannings, S.W. of chalk-pit, opened by W. 
Cunnington 1805 (No. 3). In a grave a skeleton lying E. & W., 
with iron ring and 30 pieces of ivory ? like marbles cut in two, 
with quantity of decayed wood. Opened again by Thurnam 1855. 
Perhaps Late Celtic. O.M. 34 NW. ; A. W. II. 98 ; Smith p. 69, 
IV B. VIII. b. ; W.A.M. vi. 160. 

8. Just N.W. of 7, a barrow almost obliterated, opened by W. 

Cunnington 1855 (No. 2). In grave 5ft. X 2jft. X 5£ft. deep, 
contracted skeleton with drinking cup at feet ; barbed flint 
arrowhead near head, plain broad flat tanged dagger of copper 
lOin. long near left hand. Between bones of left forearm a 
wristguard of slate, and small copper tang of razor or knife ? 
Devizes Museum Cat. II. X 47— X 50 a ; Smith p. 70, IV. B. 
VIII. e; Cran. Brit. II. PI. xlii. ; Evans' Bronze 223, fig. 277 ; 
Evans' Stone, 381 fig. 355 ; Arch, xliii. 392, 450; lxi. 105, figs. ; 
W.A.M. iii. 185 ; xxxvii, 97 ; O.M. 34 NW. 

9. W. of the last, near Leipsic Plantation, on brow of hill near track 

to Calstone, a very low barrow, nearly obliterated. Opened by 
Hoare and again by W. Cunnington 1856 (No. 4). Oval grave 
with skeleton and fragments of drinking cup. O.M. 34 NW. ; 
A. W. II. 98 ; W.A.M. vi. 162 ; Smith p. 69, IV. A. VIII. k. 
[For other barrows near see Bishops Cannings and Bromham.] 
Finds, Neolithic. Flint scrapers, fabricator, &c. Devizes Museum. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Cinerary urn found cir. 1854. W.A.M. ii. 37. 

Interment of skeleton with drinking cup with no mound over it " near 

Bound way Down." Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury p. 109, fig. 9. 
Bronze celt. W.A.M. i. 65. Bronze awl ; Devizes Museum Cat. II. 
386a. 
Late Celtic. See Barrow 7 above. 

Roman. Lead coffin found 1852 near site of Devizes Barracks. W.A.M. 
vi. 138 ; xxvii. 309. Urn, 1854. W.A.M. ii., 37. Iron pruner. 
W.A.M. xxxvi. 483, fig. ; Devizes M useum Cat. II. 386 c. 
Saxon. See Barrow 1 above. 

EUSHALL. 
Barrows. 

1. " Slay Barrow," just S. of Old Nursery Ditch. O.M. 47 NW ; 
A. W. I. Station V. North ; Soc. Ant. Map 71. 

Y 2 



316 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

Earthworks. Church ditches on Rushall Down. " A little square en- 
trenchment with a regular entrance towards the E." (Hoare). O.M. 
47 N W. ; A. W. I. 175, Station V. North ; Soc. Ant. Map 26. 
Old Nursery Ditch running W. to E. from Ell Barrow, crosses Charlton 
and Rushall just N. of Slay Barrow, and passes on into Upavon and 
Enford. O.M. 47 NW. ; A.W. I. 175, Station V. North ; Soc. Ant. 
Map 70. 
Ditch and bank on Rushall Down going N.E. towards Casterley, N. of 
Water Dean Bottom, continuation of fragments in Marden,Wilsford, 
and Charlton. O.M. 47 N.W. ; A.W. I. 175, Station V. North; 
Soc. Ant. Map 24. 

Finds, Neolithic. 2 ground flint celts. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 3, 28 ; 
W.A.M. i. 60 ; vii. 248. Ground flint celt, British Museum. 

Finds, Bronze Age? Long bronze pin with loop on shaft and tray- 
shaped head. Devizes Museum Cat. II. B 16 ; Reliquary xiv. 247 

fig- 

Soman. An extensive Romano-British settlement on Rushall Down, 
partly examined by Col. Hawley, pit coal and number of objects 
found, pottery, &c Great number of objects found in ploughing up 
the down. Devizes Museum. Bow and other brooches, Cat. II. 
319, 324, 329 — 334, 341 ; pair of fine querns and part of another, Cat. 
II. Q2, Q3, Q12. Iron objects, reaping hook, lobed horseshoe, 
compasses, clasp knife, nails, tongs, key, catches of tubular padlocks, 
spear heads, &c, W.A.M. xxxvi. 480— ASbfigs. ; Cat. II., 512, 520, 
528, 529, 537—540, 542—544, 546, 550, 554, 558g ; bronze bracelets, 
Cat. II. 343 ; buckles, rings, &c, 357—362, 378 ; nail cleaner, 376 b. 
Urn found 1853. W.A.M. i. 58. 

SALISBURY. 

Finds, Palaeolithic. Implements first found in the gravels of Milford 
Hill, 1865. Found in great numbers in subsequent years ; also 
found at Fisherton and Stratford Road. Blackmore and Devizes 
Museums. W.A.M. xxii. 117. 
Finds, Neolithic. One rough chipped flint celt from the Close ; and 2 
from Highfield ; 3 fine partly ground flint celts from Milford Hill ; 
and 2 ground flint celts from Endless Street (1907). Blackmore 
Museum. 

Fine flint fabricators. Blackmore Museum. 

Flint knives and borer, Milford Hill. Devizes Museum. 

8 ground flint celts and 5 chipped flint celts from " Salisbury neigh- 
bourhood." Blackmore Museum. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze Age cinerary urn with burnt bones, of 
globular shape, the only example known from Wilts, from " Barrow, 
near Salisbury." Devizes Cat. II. xl3. 

Bronze rapier-shaped sword or dagger 14|in. long, Fisherton Anger, 
4ft. under ground, 1860. Arch. Jour, xviii. 160. Blackmore Museum. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 317 

Two " bronze spearheads," 1854. W.A.M. ii. 29. 

Socketed looped bronze celt, 2 looped palstaves, and 2 without loops. 
Blackmore Museum. 

[17 bronze celts " found near Salisbury," 1853, 1854. W.A.M. i. 29, 66 ; 
ii. 29.] 
Late Celtic. At Highfield, excavated 1868, 4 bottle-shaped pits close 
together dug through gravel with floors on the chalk, with small 
openings on surface which had been covered with large circular 
earthenware covers with holes in them. All 4 pits communicated 
with each other by small openings. Models in Blackmore Museum. 
Cooking pots of coarse ware and quantities of fragments of pottery 
of Late Celtic type, leather brown, black, and painted red with 
polished surface, impressed patterns, painted chevron ornament, &c. 
No Roman pottery. Saddle quern, spindle whorls, bone implements, 
bone combs, pottery sling pellets, loom weights. Blackmore Museum. 
Stevens' Flint Chips 64. These pits appear to have been actual 
dwellings, no others like them have occurred in the county. Described 
wrongly as Neolithic in Flint Chips. 
Roman. London Road. Bronze bow brooch with T-shaped head, another 
of La Tene III. type. Blackmore Museum. 

"SALISBURY PLAIN" and "S. WILTS." 

Finds, Neolithic. Stone perforated axehead of porphyritic rock, 9in. 

long. British Museum. Evans' Stone, 179. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze flanged celt, Blackmore Museum. Dagger, 

about 5in. long, British Museum. Pin with circular head about 5in. 

long and 3 smaller similar pins, British Museum. Pin with twisted 

stem and round head with rim, British Museum. 2 awls, British 

Museum. 
Finds, Late Celtic. Large bronze pin, 13jin. long, with flattened head. 

British Museum. Evans' Bronze 369 ; Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd Series, 

III. 469 ; W.A.M. xxxv. 407. 

• 

SAVERNAKE, NORTH. 

Earthworks. Wansdyke runs E. and W. for l£ miles crossing G.W.R. 
Marlborough Line just N. of Wernham Farm, pointing towards 
Great Lodge Farm, but does not reach the Midland Railway. O.M. 
36 NW. 

Finds, Neolithic. At Pantawick, nr. Marlborough, and W. of brick- 
works on Salisbury Hill, flint implements of various types. J. 
W. Brooke Coll. O.M. 29 SW. 

Finds, Late Celtic. British coins found at brickworks on Salisbury 
Hill, 1856 {O.M. says 1875). O.M. 29 SW. ; W.A.M. xix. 86. 

Roman. Fragment of the Roman Rd. from Winchester to Cunetio, point- 
ing to Folly Farm, at point where Cock-a-Troop lane enters Forest. 
O.M. 29 SW. ; A. W. II. Station X. 



318 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

British Settlement at Pantawick on hill \ mile S.E. of College. 531 
coins, Licinius to Constantine II., all in mint state, found in pot here, 
1890. J. W. Brooke Coll. O.M. 29 SW. ; W.A.M. xxvi. 39. 

At brickworks on Salisbury Hill, silver coins of Julius Caesar found. 
W.A.M. xix. 29 ; O.M. 29 SW. 



SAVERNAKE, SOUTH. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow S. W. of Savernake Lodge and E. of Grand Avenue. O.M. 

36 NE. 

2, 3. Two barrows touching each other in open valley in Forest \ 

mile E. of Cadley Vicarage. O.M. 36 NW. 

4. Barrow a little S. of the last. O.M. 36 NW. 

5. Barrow in extreme W. corner of parish at S.E. corner of Clench 

Common to E. of Marlborough Ed. i mile N.E. of Martinsell. 
Opened by B. H. Cunnington 1894. No interment found, lift, 
high, 52ft. diam., wide ditch. W.A.M. xxviii. 257. 
[None of the above barrows are shown in A. W. II. Station X.] 
Roman. Road from Cunetio to Winchester runs almost parallel with 
Grand Avenue, to E. of it, right across parish. O.M. 29 SE. ; 36 NE ; 
A. W. II. Roman Mr a 07 plan. 
Fragment of road to Old Sarum seen at Braydon Hook, S. of Grand 
Avenue. O.M. 29 SW. ; A. W. II. Roman JSra 89. 

SEMLEY. 
Barrows. 

[1.] Small barrow, unopened, in ploughed ground, a little distance E. 
of Church, apparently between Kerton Farm and Brown's Wood. 
A. W. I. 253, Stations VIII. IX ; not in O.M. 69 NW. 
Earthworks . Square moat \ mile N. of Church, adjoining S. side of 
railway in angle made by Rd. crossing it. On low ground in a wood 
says Hoare. Probably medieval. O.M. 69 NW. ; A. W. I. 253, Stations 
VIII. IX. 
Finds, Neolithic. Top of Semley Common. From gravel 2ft. under- 
ground, small finely ground flint celt. Canon Short. Salisbury 
Museum. O.M. 68 ME. ; Salisbury Field Club Trans. I. 35. 

SHALBOURNE. 
Barrows. 

1, [la, b.] Barrow on Rivar Down on parish and county boundary \\ 

mile S.W. of Shalbourne. O.M. 37 SW. [A. W. II. Marlborough 
Station shows 2 round and 1 Long barrow here.] 

2. Barrow £ mile N. of Cross Droves W. of Ham Ashley Copse, S.E, 

of Gallowood. O.M. 43 NE. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 319 

3, 4. Two barrows close together just E. of Rd. to Fosbury, N.E. of 
Pearce's Farm. O.M. 43 NE. 

5. Long barrow just within Gt. Botley Copse close to boundary of 
Grafton. Not opened. O.M. 43 NW. ; A. W. I. Station VI- 
See Appendix Long Barrows. 
[5a.] Long Barrow on Smay Down J mile E. of Oxenwood, just N. 
of track and W. of old chalk pit, said to have been opened and 
skeletons found. No record. O. G. S. Crawford, 1913. Not 
in O.M. 43 NW., or A. W. See Appendix Long Barrows. 
Earthworks. Wansdyke coming out of Little Bedwyn E. of Chisbury 
Camp, passes into Shal bourne between Birds Heath and Newton 
Common Farm, across the Salisbury — Hungerford Rd. towards 
Prosperous Farm, and across the Berks boundary towards Inkpen, 
according to Hoare, A. W. II. 32. 
A line of ditch runs N.E. along hill from N.E. corner of Botley Copse. 

O.M. 43 NW. 
Ditch coming from Gammons Farm in Collingbourne Kingston enters 
Shalbourne at Scots Poor and can be traced across Silver Down (not 
on O.M. except fragment at Hungry Lodge) to Maccoombe Down 
where it is shown on O.M. 43 SW., and into Fosbury. It passes N. 
of Fosbury House into Shalbourne again across Smay Down and 
into Buttermere. O. G S. Crawford 1913. A.W. I. Station VI. ; 
only fragments shown on O.M. 
Ditch on Rivar Hill or Ashley Down, just S. of river. O.M. 41 SE. 
Ditch running N.E. to S.W. past Long Barrow on Smay Down [5a] 
for i mile. O.M. 43 NW. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Socketed looped celt. J.*W. Brooke. W.A.M. 

xxxvii. 136. 
Roman. Roman Road Cunetio to Winchester curving to avoid hill forms 
boundary of Shalbourne and Tidcombe. O.M. 43 NW. ; A. W. II. 
69, 70. 
Quern, Devizes Museum Cat. II. Q 8. 



SHERRINGTON. 
Barrows. 

1 . Long barrow 100 yds. S. of Wily River h mile E. of Church. Opened 

by W. Cunnington 1804. Shown as round barrow in O.M. 58 NE.; 
A.W. I. 100, Station IV. See Appendix Long Barrows. 

2, 3. Two small barrows close together (2 West, 3 East) just S. of 

village and Sherrington Mill Farm. O.M. 58 NE. ; not in A. W. 
I. Station IV. [Have apparently been opened. M.E.C.] 
4. Long barrow on parish boundary just E. of Boy ton Field Farm, 
I mile S.W. of Sherrington. O.M. 58 NE. ; A. W. I. Station IV. 
See Appendix Long Barrows. 
[The round barrow close to this is Boyton 5.] 



320 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

The large mound between the churchyard and Manor Farm in the 
village is apparently a Norman motte. O.M. 58 NE. 
Roman. So-called " Roman Road " running through Great Ridge Wood 

forms whole S. boundary of parish. O.M. 58 SE. 
Saxon. 4 Saxon skeletons found 16in. under surface at broad end of Long 
Barrow (1) 1804, and at lower end 3 more skeletons, one of them a 
child. Iron sword, umbo, spearhead, knives, <fcc. O.M. 58 NE. ; 
A. W. I. 100; Arch. xv. 344, PI. XVIII., XIX. 



SHEKSTON. 

Barrows. Camden speaks of " several barrows hereabouts." In this 

parish or Luckington 1 A. W. II. 103. 
Earthworks. Ditches of two sides of a camp remains, on the bluff 

above the river just W. of Church, part of village being on its site. 

O.M. 7 SE. ; A. W. II. 102. 
Roman. Coins found 1650. Jacksons' Aubrey 5, 106 ; W.A.M. xi. 344. 

Silver coin of Hadrian 1901. W. Symonds. 
Fosseway forms E. boundary of parish. O.M. 12 NE. 



SHREWTON. 
Barrows. 

1 — 3. Just N.W. of the double earthwork circle between Robin Hood 
Ball and the Bustard 3 barrows close together. Opened by 
Capt. W. Htfwley (Nos. 13 — 15). Had been disturbed before. 
One contained nothing ; another a heap of burnt bones in a bowl- 
shaped depression in the chalk, and an urn ; the third an urn. 
Bones of unburnt bodies were scattered through the earth of all 
three. Urns in Salisbury Museum. O.M. 54 NW. ; A.W. I. 
176, Station V. North, shows only 2 of these ; W.A.M. xxxvi. 
625 ; Soc. Ant. Mag 213—215. 

4. Barrow a slight distance to the S.W. of the circle, just S. of the 

track. O.M. 54 N W. ; A. W. I. 176, Station V. North ; Soc. Ant. 
Map 216. 

5. Barrow S. of the circle on Rollestone boundary. O.M. 54 NW. ; 

A. W. I. 176, Station V. North ; Soc. Ant. Map 218. 
[5a]. A. W. I. Station V. North shows barrow just on N. edge of 
Shrewton boundary and track at Net Bush, E. of Shrewton 
Lodge, opposite group Rollestone 1 — 8. Not on O.M. 54 NW. 

6. Barrow \ mile W. of the Bustard, on S. edge of track. O.M. 54 

NW. ; A.W. I. Station V. North ; Soc. Ant. Map 201. 

7. " Site of Tumulus " E. of 11th milestone from Devizes on Salisbury 

Rd. O.M. 54 NW. ; not in A. W. ; Soc. Ant. Map 133. 

8. Barrow i mile S.E. of last, just E. of Rd. to Salisbury. O.M. 54 

NW. ; Soc. Ant. Map 134. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 321 

Earthworks. Double circular concentric earthwork, partly in Shrewton 

and partly in Figheldean, | mile S.W. of Kobin Hood Ball, f mile E. 

of Bustard. Entrance on N. side. Hoare regards it as not defensive. 

O.M. 54 NW. ; A. W. I. 176, Station V. North ; Soc. Ant. Map 217. 
Finds, Neolithic. Many flint scrapers, some of large size, and rough 

long implements, a ground celt, &c. 0. V. Goddard. 
Finds, Saxon. Iron socketed spearhead. Blackmore Museum. 

When Shrewton Windmill was erected an interment without barrow 

was found. Skeleton at full length on back, iron knife at side, cup 

between legs, and bronze wheel-like ornaments. A. W. 1. 174, PI. XX. ; 

Stourhead Cat 93, 94. 



SOMERFORD, BROAD. 

Mound. Large mound just W. of Church, close to river, opened by Rev. 

F. H. Manley 1911. Walls of masonry building found buried deep 

in it, of Norman age 1 O.M. 13 NE. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Large bronze palstave found some years ago, now 

in a collection near Stroud ; and half of another in A. D. Passmore 

Coll. 



STANDLYNCH and CHARLTON ALL SAINTS. 
Barrows. 

[la — e.] Group of 5 barrows close together f mile S.W. of Clearbury 

Rings, just E. of Grimsditch at its junction with the other ditch. 

A. W. I. Station VII. ; not in O.M. 71 SE. 

Earthworks. Clearbury Ring, camp in- prominent position, not very 

strong, single ditch, greatest height of vallum 2 1ft. Area 5 acres, 

circuit 3 furlongs, 55 yds. Oblong with one entrance to S.W. 

Chiefly in Standlynch, partly in Nunton and Bodenham. O.M. 71 

SE. ; A.W. I. 231, plan 217, Station VII. ; Ancient Earthworks of 

Cranborne Chase, 27, plan ; Early Wars of Wessex, 12, plan. [Area 

and ditches covered with wood, 1911. Heywood Sumner.] 

Mutilated earthwork N. of Trafalgar, apparently at Witherington Ring. 
A. W. I. 230 Station VII. ; not in O.M. 72 SW. 

Grimsditch running E. from Nunton and Bodenham stops abruptly 
near Down Barn, 1 mile S. of Clearbury Ring, where it is cut at 
right angles by a similar ditch running N. & S. from Clearbury 
Down to Whitsbury Castle, over Charlton Down and Wick Down 
to Downton. Grimsditch reappears 3 miles to E. of this on Stand- 
lynch Down. O.M. 71 SE. ; A.W. I. 231, Station VII.; Ancient 
Earthworks of Cranborne Chase, 58 plan. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze celt, Charlton Down. Earl Nelson, 1865. 
W.A.M. x. 34. 



322 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

STANTON FITZWAEEEN. 

Finds, Neolithic. Ground flint celt. Arch. Journ. ix. 194; Proc. Arch. 

Inst., Salisbury 112, fig. 38 ; Evans' Stone 92. 
Flint celt. A. D. Passmore Coll. 
Megalithic. A single large sarsen stone standing in a hedge near the 

village. ? of what date. Canon W. C. Masters. 
Roman. When railway -was made to W. of village several pavements of 

rough stone tesserae, not coloured, were found and destroyed. Another 

pavement in same field near the Lake. Roman urn found at New 

Lodge, near Swindon Rd. O.M. 11 NW. Canon W. C. Masters. 
Skeleton with iron tanged knife found 1906 in digging pond at "Van 

Diemen's Land." Saxon? or possibly modern? Canon W. C. 

Masters. 

STANTON St. BEENARD. 
Barrows. 

1. On Milk Hill, E. of Tan Hill. Barrow just S. of Wansdyke. 

O.M. 35 NW. ; not in Smith's Map. 

2, 3. 2 small barrows close together on top of escarpment of Milk 

Hill N. of village. O.M. 35 SW. 
4. On Harestone Down in N. corner of parish, f mile S.W. of Kennet 
Long Barrow. O.M- 35 NW. ; not shown by Smith. 
Earthworks. Wansdyke crosses N. end of parish N. of Milk Hill. O.M. 
35 NW. 
On Milk Hill in very commanding position f mile S. of Wansdyke an 
irregular oval earthwork with ditch running N. & S. forming the E. 
side of it. 0-M. 35 NW. ; Smith p. 181 XII. G.. VII. c. 
\ mile N. of Wansdyke a very large oblong enclosure with double bank 
and ditch, outer ditch prolonged E. & W. on the S. side. 0-M. 35 
NW. ; Smith p. 181 XII. G. VIII. b. . 
Finds, Neolithic. Milk Hill, flints, flakes, cores, a few scrapers, and a 
good arrowhead. Rev. H. G O. Kendall. 

STANTON ST. QUINTIN. 

Roman. In Stanton Park Wood \ mile from village, apparently a con- 
siderable villa, covering large space. Part of one room uncovered 
1910 by A. D. Passmore & Rev. T. G. Henslow. Hypocaust, and two 
capitals used as building material, pottery and other objects found. 
OM. 13. SW. 

STAPLE FOED. 
Barrows. 

1, Barrow on Stapleford Down, on parish boundary, on W. edge of 
Salisbury— Devizes Bd., 5£ miles from Salisbury. O.M. 60 SW. ; 
A. W. I. Station V. South. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 323 

2, 3. Two small barrows within area of large earthwork enclosure 
i mile S.E. of Druid's Head Farm. O.M. 60 N W. ; not in A. W. 
I. Station V. South. 

4. Barrow exactly outside NW. corner of earthwork enclosure. O.M. 

60 N W. ; not in A W. I. Station V. South. 

5. Barrow N. of last, just E. of Druid's Head Farm. OM. 60 NW. ; 

not in A. W. I. Station V. South. 
Earthworks. Stapleford Down lj miles N.E. of village, \ mile S.W. of 
Druid's Lodge, large 4-sided wedge-shaped earthwork enclosure with 
small square enclosure in S.E. corner of it. O.M. 60 NW. ; A. W. I. 
214, Station V. South. 
A. W. I. 214, Station V. South shows a ditch running W. from Salisbury 
— Devizes Bd. between 17th and 18th milestones, S. of Barrow 1, 
apparently in Stapleford. Not in OM. 60 SW. 
Stapleford Castle, \ mile N.W. of Church, just on W. side of river, 
earthworks of mount and bailey type, fairly perfect except on S. side 
of bailey. Norman 1 O.M. 59 SE. 
Finds, Late Celtic (?) At Druid's Head, large saddle quern. Black- 
more Museum. 



STOCKTON. 
Barrows. 

1. Long Barrow on Stockton Down, \ mile W. of Conygar Barn. 
Opened by Hoare, no details. O.M. 58 SE. ; A. W. I. 107, 
Station IV. See Appendix Long Barrows. 
2—4. Group of 3 barrows close together just E. of Stockton Works 
at Roakham Bottom. O.M. 58 SE. ; not in A.W. I. Station IV. 
['' There are only 4 barrows on Stockton Down. Two of them on 
Mr. Biggs' property are square ones. There is a small round one 
in Rokeham bottom, a part of the glebe, and another by the 
Green Boad to Hindon." W.AM. ii. 108 (1869).] 
Earthworks. Stockton Works, on the down just on the N. side of Stockton 
Wood, an area of 62 acres once enclosed by bank and ditch which 
still remain strong on E. side, with interrupted portions on N. and 
W. but not on the S. {i.e. the wood) side. This enclosed extensive 
British village. Roman pottery, coins, &c, very abundant. T-shaped 
hypocausts, flue tiles, &c. Within the works a small pentagonal en- 
closure. O.M. 58 SE. ; A. W. I. 106, 107, plan ; W.A.M. xxxiv. 272. 
The winding ditch called " Roman Rd." on O.M. 58 SE., running through 
Gattrel Copse and Stockton Wood, S. of the " Works," forms S. 
boundary of parish throughout. A. W. I. Station IV. 
Roman. See above, Earthworks, Stockton Works. 

On Cow Down, chalk diggers 1833 found 2 cavities'with stonework and 
ashes, probably T-shaped hypocausts. (E.H.G.) W.A.M. xii. 107. 



324 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities, 

STOURTOK 
Barrows. 

1. Mound in centre of Stourton part of area of White Sheet Castle, 
shown but not marked " tumulus " on O.M. Hoare thought it 
modern. O.M. 57 S W. ; A. W. I. 43 plan. 

2—4. Three small mounds close together in line just outside outer 
rampart of White Sheet Castle on N. Opened by Hoare, found 
to be " not sepulchral." O.M. 57 S W. ; A. W. I. 43 plan shows 4 
mounds. 

Earthworks. Stourhead Park, W. of Six Wells Bottom. Camp nearly 
circular, double rampart on N., single on S. Entrances E. & W. 
Area 7 acres. Slope of vallum where deepest 27ft. Hoare's plan 
shows a division ditch cutting off about \ of the area on W. side. 
" Occupies the whole ridge of the hill and is naturally defended on 
each side by steep and precipitous ground." O.M. 56 SE. ; A. W. I. 
38, 39, plan p. 43. 

On " New Park Terrace " another camp, oblong, not quite so large, 
placed on ridge of hill. The Somerset boundary runs through centre 
of camp. O.M. 62 NE. ; A. W. I. 39 note. 

On steep promontory overlooking the Stour opposite to Zeals Row, in 
extreme S. point of parish, an earthwork. " An elevated keep and 
an oblong outwork unlike any of the Camps on our Chalk Hills and 
very similar to many I have observed in Wales " (Hoare). O.M. 62 
NE. ; A. W. I. 38. 

White Sheet Castle, partly in Mere. A single ditch follows the line of 
the steep escarpment. On the down side 3 ditches and ramparts 
with considerable intervals between them. Entrances through these 
ramparts. The middle ditch by far the deepest, outer ditch shallower. 
Circuit of outer ditch 4 furlongs and 152 yds. Area of inner en- 
closure 15 acres. O.M. 57 S W. ; A. W. I. 43, plan. 

Large ditch cuts across the narrow ridge of the hill and the trackway 
from side to side a little N. W. of the camp, half in Stourton, half in 
Kilmington. O.M. 57 SW. ; A.W.I 43, plan. 

Pen Pits. In extreme S.E. corner of parish and county in wooded 
ground at Bottles Hill, S. of Casper Hill, W. of Zeals Row, a portion 
of " Pen Pits." These pits originally covered some 700 acres, says 
Hoare, in Stourton, Penselwood, and Zeals. Hoare thought them 
habitations, and Kerslake calls them " a British metropolis." Gen. 
Pitt Rivers proved by excavation that they are pits dug to procure 
hard greensand rock for querns which are often found in them. O.M. 
62 NE. ; A. W. I. 35, plan. 
Finds. Bronze Age. Stone perforated axe head 9jin. long. Evans' 
Stone 179. 

Greenstone hammer with perforation begun on one side. Evans' Stone 
lT\,fg. 124. 
Finds, Late Celtic. British uninscribed gold coin, type Evans PI. I. 
fig. 6, found at Brewham Forest, near Alfred's Tower, cir. 1867. 
W.A.M. xxix. 227. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 325 

STRATFORD SUB CASTLE. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow due E. of Old Sarum Inn on E. side of track branching 
off from Amesbury — Salisbury Rd. to the E. just N. of the Inn, 
and S. of Rom. Rd. to Winchester, just on parish boundary. 
Opened by A. Tucker, ] 890. Diam. only 60ft. as it had been 
partially carted away previously, and primary Bronze Age inter- 
ment destroyed, only a fragment of an urn being found. 14 
skeletons found. One at S.E. corner a contracted interment, 
the rest at full length, and with hands crossed behind their 
backs, as though tied. All men, 2 young, the rest middle-aged. 
5 were buried across centre of mound, 3 on N., 4 on S., and 2 on 
E. side, heads pointing in all directions. No pottery or weapons, 
but two had bronze buckles over left hip. Probably bodies of 
captives of Roman times. H. P. Blackmore. Salisbury Field 
Club Trans. I. 49 ; O.M. 66 NE. ; A. W. I. Station V. South. 
2 — 4, [4a — d]. Group of 3 barrows (2—4) close together on North 
Hill Down \ mile N. of Stratford Bridge and Dean's Farm. O.M. 
66 NE. In this position on end of hill between Stratford and 
Little Durnf ord, A. W. I. Station V. South shows 2 groups of small 
barrows, 5 and 4. The Rev. E. Duke opened 1811 a group of 7 
[4a — d) apparently here. The 3 smallest contained no interment, 
one of the larger ones burnt bones in cist, and the 3 others urns 
with burnt bones. In one beside the urn there were fragments 
of 2 " small rude cups " and the cover of one of them, now in 
British Museum, O.M. 66 NE. ; A. W. I. 221. 
Earthworks. Old Sarum. Area within outer ditch 27J acres, circuit of 
ditch 7 furlongs 26 yds. The material from outer ditch was partly 
thrown outwards to raise height of counterscarp. The deepest ditch 
in Wilts, 106ft. (Hoare). In centre circular ditch 103ft. deep (Hoare) 
from which material was thrown inwards to form Norman motte, the 
interior area of which is 17ft. above original level of hill, with high 
bank round edge. All this central castle area of Norman date. Date of 
outer ditch doubtful. Entrances on E. & W. That on E. defended 
by outworks. Excavations under W. H. St. John Hope and Lt.-Col. 
W. Hawley 1909—1913. Reports, Proc. Soc. Ant. 2nd Ser. xxiit 
190, 512; xxiv. 52; xxv. 93, plans. Foundations of Norman Castle 
and Saxon and Norman Cathedral only found. O.M. 66 NE. ; 
A.W.I. 223, plan ; Arch. Journ. xxxii. 292, plan. 
Finds, Neolithic. Ground greenstone celt, Old Sarum. Blackmore 

Museum. 
Finds, Late Celtic. British gold coin, VER. on the reverse. Old 

Sarum.. Hawkins' Silver Coins 12. 
Roman. Old Sarum has always been assumed to be the site of Sorbio- 
dunum ; but very few Roman objects have been found in the 
excavations 1909 — 1913. On original level of ground 17ft. below 
present surface of castle enclosure, walls were found which may 



326 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

have been Roman (Proc. Soc. Ant. 2nd ser. xxiii. 517 ; xxiv. 57) ; 
also part of quern, a few fragments of pottery and roofing tile and a 
coin or two, nothing more. Coins found formerly, Ledwich Ant. 
Sarisb. I. Spoon 1857, W.A.M. iv. 249. 
Roman Roads. 

To Silchester the " Portway " from E. gate runs N.E., its course 
lost for | mile then by a modern Rd. through Laverstock and 
the Winterbournes. O.M. 66 NE. ; A. W. II. Roman jEra 46, 
plan. 
To Winchester from the E. gate, runs due E. through Ford, crosses 
Andover — Salisbury Rd. 3^ miles from Salisbury and points to 
Middle Winterslow. A modern road all the way. O.M. 66 NE. ; 
A. W. II. Roman JEra 58, plan. 
To Vindogladia and Badbury, from E. gate, running S.W., crosses 
Avon to the left of Stratford, crosses Salisbury — Devizes and 
Salisbury — Warminster Rds. at 1st milestone in each case. Parts 
of its course lost. O.M. 66 NE. ; A. W. II. Roman JEra 25, plan. 
To River Axe, from W. gate, across Avon and Chilhampton Down, 
and along the central ridge of Grovely to Dinton Beeches. Its 
course lost for 3i miles from Old Sarum. O.M. 66 NE. ; A. W. 
II. Roman JEra 38 plan. 
For the above Roman Roads see Codrington Roman Roads. 



STRATFORD TONY, 

Earthworks. Grimsditch runing E. & W. through Standlynch, Nunton 
Odstock, and Coombe Bissett, crosses southern point of Stratford 
Tony at Toyd Clump and on to form boundary of Bishopstone. O.M. 
71 SW. ; A. W. I. 232, Station VII. ; Ancient Earthworks of Cranborne 
Chase, 57 plan. 

Roman. Roman Rd. to Old Sarum coming out of Bishopstone ran straight 
N.E. across parish just W. and N. of village. Only its course is 
marked on O.M. 71 N W. ; A. W. II. 27 plans. 



SUTTON MANDEVILLE. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow in circular clump on narrow ridge of Buxbury Hill, 

N. of ditch, S.W. of old chalk pit. O.M. 70 N W. ; A. W. I. 248, 
Stations VIII. IX. 

2. Barrow on Sutton Down just S. of ditch at Buxbury Hill. O.M. 

70 N W ; A. W. I. 248 Stations VIII. IX. 
Earthworks. In S.W. corner of parish, on Sutton Down, Row Ditch cuts 
N. & S. across the ridge and road. Well-made ditch between banks 
of equal height. O.M. 70 NW. ; A.W.I. 249, Stations VIII. IX. ; 
Ancient Earthworks of Cranborne Chase 64, plan xxxvi. 



By the Bev. E. H. Goddard. 327 

At Buxbury Hill f mile S.E. of Swallowcliffe Church, ditch cuts across 
very narrow ridge and track between Barrows 1 and 2, % mile N.W. 
of Row Ditch. A deeply-sunken trackway leads down the hill at this 
point. O.M. 70 NW. ; A. W. I. Stations VIII. IX ; Ancient Earth- 
works of Cranborne Chase 64, plan xxxvi. 

SUTTON VENY. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow J mile N.W. of Crockerton Ch., W. of Warminster Water 

Works, and E. of Buckler's Wood, in extreme W. corner of parish. 
O.M. 51 SE. ; A. W. I. Station II. 

[la.] Barrow in A. W. I. Station II. just S.E. of Bishopstrow village, 
not in O.M. 52 SW. 

[lb, c] Two barrows close together, at E. end of Pitmead, the site of 
Roman villas, W. of Norton Bavant Church. One, opened 1787 
by Mrs. Downes contained one large urn with burnt bones, the 
other burnt bones only. A. W. I. 98 ; II. Eoman JEra 109, 114,, 
116 ; Gent. Mag. 1787 pp. 221, 222 ; Vetusta Mon. II. 3 ; not in 
O.M. 52 SW. 

2. Large barrow, apparently Long Barrow, N.W. of old Church, S.W. 

of End Farm. O.M. 52 SW. ; A.W. I. Station IV. See Appendix 
Long Barrows. 

3. Large Barrow partly destroyed E. of Old Church. O.M. 52 SW. ; 

A W. I. Station IV. [Much cultivated and spread about, not a 
Long barrow. M.E.C.] 

4. Barrow, " The Knoll," E. of the last, close to boundary of Tyther- 

ington, N.W. of Church Farm. O.M. 52 SW. ; A. W. I. Station IV. 
[High and planted with trees. 1913. M.E.C.] 



Group of 5 barrows (5—9) just E. of Warminster— Shaftesbury 
Rd., at 5 miles from Warminster. O.M. 58 NW. 

5. Large barrow just in angle, E. of Rd. at 5 miles from Warminster, 

N. of track crossing the Rd. O.M. 58 N W. ; A. W. I. Station IV. 

6. A little distance N. of (5) barrow shown as oval in O.M. 58 NW., 

but as round in A. W. I. Station IV. [Ditched round, much de- 
faced and cut away. M.E.C.] 

7. Just on N. side of (6) a large oval barrow. O.M. 58 NW. ; shown 

as round in A. W. I. Station IV. [Ditched round, much defaced 
and cut away. M.E.C] 

8. 9. Two round barrows close together S. of track, opposite (5). 

O.M. 58 NW. ; A. W. I. Station IV. 



10. Barrow on N. edge of track f mile N.E. of (5), i mile N. of Further 
Bake Farm. OM. 58 NW. ; A. W. I. Station IV. 



328 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

11. Barrow § mile N.W. of (10) just E. of track on Littlecombe Hill. 

O.M. 58 NW. ; A.W. I. Station IV. 
[11a.] Hoare mentions that several barrows in this neighbourhood 
disappeared with the enclosure of the commons. In one of them, 
on the right of the road from Sutton to Longbridge Deverill, was 
a skeleton with a drinking cup at the knees, and a plate of slate 
too large for a " wristguard," called by Hoare a " breastplate," on 
the breast, with 2 boars' tusks. A.W. I. 103, PI. XII. ; Arch. 
xliii. 429 fig. 121 ; W.A.M. x. Ill, fig. ; Stourhead Cat. 63, 64 ; 
Evans' Stone 382, 383. 
[lib.] Another small barrow near here contained a skeleton with 

drinking cup at its feet. A. W. I. 103. 
[lie] A disc barrow on Sutton Veny Downs, not far from Pertwood, 
contained burnt bones, small bronze awl, 2 conical bone buttons, 
and notched bead of tin, the only object of this metal found 
in Wilts. A. W. I. 103, PI. XII. ; Stourhead Cat. 65, 66 ; Evans' 
Bronze, 394. 
Earthworks. Inside Southleigh Wood an earthwork of squarish form, 
" Itobin Hood's Bower." Inside area f acre. O.M. 51 SE. ; A. W. I. 
50, Station II. 
["Another small earthen work on Sutton Common." O.M. 52 SW. ; 
A. W. I. 50. See Longbridge Deverill.] 
Roman. The two Roman villas spoken of as being in Pitmead lie halfway 
between Bishopstrow and Norton Bavant, but in Sutton Veny parish. 
4 pavements found November, 1786, described and illustrated by 
Catherine Downes in Vetusta Monumenta 1777 II. PI. XLIII., all 
destroyed immediately after discovery, except one said to have been 
taken to Longleat, which has now disappeared. It is not clear 
whether there are 2 villas or only one large one. One part opened 
again by W. Cunnington 1800 showed entrance on S.W. to corridor 
72ft. X 9ft. out of which opened 5 rooms with a square room at each 
end. Coin of Claudius Gothicus. A. W. II. Ill — 117, plan snidfigs. ; 
W.A.M. xxxiii. Ill ; Gent. Mag. lvii. 221 fig. 

SWALLOWCLIFF. 

[For barrow 1 mile S. of Swallowcliff Church on Ansty boundary see 
Ansty 3, and for British village partly on Swallowcliff Down see 
Ansty and Alvediston.] 

SWINDON, 

Megalithic. At Broome Farm, just E. of Midland Eailway, W. of Coate 
Reservoir, a number of standing stones formerly existed. One called 
Longstone, about 10ft. high, standing by itself near Broome Farm 
House, and in the field below many others in a straight line. All 
destroyed and taken away to pave Cricklade streets. O.M. 15 SE. ; 
Jackson's Aubrey 193 ; W.A.M. xxiii. 156. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 329 

Finds, Neolithic. In the " Butts " Field, near the Midland Railway 
bridge, 1894, in a grave without mound, a crouched skeleton with 
dolichocephalic skull. Only flint flakes accompanied it. W.A.M. 
xxviii. 263. 

Fine narrow and thin ground flint celt, and flint flake very minutely 
and regularly serrated, a saw ? A. D. Passmore Coll. W.A.M. xxxiv. 
309 fig. 312. 
Finds, Bronze Age. On Swindon Hill, near Okus Quarries, 3 separate 
interments of skeletons with drinking cups, all of the high-brimmed 
globose type, with no sign of barrows over them, found 1906, 1907, 
1908. One skeleton was that of an infant. A. D. Passmore Coll. 
W.A.M. xxxviii. 42 figs. 

Bronze looped palstave 1908 ; bronze socketed looped celt 1905 ; W.A.M. 
xxxiv. 311. Small bronze socketed looped spearhead from Cricklade 
Street. All in A. D. Passmore Coll. 
Finds, Late Celtic. A number (13?) of chalk loom weights found at 
Okus Quarries. A skeleton found near. W.A.M. xxxviii. 44. Bead 
rim pot 1913. A. D. Passmore Coll. 

[Gaulish gold uninscribed coin found "a few miles E. of Swindon." 
A.D. Passmore Coll. W.A.M. xxxiv. 311. fig.] 
Roman. House at Westlecott or Okus, opened 1897. Hypocaust, quern, 
painted plaster, Samian and other pottery, two bronze bow brooches, 
coins of Constans, and two skeletons found. A. D. Passmore Coll. 
W.A.M. xxx. 217, plans. 

Pot of coins found at Westlecote 1873. W.A.M. xiv. 180 ; xxx. 220. 

Remains of building found in clay pit E. of Victoria Road 1906 with 
much pottery, some Gaulish Samian of the 2nd century. W.A.M. 
xxxviii. 46. 

In excavations from time to time along the Devizes Road from Wood 
Street westwards, a great number, nearly 100, skeletons have been 
found, generally about 3ft. deep. No details recorded and no relics 
with them. Romano-British or Saxon? A skull found 1868 in 
Cambridge Museum, No. 270, said to be Saxon. W.A.M. xxxviii. 46. 

TEFFONT EVIAS. 

Finds, Neolithic. In ploughed field S. of park and N. of Rd. to mil], 

many flint scrapers, flakes, cores, &c. Also in the Quarry Field, S. 

of Church, flint flakes, scrapers, borer, &c. C. V. Goddard. O.M. 

65 SW. 
Soman. On the greensand ridge, in Upper Holt Copse, J mile E. of village, 

near Chilmark boundary, much Roman pottery and earthworks. 

C. V. Goddard 1913. O.M. 65 NW. 
In the quarry S. of Church several skeletons (? of what age) have beeu 

found. Also Romano-British pottery fragments. C. V. Goddard. 

O.M. 65 SW. 
Interment in slab cist with iron nails (? of what age), N. of Hamcross 

Farm. C. V. Goddard. 
|V0L. XXXVIII. — NO. CXX. Z 



330 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities, 

TEFFONT MAGNA. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow on parish boundary and ditch, just W. of Dinton Beeches. 
O.M. 59 SW. ; A. W. I. Station IV. 
Earthworks. Wick Ball Camp, in wood just W. of Dinton House, 
irregular oblong following contour of hill, single ditch, area 9 acres, 
circuit 3 furlongs 176 yds. Entrance apparently at N.W. angle. 
O.M. 65 NW. ; A. W. I. 252. [This should have been given under 
Dinton, to which it belongs, the Teffont boundary following its ditch 
round 2 sides.] 
The ditch running with many angles W. from Dinton Beeches forms 
the whole N. boundary of parish. O.M. 59 SW. ; A. W. I. 109, Station 
IV. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze rapier-shaped dagger, 1907. Devizes Mu- 
seum Cat. II. B 3 ; Reliquary, xiv. 243 fig. 

TIDCOMBE AND FOSBURY. 
Barrows. 

1. Tidcombe Long Barrow, J mile S. of Church, just W. of Rd. to 
Scots Poor. Opened Rev. W. C. Lukis. O.M. 43 NW. ; Arch. 
viii. 91 ; xlii. 229 ; A. W. I. 187 ; not shown in A. W I. Station VI. 
or II. Station X., where 2 round barrows are shown in its place, 
but marked on. plan of Roman Rd. Cunetio to Winchester, A. W. 
Roman JEra II. 67. See Appendix Long Barrows, 
[la — d.] A. W. I. Station VI. shows apparently on Tidcombe Hill W. 
of Tidcombe 4 round barrows, not in O.M. 43 NW. 
Earthworks. Ditch coming out of Collingbourne Kingston, across Shal- 
bourne into Fosbury, passes N. of Fosbury House into Shalbourne 
again, can be traced nearly the whole way. O. G. S. Crawford 1913 ; 
only partly shown on O.M. ; A. W. I. Station VI. 
Line of ditch runs for f mile along edge of Tidcombe Down W. and S. 
of village and turns S. into Shalbourne by the Long Barrow to 
Maccoombe Down and then E. again. O.M. 43 NW. & S W. 
" Fosbury Camp," "Haydon Hill Castle," or "Knoll Ditches," strong 
camp near Hampshire border, outline irregular, single ditch, strong 
rampart, entrance on E. side, and 2 others close together on W. 
Hoare thinks the most westerly the original. O.M. 43 SW. & SE. ; 
A. W. I. 188, plan, Station VI. 
Roman. Road, Cunetio to Winchester, coming from Marten runs,N. W. to 
S.E. to opposite Tidcombe, then curves S.W. to avoid hill and forms 
boundary of Tidcombe and Shalbourne. O.M. 43 NW. ; A. W. II. 
Roman Mra 67 plan. 

TIDWORTH, NORTH. 
Barrows. 

1, Barrow i mile S. of Sidbury, on edge of Sidbury Hill Plantation. 
O.M. 48 SW. ; not in A. W. ; Soc. Ant. Map. 12-2. 



Bij the Rev. E. H, Goddard. 331 

2. Barrow 1 mile S. W. of Sidbury close N. of track and E. of Figheldean 

border. 0. M. 48 S W. ; A. W. I. Station VI. ; Soc. Ant. Map 118. 

[2a.] Barrow on Tick Pit (or Pick Pit) Hill f mile N.E. of North 

Manor Farm. Shown in A. W. I. Station VI. ; not in O.M. 48 SE. 

[On W. side of Chalk Pit Hill, S. of Sidbury, A. W. I. Station VI. 

Marks 13 barrows. Apparently these are " The Seven Barrows " 

group of 9 just over the Hampshire border, about 1 mile S. of 

Sidbury. O.M. 48 SW.] 

Earthworks. Sidbury (" Chidbury," Hoare) Camp. Strong situation, on 

nearly isolated hill, very conspicuous. Heart-shaped. Double ditch. 

Principal entrance on N.W. protected by outwork. Another entrance 

on E. Area 17 acres. Circuit of inner ditch 5 furlongs 101 yds. 

O.M. 48 SW. ; A. W. I. 180 plan 181 ; Soc. Ant. Map 89. 

From N.W. entrance a bold straight bank and ditch like a Roman Road 

extends 1 mile and 88 yds. N. W. towards Ever ley, intersecting a disc 

barrow, and further on forms boundary between Fittleton and Coll. 

Ducis and Coll. Kingston. 

From the E. side of Sidbury a ditch runs straight E. f mile to the 

Pennings. O.M. 48 SW. & SE. ; Soc. Ant. Map 101. 
From near S.W. corner of Sidbury a ditch runs towards Dunch Hill 
Plantation, where it enters Figheldean. Only part of its course 
shown on O.M. 48 S W. Soc. Ant. Map 121. 
From Lambdown Furze a ditch runs N.E. straight for f mile towards 
Ludgershall, across Perham Down E. of the Reservoir. O.M. 48 SE. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze winged celt. Sidbury Hill. Proc. Soc. 
Ant. Lond. 2nd Ser. ix. 227 ; W.A.M. xxxviii. 115. 
Perforated stone axe hammer of dark hard stone. Blackmore Museum. 
Soman. "British village almost immediately under Chidbury Hill." 
"Found some remains of good masonry being part of an Hypo- 
caustum." Cunnington MS. II. 211. 

TILSHEAD. 
Barrows. . 

1. Kill Barrow, on boundary of Chitterne All Saints. Barrow of oval 
shape without visible ditches at sides, but believed by Dr. Thurnam 
to be a true Long Barrow. O.M. 46 S W. ; A. W. I. 89, Station III. 
See Appendix Long Barrows. 

2. Long Barrow S. of Tilshead Lodge, close to N. side of Old Ditch, 
which curves round it. O.M. 53 N W. ; A. W. I. 90, Station III. 
See Appendix Long Barrows. 

3. Small round barrow close to E. end of Long Barrow (2). O.M. 53 
NW. ; A. W. I. Station III. 

4. White Barrow, Long Barrow, just W. of Tilshead — Shrewton Rd. 
Old Ditch turns at sharp angle at this point. O.M. 53 NE. ; 
A. W. I. 91, Station III. ; W.A.M. xxxvi. 188. See Appendix 
Long Barrows. 

2 z 



332 List of Prehistoric, Horn cut, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

5. Long Barrow W. of Tilshead Lodge. O.M. 53 NW. ; A. W. I. 91, 

Station III. See Appendix Long Barrows. 
Three barrows about 'midway between Tilshead Lodge and Kill 
Barrow are shown in A. W. I. Station III. Not in O.M. 

6. Small barrow N.W. of White Barrow, on N. side of Old Ditch. 

O.M. 53 NE. ; A. W. I. Station III. 

7. Long Barrow in Barrow Plantation £. of East Down Farm, 2 miles 

N.E. of Tilshead. O.M. 46 SE. ; A. W. I. 93, Station III. See 
Appendix Long Barrows. 

8. Small round barrow just S. of East Down Plantation, \ mile S. W. 

of the last. O.M. 46 SE. ; A. W. I. Station III. 

Earthworks. Old Ditch is shown in A. W. I. Station III. as beginning to 
the W. of Knook Castle and running roughly S.W. to N.E. right 
across the Plain, N. of Chitterne, then with a break on to Kill Barrow, 
round the S. side of which it curves, and on to White Barrow, where 
it turns at a sharp angle S. of Tilshead, across the Shrewton Bd. and in 
N.E. direction until it meets another dibch on Tilshead East Down, 
running N.W. k S.E. at right angles ; this latter ditch runs on into 
Orcheston St. George. Old Ditch forms boundary between Tilshead 
and Orcheston St. Mary. O.M. 46 SE. ; 53 NW. ; A. W. I. 89—91, 
Station III. O.M. 46 SE. shows a short cross ditch meeting Old 
Ditch on E. side J mile N. of " Silver Barrow." At this point in 
1911 during the making of a new military road, at the point of inter- 
section 2 skeletons were found lying lengthways in the ditch the feet 
of one to the head of the other, of doubtful age. M.E.C. 

Finds, Bronze Age. A crouched skeleton covered with large flints 
without relics. 1 of what period. Found 1887. W.A.M. xxix. 181 

Finds, Late Celtic. Greek silver coin of Alexander the Great, 1912. 
W.A.M. xxxviii. 107. 

TISBURY, EAST AND WEST. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow in E. Tisbury £ mile S. of Ashley Wood, £ mile N. of Place 
Farm. M. 64 S.E. ; not iu A. W. 

Earthworks. Hoare, quoting MS. Note of "W. Ounnington, says, in a 
field near Place Farm {O.M. 64 SE.) was a circular work with vallum 
set round with stones, and a large stone erect in centre. This stone 
12ft. high X 4ft. wide removed to Wardour Castle. Close to its base 
a skeleton 18in. below surface. A.W. I. 251. Nothing remains of 
this. 

Finds, Bronze Age. Hoard of 7 gold bracelets and portion of another, 
with gold " Dress fastener" precisely of Irish type, of Late Bronze 
Age. British Museum. Guide to Bronze Age 147, fig. 141. 

Finds, Late Celtic. British coin. 

Roman. Outer Ashley Wood Down Camp (? in this parish) excavated by 
B. Stallybrass 1904. A Bom.-Brit. cattle pen ? Roman pottery at 
bottom of ditch. Not shown in O.M. 64 SE. ; W.A.M. xxxiv. 418. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 333 

TOCKENHAM. 

Roman. A relief of a figure in a niche, iEsculapius 1 called by Aubrey 
St. Christopher, (Jackson's Aubrey 194), built into exterior wall of 
Church W. of S. door. 

TOLLAUD EOYAL. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow close to earthworks on Berwick Down or Straight Knapp. 

O.M. 74 NE. ; not in A. W. I. Stations VIII., IX. 

2. Barrow \ mile E. of Ashmore School N. of Wiltshire Coppice on 

E. edge of course of Roman Rd. O.M. 74 SW. ; not in A. W. I. 
Stations VIII., IX. 
Earthworks. Irregular enclosure and ditch on Berwick Down. O.M. 
74 NE. ; not in A. W. I. Stations VIII., IX. 
Ditch runs N.E. across Dorset border into Wiltshire Coppice, \ mile 

S.E. of Ashmore village. O.M. 74 SW. 
Short bank and ditch across trackway and narrow ridge l£ mile N. of 
Tollard village at Horse Down Clump between top of Jagdens and 
top of Malacombe Bottom (?in Berwick St. John) 150 yds. long, 
bank to S. Not in O.M. 74 NE. 250 yds. further S. fragment of 
another bank and ditch crossing track, mostly destroyed by cultiva- 
tion, bank to N. O.M. 74 NE. ; Ancient Earthworks of Cranbourne 
Chase 65, plan XL. 
Finds, Late Celtic. Hoard of British coins. Journal Brit. Arch. Assoc. 

II. 336. 
Soman. Pottery found on Berwick Down or Straight Knap 1881. No 
details, British village 1 O.M. 74 NE. Line of Rom. Rd. running 
N.W. crosses county and parish boundary at Wiltshire Coppice 
pointing straight to barrow 2. 

UPAVON. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow, Upavon Down, just N. of Devizes — Andover Rd. at 11 
miles from Devizes. O.M. 41 SE. ; A. W. I. Station VI. ; Soc. 
Ant. Map 12. 
[la.] 1 barrow E. of this and S. of the road, between the road and 
LidburyCamp. A. W. I. Station VI. NotshownonO.il/. De- 
stroyed Oct., 1912, to make the War Office Flying Ground. 
Opened by B. H. Cunnington. One cist with burnt bones, and 
two empty cists. Had been opened before. W.A.M. xxxvii. 603. 
Earthworks. Casterley Camp [Catterley Banks], 2 miles S.W. of Upavon 
village, single ditch and vallum of varying height. Shape irregular, 
area 68 acres, circuit \\ miles. Hoare shows many works of irregular 
shape in centre of camp. These had all been ploughed down and 
disappeared before the excavations by B. H. & Mrs. Cunnington 
1909 — 12, which proved outer ditches and inner works to be all of 



334 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities, 

one date, probably early in 1st century A.D., but it continued to be 
inhabited in Roman times down to the 4th century. Coins from 
Claudius to Constantine. Much bead-rim pottery and wares im- 
ported from Gaul. Three pit-dwellings in the area of the camp 
probably of earlier date than the earthworks, and had no connection 
with them. Late Celtic period. Iron brooch, sling bullet, loom 
weights, &c. O.M. 47 NW. ; W.A.M. xxxviii. 53 figs, and plans ; 
A. W. I. 177 plan ; Soc. Ant. Map 27. 

A bank and ditch leave the camp and run over the down on S., another 
on the W. side running through Rushall, Charlton, and Wilsford, 
into Marden. O.M. 47 NW. 

Ditch coming from Ell Barrow running W". to E. crosses Upavon 
forming parish boundary at one point S. of Thornham Down, and 
goes on E. into Enford. O.M. 47 NW. ; 4. W. I. 175, Station V. ; 
Soc. Ant. Map 28. 

Finds, Neolithic. Fine polished flint celt in Brit. Museum. Arch. 

xliii. 407 ; W.A.M. x. 37. 
Fine lozenge-shaped flint arrowhead. Stevens' Flint Chips 72 ; Evans' 

Stone 338 ; Arch Journ. xviii. 75. 
Tanged and barbed arrowhead, and long unbarbed ditto. Blackmore 

Museum. 

Late Celtic and Roman. See Earthworks, Casterley Camp, above. 



UPTON LOVELL. 
Sarrows. 

On Upton Lovell Down S. of the Amesbury Rd., % to 1 mile S. of I 
Knook Castle, A . W. I. Station III. shows 6 barrows opened by Hoare, 
only 2 of which, Nos. (6) and (4 or (5), are shown on O.M. 52 SE. 
The numbers in brackets thus (6) are Hoare's. 

1 . (6) " Great Barrow," 1 mile S.W. of Knook Castle, \ mile S. of 

Amesbury Rd., bell-shaped with ditch. Shallow cist in centre 
with burnt bones, and necklace of beads, 16 of cylindrical 
notched glass, 5 of lignite, 27 of amber. Stags' horns and quanti- 
ties of ashes in body of mound. O.M. 52 SE. ; A. W. I. 76 ; 
Stourhead Cat. 14 b, d. jigs. 

2. (5?) Barrow i mile N.E. of 1. Opened 1801. In centre, shallow 

circular cist, heap of burnt bones covering bronze dagger. 2ft. 
to S. of this an urn inverted filled with ashes, charred wood, and 
small fragments of bone. O.M. 52 SE. ; A. W. I. 76 ; Stourhead 
Cat. 46. 
[2a.] (4) Small low barrow opened by Cunnington 1801. In oval 
cist 3ft. deep, skeleton of man lying on his back, another skele- 
ton, of female, in sitting posture with head near surface of 
ground. At the feet of the larger skeleton great number of 
pointed and perforated bone implements, 3 ground flint celts, 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 335 

flat and grooved whetstones, 5 stone mullers, keeled sarsen mul- 
ler, boar's tusks perforated, bone implements like paper knives, 
" eagle stones " or hollow flints, perforated hammer axe of Diorite, 
and fragments of 2 more, lignite ring and beads, cylindrical bone 
bead, tanged bronze awl, oval pebble hammer stone. Stourhead 
Cat. 1—10, 12, figs. ; A.W.I. 75, 76, PI. V.— VII. Station III. ; 
not in O.M. 52 SE. 

[2b.] (2) Low barrow opened by Hoare, \ mile W. of 1, perhaps 
in Knook 1 Burnt bones in cist in centre. In a circle round 
it at distance of 4ft. five urns, none preserved. A.W. I. 75 
Station III. ; not in O.M. 52 SE. 

[2c] (3) Low barrow just E. of the last (in Knook?) opened by 
Hoare. Skeleton with fine drinking cup. A. W. I. 75, PI. IX. 
Station III. ; Stourhead Cat. 13 ; not in O.M. 52 SE. 

[2d.] (1) Barrow S. of 2b, 2c. Opened by Hoare. In centre large 
urn containing burnt bones and bone tweezers; at 6ft. from 
centre in different directions 3 small urn-shaped vessels. A. W. 
I. 74 PI. IX. Station III. ; Stourhead Cat. 43, 45 fig. ; not in 
O.M. 52 SE. 

[2e.] " Golden Barrow " in valley on N. bank of Wily River, about \ 
mile S.E. of Upton Lovell Manor Farm. Opened 1803 and 
1807. In centre a heap of burnt bones in oblong cist about lft. 
6in. deep without relics. Nearer surface of barrow a second 
pile of burnt bones, and lft. away a quantity of ashes with small 
fragments of burnt bone. 2ft. from the pile of burnt bones were 
13 small drum-shaped beads or buttons of thin gold ; a plate of 
thin gold which had probably covered a wooden foundation 
covered with engraved ornament, 6in. X 3in. ; a large conical 
lignite button covered with thin gold ; two small conical orna- 
ments of thin gold ; a necklace composed of several flat perfor- 
ated plates and more than 1,000 beds of amber ; a long tanged 
bronze awl ; a " grape cup " ; a small thin bronze knife dagger ; 
a small plain urn-shaped vessel inside a larger urn. A. W. I. 
98 ; Pis. X., XL.Station IV. ; Stourhead Cat. 50— 62 figs. ; Evans' 
Bronze 189 figs. 223, 224 ; Evans' Stone 414 ; Arch, xliii. 466 ; 
.not in O.M. 58 NE. 
Earthworks. Knook Uastle, oblong enclosure, single ditch, entrance on 
SE., in Upton Lovell, but near Knook boundary, 2 miles N.E. of 
Knook. O.M. 52 SE. ; A. W. I. 84 plan, Station III. 

Old Ditch. Hoare, A. W. I. 90 Station III., shows one branch of Old 
Ditch beginning just N. of Amesbury Rd., running N. and then 
slightly N.E. to point about f mile N.E. of Knook Castle where 
it makes an abrupt angle to S.E. and then continues E., another 
branch running W. to E. across Knook Down joins it at right angles 
at Knook Castle. O.M. 52 SE. and NE. shows the ditch only from 
Knook Castle N. and E. forming the parish boundary throughout, 
and a short length of the ditch coming W. to E. and joining at 



336 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

Knook Castle. The two British villages mentioned below are on 
the line of Old Ditch. 

Finds, Neolithic. In one of the banks of the British village N.W. of 
Knook Castle Hoare found skeleton with ground celt of black stone 
at its feet. O.M. 52 NE, ; A. W. I. 85, PI. IX. ; Stourhead Gat. 14 ; 
Evans' Stone 134. 

Roman. Two British villages, one just N. of Knook Castle the other i 
mile NE. of it, connected by Old Ditch, which, says Hoare, has been 
destroyed by one of them, i.e., the ditch is older than the settlement. 
Abundance of coins, T-shaped hypocaust regularly built of masonry, 
painted stucco, brick flues, pit coal, pottery, brooches, &c. O.M. 52 
NE. ; A.W.I. 84, 85, plan, Station III. ; Britton's Beauties of Wilts, 
II. 52 ; W.A.M. xxxiv. 272 ; xxxvii. 496. 



UPTON SCUDAMORE. 

Barrows. 

In arable land W. of Warminster Road and E. of railway, \ mile 
S. of Church, 2 barrows close together (1, la), opened by Hoare 
1809. O.M. 51 NE. ; A.W. I. 52, Station II. O.M. shows only 
barrow 1. 

1. The largest 94ft. diam. X 13ft. high. At depth of 5ft. from surface 
of barrow a skeleton which had been deposited in a wooden box 
or trunk of a tree with a small bronze knife or dagger. On floor 
great quantity of wood ashes, and a few feet from the centre an 
urn standing upright with burnt bones. 

[la.] The second barrow had been partially opened some years before 
and a skeleton found. In the floor of the barrow a large oblong 
grave 5ft. deep containing skeleton, " underneath it was a little 
well, as if designed to draw the moisture from the body." 2jft. 
above this was a regular floor covered with black ashes. 



Upton Cow Down. Hoare, A.W. I. 54, mentions a' mutilated 
barrow near the earthwork on the point of this down. Ap- 
parently that shown above White Scar Hanging in O.M. 44 SE. 

[Nos. 3—9 are in O.M. 45 SW. A. W. I. Station II. shows 5 bar- 
rows on E. edge of trackway and 6 scattered to S.W. of it, none 
of which were opened by Hoare. It seems impossible to identify 
these with those on O.M. 45 SW.] 

Barrow on Warminster boundary on N.E. edge of Dirtley Wood. 
O.M. 45 SW. ; A. W. I. Station II. 

Barrow N. of last near old chalk pit. O.M. 45 SW. ; apparently 
not in it. IT. I. Station II. 

Site of barrow on Warminster boundary \ mile S.W. of Dirtley 
Wood. O.M. 45 SW. ; A. W. I. Station II. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 337 

6 — 8. Three barrows just on E. side of trackway \ mile E. of the last, 
some distance apart. O.M. 45 SW. ; A. W. I. Station II. shows 
5 barrows apparently here 1 

9. Barrow j.ust E. of 6 at junction of Upton, Warminster, and Bratton. 
O.M. 45 SW. 



10. Barrow in village just E. of Temples Farm. O.M. 44 SE. ; not in 
A. W. I. Station II. 
[For large barrow mentioned A. W. I. 54 see Westbury.] 
Earthworks. " Old Ditch," on Upton Cow Down is shown by Hoare 
running N.W. to S.E. A. W. I. 55, Station II. Not in O.M. 44 SE. ; 
45 SW. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Portion of bronze dagger 1859. W.A.M. vi. 260. 
Roman. Remains in fields about Thoulston and Row Turnpike. A. W. 
I. 53. 
Bronze brooch, W.A.M. ix. 24. 

URCHFONT. 
Barrows. 

1. A barrow on E. side of Ridgeway on edge of chalk pit at Penning 

Down. O.M. 40 SE. ; Soc. Ant. Map 1. 

2. Another just to 1ST. of the last on W. side of Ridgeway. O.M. 40 

SE. \ not numbered on Soc. Ant. Map. 

3. Barrow on Urcbfont Hill S. of point where Ridgeway and track to 

Urchfont Hill Farm diverge, just on W. side of track. O.M. 
40 SE. ; Soc. Ant. Map 2. 

4. 5. Two barrows close together just on S. edge of Witcombe Plan- 

tation on Great Fore Down. O.M. 40 SE. ; Soc. Ant. Map 3. 
[5a.] A. W. I- Station III. shows one barrow W. of Devizes — Salisbury 
Rd. apparently on Urchfont Down, not shown on O.M. 
Ridgeway coming from Gore Cross to near Broadbury follows the es- 
carpment of Urchfont Hill. O.M. 40 SE. ; A. W. I. 176. 
Finds. Neolithic (?) 5 mullers of sarsen and 3 of flint. Devizes Museum 

Cat. II. 51. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze socketed looped celt found on downs, 1835. 

Devizes Museum Cat. II. B 27 ; W.A.M. xxxvi. 508 ; xxxvii. 136. 
Finds, Late Celtic. Wedhampton. Large iron brooch of La Tene I. (?) 
type. 1870. Devizes Museum Gat. II. 305./%. 

WANBOROUGH. 
Barrows. 

1. Bowl-shaped barrow at Popple Church N. of Sheepwalk Plantation 
200 yds. S. of Rd. Cricklade to Hungerford near Aldbourne 
boundary. Opened A. D. Passmore 1895. Burnt bones with 
bronze knife and flint arrowhead on floor of barrow. O.M. 23 
NE. ; W.A.M. xxviii. 262 [wrongly said to be in Aldbourne]. 



338 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

Earthworks. Just W.of Foxbridge and Wanborough Marsh, a rectangular 
entrenchment marked " Moat." O.M. 16 NW. 

The Ridgeway. " Ichnield Way " runs across parish from S.W. to N.E. 
cutting the Eom. Rd. at Ridgeway Cottages near Foxhill. O.M. 16 
SE. ; A. W. II. 46. 

Roman. Many Roman foundations, &c, at Lotmead and Covingham Farm, 
where Hoare places site of Rom. station Nidum. A. W. II. Roman 
Mra 94 plan ; W.A.M. xi. 344 ; xxxviii. 45. 
2000 coins found here 1689 at the Nythe. Jackson's Aubrey 195. 
Other coins found, W.A.M. xiv. 155 ; xxv. 139. Coins at Badbury, 
W.A.M. xi 343. Much pottery and many coins round barrow at 
Popplechurch. A. D. Passmore. 
The Roman Road, Ermine Street, Cricklade to Hungerford, runs 
straight N.W. to S.E. through the parish from Nythe bridge, 
through Lower Wanborough, and Wanborough Plain past Covingham 
Farm on the W. ; at this point another road from Marlborough joins 
it forming from here to Wick Lane the boundary of Wanborough 
and Liddington. O.M. 16 NW. & SE. ; 23 NW. ; A. W. II. Roman 
JEra 92 plan. 

WAKDOUE. 

Earthworks. Castle Ditches Camp, on commanding site. Triple banks 
and ditches, entrance on E. side protected by 3 additional smaller 
banks and ditches, and small one on opposite side. Area 25 acres, 
all cultivated, the banks and ditches all under wood 1913. Circuit 
7 furlongs, 88 yds. O.M. 64 SE. ; A. W. I. 250 plan, 251, Stations 
VIII. and IX. ; Ancient Earthworks of Cranborne Chase, plan, p. 17. 

Finds, Bronze Age. Cinerary urn, Farnham Museum. Pitt-Rivers Ex. 
II. 12. 



WABMINSTER. 
Barrows. 

1. On Arn Hill 1£ mile N. of Station, Long Barrow near Colloway 

Clump. O.M. 51 NE. ; A. W. I. 65, Station II. See Appendix 
Long Barrows. 

2. Small barrow just S.E. of the Long Barrow (1). O.M. 51 NE. ; 

not in A. W- I. Station II. 

3. Barrow on centre of Arn Hill f mile N. of Station, apparently 

that opened by Hoare. A ditch with vallum outside it through 
which were two entrances on E. and W. sides. On the floor a 
small circular cist containing a few black ashes. Deep in the 
body of the mound, iron spear head, halves of 2 horse shoes, 
nails, and Roman pottery. O.M. 51 NE ; A. W. 1. 65, Station II. 

4. 5. Two barrows close together on S.W. edge of Arn Hill, on 

Warminster Golf Course. In December, 1911, the smaller 



By the, Rev. E. H. Goddard. 339 

barrow to the S. (5) was destroyed and the material heaped up 
over the larger barrow to the N. to form a tee. In the smaller 
barrow were found a number of flat stone tiles, two of them 
carefully perforated, a large cinerary urn inverted over burnt 
bones and a small perforated whetstone. Later in January, 
1912, another cinerary urn was found in the S.W. side of the 
barrow. Devizes Museum. O.M. 51 NE. ; A. W. I. Station II. ; 
W.A.M. xxxvii. 496, 539 figs. 



6. Oxendean Down 1 mile N.E. of Battlesbury, Long Barrow opened 

by Hoare and Dr. Thurman. O.M. 52 NW. ; A. W. I. 66, Station 
II. ; Arch. xlii. 180 ; Stourhead Cat. 202. See Appendix Long 
Barrows. 

7, 8. Two round barrows on same down N. of the Long Barrow, 

close together, opened by W. Cunnington. In the eastermost 
(7) in grave 5ft. from surface a skeleton ; in that to the W. (8) 
at depth of 3ft. a skeleton. O.M. 45 SW. ; A. W. I. 66, Station II. 
[Now enclosed in small poultry farm, and one of them partly 
dug away. 1914. M.E.C.] 

9. Barrow N. of the last on the line of Old Ditch, not opened. O.M. 
45 SW. ; A. W. I. 66, Station II. 

9a. Barrow \ mile 1ST. of the last on Warminster Down. O.M. 45 

SW. ; not in A. W. I. Station II. 
10. Cop Heap Hill (Cop Head, in Hoare), \ mile N.E. of Station, 
barrow with ditch and bank, opened by Hoare 1809. On S.E. 
side a skeleton with head to S. with some pieces of flint, frag- 
ments of stag's horn, and stag's horn perforated hammer. On the 
W. side just below the floor a skeleton with head to W. On the 
N. side a grave 2ft. deep, with skeletons of adult female and 
infant with shell of Purpura. On the floor of the barrow aheap 
of burnt bones with 6 notched ivory beads. O.M. 51 NE. ; A. W. 
I, 67, 68, Station II. ; Arch, xliii. 490 ; Stourhead Cat. 224— 
2246 ; Evans' Stone, 389. 



11. Battlesbury Camp. Large round barrow in the inner ditch of 

the camp at the S.W. angle, opened by W. Cunnington, no inter- 
ment found. O.M. 52 NW. ; A. W. I. 68, plan of camp. 

12, 13. Two smaller barrows on W. side of the last (11), partly 

under the rampart, opened by W. Cunnington. In one a cist 
with burnt bones. In the smallest, two skeletons, the head of 
the smallest on the breast of the other, with a ring or bead of 
stone. The builders of the camp apparently respected the already 
existing barrows (11-13). O.M. 52 NW. ; A. W. I. 68, plan ; 
Stourhead Gat. 293. The two smaller barrows though marked 
" tumuli " are not distinctly shown on O.M. 52 N W. 



34:0 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

14. Boreham, in grounds of Bishopstrow House " King Barrow," Long 
barrow lying N. and S. with larger end to N, opened 1800 and 
later by Hoare. O.M. 52 NW. ; A. W. I. 72. See Appendix 
Long Barrows. 
[For round barrow just S. of it see Bishopstrow]. 
"From a disc barrow at Warminster" a polished flint celt in col- 
lection of Rev. W. H. Winwood, Arch, xliii. 407. 
Earth-works. Battlesbury, very strong camp, ditch follows edge of 
irregular point of down. Entrances E. & W., both guarded by 
outworks. Double rampart with one very deep ditch. On the N. & 
S., an additional smaller rampart and ditch added. Area 23i acres, 
circuit 7 furlongs, 66 yds. O.M. 52 NW. ; A. W. I. 68, plan, Station 
II. 
Arn Hill, at point of hill over the Lime Kilns, a " mutilated camp 
which when complete was nearly of a square form." O.M. 51 NE. ; 
A. W. I. 65 Station II. 
On projecting point of Mancombe Down above the rifle range, N. of 
Battlesbury just E. of Mancombe Wood, " a circular earthwork with 
one entrance to S.E. and apparently another towards the W." Diam. 
about 280ft. O.M. 52 NW. ; A. W. I. 66. 
On Warminster Down, 1 \ miles N. of Battlesbury, Old Ditch runs from 
Dirtley Wood across the down in wavy course to Bishopstrow 
boundary and on over Boreham Down. O.M. 45 SW. ; A. W. I. 54 
Station II. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze spear head socketed, unlooped, of peculiar 
form said to have been found at Battlesbury. Salisbury Museum. 
W.A.M. xxxvii. 105 pi. vi.Jig. 5. 
Roman. Coins at Battlesbury. A.W.I. 69; W.A.M. xxxiv. 272. 
Coins at Warminster Common. W.A.M. xxxiv. 272. 
In the fields below Middle Hill much pottery found. A. W. I. 69. 
See also Barrow 3 above. 
Saxon. In long barrow (14) in grounds of Bishopstrow House, 3 skeletons 
lying S.W. to N.E. found lift, under surface of barrow. Iron seax 
near thigh of one. A. W. I. 72. 



WESTBUEY. 
Barrows. 

1—3. Three barrows on Four Hundred Down, W. of Hill Farm. 
O.M. 45 SW. 

4—6. Three barrows on Thirteen Hundred Down N.E. of Ranscombe 
Bottom. O.M. 45 SW. Apparently only the westernmost of 
the three is shown on A.W. I. 54, Station II. This was the 
circular barrow opened by Hoare, 60ft. in diam., 4£ft. high, no 
ditch, but a number of circular excavations round it from which 
material had been taken to make the barrow. Amongst several 
large sarsen stones and flints 7 or 8 skeletons lying in ever 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 341 

direction, confusedly, nothing else found. Unlike any other 
round barrow opened by Mm says Hoare, more like a Long 
barrow. 
Earthworks. Rectangular moat, medieval 1 f mile E. of Penleigh House. 
O.M. 44 NE. 
" On Eastern declivity of Upton (Cow) Down overlooking the valley 
is a small oblong earthen work with an entrance at the SW. corner." 
207ft. X 129ft. A. W. I. 54 Station II. This is the earthwork on 
the parish boundary on point of hill above White Scar Hanging 
i mile SE. of Chalford. O.M. 44 SE. 
Roman, see Heywood. 



WESTWOOD. 

Finds, Neolithic. In field just N. of road and old quarry \ mile NE. of 
Iford Manor and \ mile SW. of Chapel at Upper Westwood, 2 por- 
tions of ground flint celts and numbers of scrapers and other worked 
flints. W. G. Collins Coll. O.M. 38 NW. 

Roman. In same field as above, a small rude oval stone coffin containing 
skeleton of young girl found 1906 (Bath Museum); also much pottery, 
Samian of from 50 — 150 A.D. ; bronze pin (Devizes Museum) ; frag- 
ments of roof and flue tile, &c. O.M. 38 NW. 



WHITEPAEISH. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow in Great Plantation, Cowesfield Wood, just S. of Romsey 

Rd., S. of Cowesfield -Park. O.M. 72 SE. ; not in A. W. I. 
Station VII. 

2. A barrow? "The Mount "projecting S. from Mount Copse | mile 

N.W. of Cowesfield House. Not marked "tumulus" in O.M. 
72 SE. ; not in A. W. I. Station VII. 
Finds, Neolithic. Ground flint celt, Blackmore Museum. 

WILCOT AND OARE. 
Barrows. 

On edge of Draycot Hill above Huish, S. of Gopher Wood, a group of 
five barrows (1—5) close together. O.M. 35 NE. ; Smith p. 211, 
XVI. K. VIII. b, c, d, e, f. Hoare however, A. W. II, Station X. 
shows an additional round barrow [5a]. Of these 3 round 
barrows were opened by W. Cunnington. In one an urn and 2 
perforated bone pins ; in the second a cist with a bone pin ; in 
the third "a well-formed bell barrow," 2 interments near the 
top, and below these an urn containing incense cup, bone pin, 
and bronze awl. 

1, 2. (b, c) Bowl-shaped barrows, not opened. 



342 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

3. Oval Barrow. Hoare, A. W. II. 11, speaks of it as a " Long Bar- 

row of low elevation and has three depressions at equal distances 
indicating as many places of interment." Opened by Thurnam 
1863, burnt bones in cists in chalk at eastern and central de- 
pressions, nothing under western depression, no other objects. 
W.A.M. xi. 42 ; Arch, xliii. 296 note. 

4. (e) Apparently a twin barrow, not opened. 

5. (f) Small bowl shaped barrow, not opened. 

[5a] Additional round barrow shown by Hoare A.W. II. Station X. 

Earthworks. On narrow promontory of down running S.E. from Martin- 
sell Camp, pointing to Oare village, the point is cut off by two 
ramparts, one a very strong one, says Hoare. A. W. II. 9. O.M. 35 
SE. calls these " Giants' Grave." 
The bank and ditch running W. from the N.E. corner of Martinsell 
Camp (in Pewsey) runs at the back of Rainscombe to the road on 
Oare Hill, forming the southern boundary of extensive British 
village with enclosures eastward of the road on the crest of the hill 
towards Huish. Hoare regards it as more a covered way than a 
defence, the bank is outside the ditch. A. W. II. 10 ; O.M. 35 NE. 

Finds, Neolithic. 2 ground flint celts. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 14. 
15. Flint arrowheads. W.A.M. ix. 27. 
[Part of Golden Ball Hill is in Wilcot, but its flints are mentioned 
under Alton Priors.] 

Finds, Bronze Age. Largest bronze spearhead found in Wilts. Devizes 
Museum Gat. II. B4 ; W.A.M. xxxv. 605. 

Roman, On Huish Hill \ mile N. of Oare, extensive British Settlement 
extending into Huish. O.M. 35 NE. ; A. W. II. 10, 11 plan. 
Draycot Farm, Roman pottery, &c. A.W. II. 11. 

WILSFOKD (PEWSEY VALE). 
Barrows. 

1, 2. On Wilsford Hill | mile S. of Broadbury Banks two barrows 
about I mile apart (1) the most westerly. O.M. 41 SW. ; A.W. 
I. Station V. ; Soc. Ant. Map 9, 10. 
3. Ell Barrow, Long Barrow at extreme S. point of parish. Opened 
by Thurnam. O.M. 46 NE. ; A. W. I. 175, Station V. ; Arch. 
xlii. 180 ; Soc. Ant. Map 69. See Appendix Long Barrows. 
The Ridgeway roughly following escarpment from Gore Cross apparently 

comes down into Pewsey Vale near Broadbury. O.M. 41 SW. 
Earthworks. Broadbury Banks Camp, on edge of escarpment on Wilsford 
Hill about 1 mile SW. of village. "The vestiges of either an un- 
finished or a mutilated camp" (Hoare). Hoare dug but found no 
signs of residence in it. O.M. 41 SW. ; A. W. I. 177. 
The line of " Long Ditch " coming from Marden Down runs W. to E. 
across parish with interruptions on Wilsford Down, going on to 
Charlton Down. O.M. 47 iN W. ; Soc Ant. Map 23. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 343 

Finds, Neolithic. 3 ground flint celts. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 2, 5, 
19; W.A.M.ix. 24. 

4 flint arrowheads. W.A.M. i. 60 ; ix. 24. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze sword or long dagger and small socketed 
looped celt, found on the down. Devizes Museum Cat. II. B 1 ; B 21. 

Bronze spear heads mentioned. W.A.M. i. 61 ; ix. 24. 

Rude British urn. W.A.M. i. 61. 
Finds, Late Celtic. Small bronze pendant head of pin. Devizes Mu- 
seum Cat. II. 346. W.A.M. xxxv. 403, 406 fig. 25 ; Reliquary, xiv. 
\Q\Jig.. 22. 

A vessel of heavy thick pottery from the down probably of this date. 
Devizes Museum Cat. II. 232. 

1ST. W. of Broadbury Banks at a chalk pit between 400 and 500 ft. contour 
lines, 6 dwelling pits excavated by B. H. & Mrs. Cunnington in 1910 
— 13, with a section of the boundary ditch of the settlement on the 
W. side. Pottery, loom weights, &c. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 806 
—815b ; C. 27, 27a ; O.M. 41 SW. ; W.A.M. xxxvii. 496. 

[The iron spearheads, &c, entered here as Roman may be late Celtic] 
Roman. Great number of Roman (?) objects found on Wilsford Down by 
W. P. Hayward dr. 1853. Iron spearheads, sickles, knives, stylus, 
&c. W.A.M. i. 60 ; ix. 24 ; xxxvi. 480, 483. Bronze bow brooches, 
penannular brooch, bracelets, finger ring, buckle, pair of quern 
stones, bone needles, coins. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 260, 261, 
325—328, 338, 368—375, 508, 530—535, 541, 559, 560. 

Iron spearhead and bronze ligula. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 351, 523. 



WILSFOED (S. WILTS). 

Barrows. [The second numbers in brackets are those on Hoare's Map of 
Stonehenge]. 

Normanton Down, large group of barrows, 1—32. 

1. (166) Barrow just S. of Deptford — Amesbury Rd. at 2f miles from 
Amesbury, opened by Hoare. Skeleton, drinking cup, and 
stags' horns. O.M. 54 SW". ; A. W. I. 206 ; Soc. Ant. Map 489. 
[Condition good, 1912. M.E.C.]. 

[la] (13 of the Winterbourne Stoke Down group at Cross Roads. 
A. W. I. 121 plan.) Small disc barrow just E. of the line 1 — 10 
and over the Wilsford boundary, opened by Hoare,nothing found. 
Not on O.M. 54 SW. [No trace 1912. M.E.C] 

[lb— e] (12 of Hoare's Map of Stonehenge.) Group of 4 small barrows 
close together to E. of Winterbourne Stoke Down group and just 
N. of Deptford Rd. at 3 miles from Amesbury. One opened by 
Hoare contained rude urn with burnt bones and two pieces of 
twisted wire. The other 3 not opened. A. W. I. 126 ; not on 
OM. 54 SW. [No trace, 1912. M.E.C.) 

2. (162) Large disc barrow in Normanton Gorse, opened before 



344 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

Hoare's time. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 205 ; Soc. Ant. Map 484. 
[In wood and planted, otherwise in fair condition, 1912. M. E.C.J 

2a. (163) N. of last in Normanton Gorse, opened by Hoare, burnt 
bones in shallow cist, with fragments of incense cup and bone 
pin. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 205 ; Soc. Ant. Map 483. [In wood 
and much defaced, 1912. M.E.C.] 

2b. (161) S. of 162 in Normanton Gorse, low barrow, opened by 
Hoare, skeleton near surface with drinking cup, another skeleton 
lft. 6in. lower down, and in grave 6ft. deep skeleton with drink- 
ing cup. O.M. 54 SW. ; A.W. I. 205 ; Soc. Ant. Map 485. [In 
wood and much defaced, 1912. M.E.C.] 

8. (160) Large disc barrow just S.E. of Normanton Gorse, opened 
by Hoare, 1804. Burnt bones in small circular cist with "great 
variety of amber, jet, and glass beads." OM. 54 SW. ; A.W. I. 
205 ; Stourhead Cat. 154 — 1546 ; Soc. Ant. Map 486. [Condition 
good, 1912. M.E.C.] 

4. (159) Large disc barrow close on S. side of last, opened by Ld. 

Pembroke or Stukeley. Burnt bones in cist. O.M. 54 SW r . ; 
A.W. I. 205 ; W.A.M. xvi. 147 (169 misprint for 159) ; Soc. Ant. 
Map 487. [Condition good, 1912. M.E.C.] 

5. (158) "Bush Barrow" just E. of last, opened by Hoare, 1808. 

Skeleton of man on floor, and about 18in. from the head, rivets 
and strips of bronze with remains of wood, probably a shield. 
Bronze celt near shoulders, and near right arm large flat bronze 
dagger with 6 rivets and small tang 10|in. long with handle 
incrusted with minute gold pins in chevron pattern, and another 
dagger, largest ever found in Wilts 13in. long with 6 rivets, and 
plate of gold, 1 part of sheath. Bronze knife dagger (?) under 
right hand. On breast lozenge shaped plate of thin gold 7in. 
long. Polished oval perforated stone hammer of fossil I'ubularia, 
small lozenge shaped ornament of gold, and bone mountings of 
some object, with vandyked edges. Devizes Museum. O.M. 
54 SW. ; A.W. I. 202, PI. xxvi, xxvii ; Evans' Bronze 51, 232, 
352 ; Evans' Stone 203, 411 ; Arch, xliii. 444, PI. xxxv. 1 ; Ixi. 
U9 — 121, Figs. 66 — 68; Stukeley's Stonehenge 46, Tab. xxxiii ; 
Stourhead Cat. 148— 152a, 161, 162 ; Soc. Ant. Map 488 ; W.AM. 
xxxvii. 98 fig. [Injured by rabbits but not ploughed, 1912. 
M.E.C.] 

6. (157) Just E. of Bush Barrow (5), opened before Hoare's time. 

OM. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 202 ; Soc. Ant. Map. 503. [Injured by 
rabbits but not ploughed, 1912. M.E.C.] 

7. (156) Large bell-shaped, 10ft. high, 102ft. in diam. Skeleton in 

shallow grave, with 2 gold beads, a circular disc of amber pierced 
for suspension, jet beads, joint of encrinite, grape cup, and 
drinking cup at feet of skeleton. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 202, 
PI. XXV. ; Arch, xliii. 347 ; Stourhead Cat. 280 ; Soc. Ant. Map. 
504. [Injured by rabbits but not ploughed, 1912. M.E.C.] 



Bij the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 345 

8. (155) Large bell-shaped, lift, high, W. of the last. Burnt bones 

on floor of barrow, incense cup, gold-plated bronze horns, gold- 
plated cone of lignite, 2 amber discs with gold borders, bronze 
"lancet" with gold and amber handle, circular bone object 
covered with thin gold, and 2 amber drop-shaped pendants. 
O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 201, 202, PI. XXV. ; Stourkead Cat. 127, 
133—138, 143, 188c ; Soc. Ant. Map 502. [Injured by rabbits but 
not ploughed, 1912. M.E C] 

9. (153) Small barrow just E. of 8, opened before Hoare's time. 

O.M. 54 SW. ; Soc. Ant. Map 505. [Injured by rabbits but not 
ploughed, 1912. M.E.C.] 
[9a.] (154) Small barrow close to last, opened before Hoare's time, 
not on O.M. 54 S W. ; A. W. I. 201. [Very small but still existing, 
1913. M.E.C.J 

10. (152) Small barrow E. of 9, opened before Hoare's time. O.M- 
54 S W. ; A. W. I. 201 ; Soc. Ant. Map 506. [Injured by rabbits 
but not ploughed, 1912. M.E.C.] 

11. (150) Close on S. side of last, opened by Hoare, nothing found. 

O.M. 54 SW. ; A.W. 1. 201 ; Soc. Ant. Map 507. [Injured by 
rabbits but not ploughed, 1912. M.E.C.] 

12. (148) S.W. of last, small barrow opened by Hoare, nothing- 
found. O.M. 54 SW. ; A.W. I. 201 ; Soc. Ant. Map 508. [Injured 
by rabbits but not ploughed, 1912. M.E.C.] 

13. (151) Small Long Barrow almost touching 11 on W. ; not opened 
by Hoare. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 201 ; Soc. Ant. Map, not 
numbered. [Looks like a true Long Barrow, not ploughed, 1912. 
M.E.C.] See Appendix Long Barrows. 

14. (149) Disc barrow, opened by Stukeley ? Burnt bones in cist. 

O.M. 54 SW. ; Stukeley Stonehenge 46 ; Soc Ant. Map 509. 
[Injured by rabbits, not ploughed, 1912. M.E.C.J 

15. 16. (147) Twin barrows enclosed in one ditch, just E. of 14, 

the westernmost 15 opened by Earl of Pembroke 1722, who 
found a skeleton 3ft. under surface. Opened again by Hoare 
who found primary interment in cist of burnt bones with ivory 
hook and arrowhead-shaped implement of bone. Stukeley's 
Stonehenge 44 A. Tab. IX. ; A. W. I. 200 PI. XXIV. ; Stourhead 
Cat. 124. 
The easternmost, 16, opened by Stukeley, and again by Hoare who 
found burnt bones in cist with amber and jet beads and small 
cup. O.M. 54 S W. ; A. W. I. 201 ; Soc. Ant. Map 510. [Injured 
by rabbits but not ploughed. 1912. M.E.C.J 

17. (146) Touching E. side of twin barrow, opened by Stukeley, B 

in Tab. IX. O.M. 54 SW. ; A.W. I. 200 ; Soc. Ant. Map 511. 
[Injured by rabbits but not ploughed. 1912. M.E.C.J 

18. (145) Bowl-shaped, touching S.W. side of last, opened by Hoare, 

apparently opened before. In cist ivory hook and kidney- 
shaped black pebble. O.M. 60 NW. ; A. W. I. 200 ; Stourhead 

10L. XXXVIII. — NO. CXX. 2 A 



346 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

Cat. 103, 114. [Injured by rabbits but not ploughed. 1912. 
M.E.C.] 

19. (144) Just E. of last, opened by Hoare, cist with skeleton and 

small bronze knife dagger. O.M. 60 NW. ; A.W. I. 200. [In- 
jured by rabbits but not ploughed. 1912. M.E.C.] 

20. (142) Disc barrow just E. of 19. Opened before Hoare's time, 

no record. O.M. 60 NW. ; A. W. I. 200. 

21. (143) Disc barrow just E. of last, opened before Hoare's time, 

no record. O.M. 60 NW. ; A. W. I. 200 Stonehenge Map 
shows this barrow as out of the line and on the N. side of 141 
and 142, it is really in line with them as on O.M. 

22. (141) Disc barrow just E. of last, opened before Hoare's time, 

no record. O.M. 60 NW. ; A. W. I. 200. 

23. (139) Bowl-shaped barrow just E of last, opened by Hoare. 

Shallow cist with burnt bones, 2 fine bronze daggers, long 
bronze crutched pin, whetstone and bone pipe. O.M. 60 NW. ; 
A. W. I. 199, PI. XXIV. ; Evans' Stone 242 ; Evans' Bronze 366 ; 
Stourhead Cat. 120— 122a. [Under plough. 1913. M.E.C.] 

24. (140) Large bowl barrow on S. side of 22. Opened before Hoare's 

time, no record. O.M. 60 NW. ; A.W. I. 200. [In ploughed 
land but not itself ploughed, 1913. M.E.C.] 
[24a.] (138) Disc barrow just E. of preceding. Opened before Hoare's 
time, no record. A. W. I. 199. [Not on O.M. 60 NW., but still 
existing, 1913. M.E.C.] 
The two easternmost barrows of the line in Stonehenge Map (136, 
137) are in Amesbury, see Amesbury. 



Three barrows in line N. & S. between Normanton Group and 
Starveall Plantation, [24b]— 26. O.M. 60 NW. shows only 
25, 26. 
[24b.] (178) Opened by Hoare. Burnt bones. Not on O.M. 60 NW. { 
A. W. I. 207. [Much ploughed down and still under plough, 1912. 
M.E.C.] 

25. (179) S. of last. Opened before Hoare's time, no record. O.M. 

60 NW. [Condition good, never ploughed, 1912. M.E.C.] 

26. (180) S. of last Opened before Hoare's time, no record. O.M. 

60 NW. ; A. W. I. 207. [Condition good, never ploughed, 1912. 
M.E.C.] 



On Normanton Down S. W. & W. of the group, 7 barrows, 27—33, 

27. (177) i mile S.W. of 17. Has been large barrow but top has been 

removed. Opened by Hoare. Burnt bones with fine bronze 

dagger. O.M. 60 N W. ; A. W. 1/207 ; Stourhead Cat. 110. [Much 

injured by rabbits, 1912. M.E.C.] 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 347 

28 [28a]. (175). Just S.W. of last, Stonehenge Map shows a small 
barrow, not numbered, touching S. side of larger barrow, not 
shown on 0. M. Opened by Hoare. Burnt bones in both. Smaller 
had been opened before. O.M. 60 N W. ; A. W. I. 206. 

29. (176) Fine bell-shaped barrow. Opened by Hoare. Skeleton on 

floor, excavation unfinished. O.M. 60 NW. ; A. W. I. 206. [Much 
injured by rabbits, 1912. M.E.C.] 

30. (173) Long Barrow $ mile W. of 28. Opened by Hoare. Skeleton 

18in. below surface, on floor 4 skeletons strangely huddled to- 
gether. O.M. 60 NW. ; A.W. I. 206. [Condition good, 1912. 
M.E.O.] See Appendix Long Barrows. 

31. (174) Just S.W. of Long Barrow. Opened before Hoare's time. 

O.M. 60 NW. ; A. W. I. 206. [Condition good, 1912. M.E.C.] 

32. (172) Just W. of Long Barrow. Opened by Hoare. Circular 

cist containing great quantity of black ashes and few fragments 
of bone. The interment of burnt bones on the floor beside the 
cist. Lignite ring and beads. O.M. 60 NW. ; A.W. I. 206; 
Stourhead Cat. 267. [Condition good, 1912. M.E.C.] 

33. (168 1) Barrow N.W. of the last, \ mile W. of Normanton Gorse, 

a little distance S. of Rd. at 3 miles from Amesbury. Opened 
by Hoare. Burnt bones. O.M. 54 S W. ; A. W. I. 206 ; Soc. Ant. 
Map 490. 
[33a, 33b.] (167, 169) Hoare, Stonehenge Map, shows 3 barrows in 
line here N. & S., two of which have disappeared, (167) a pond 
barrow and either (168) or (169), probably the latter, opened by 
Hoare without result. " Probably not sepulchral," he says. 
O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 206. 



34. (170). Long Barrow on Wilsford Down, \ mile S.E. of Long 

Barrow Cross lids., N. of The Diamond. Opened by Thurnam. 
A long polished hone-like stone found. O.M. 60 NW. ; A.W.I. 
206 ; Arch, xliii. 425 note. [Condition good, 1912. M.E.C.] See 
Appendix Long Barrows. 

35, 36 [36a — p]. (171) Two barrows close together just E. of Long 

Barrow 34. The only barrows shown on O.M. of a group of 18 
small barrows close together. The largest, opened by Hoare, con- 
tained rude urn, jet beads, and bronze awl ; another, which had 
been opened before Hoare's time, opened by him contained frag- 
ments of large urn and " a piece of granite." Nearly all the small 
barrows contained burnt bones only. O.M. 60 NW. ; A.W. I. 
206. [Mrs. Cunnington, 1912, notes that the group still exists 
in good condition, and has apparently never been ploughed, one 
pond barrow and two fair sized mounds, the rest very slight.] 



Lake Group. Hoare, on Plan of Barrows on Lake Down, A.W.I. 
207 shows in the group close together between the two ditches, 

2 A 2 



348 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

i mile S.E. of " The Diamond," close to Berwick St. James 
boundary, 20 barrows. O.M. 60 NW. shows only 15, 37 — 50, 
[Mrs. Cunnington, 1912, could distinguish 19. J 
■ [36a.] (2) The most westerly of 4 small barrows in a line close to- 
gether N.W. of 40. Opened by Hoare. Burnt bones and in- 
cense cup just under surface. A. W. I. 209, PI. XXX. ; Stourhead 
Cat 172, fig. ; not on O.M. 60 NW. [Just distinguishable, 1912. 
M.E.C.] 
37, 38. (3, 4) Small barrows close in line with 2. Opened before 
Hoare's time. O.M. 60 NW. ; A. W. I. 210. [Condition good, 
1912. M.E.C.]. 

39. (5) Small barrow in same line close on S.E. Opened by W. 

Cunnington 1805. Burnt bones with necklace of 20 or 30 flat 
cylindrical shale beads. O.M. 60 NW. ; A. W. I. 210 ; Stourhead 
Cat. 172b, [Ditch of plantation runs over it, 1912. M.E.C.] 

40. (6) Very large barrow, 13ft. 9in. high. Opened by Hoare. 

Primary interment skeleton of child 2 or 3 years old with drink- 
ing cup in grave 5ft. deep below floor of barrow. Above this, 
5ft. from surface of barrow, were two skeletons and within 1ft. 
of surface a fine urn inverted over burnt bones and ivory (or 
bone ?) pin. O.M. 60 NW. ; A. W. I. 210 PI. XXX. ; Stourhead 
Cat. 174b. [Planted and somewhat defaced by rabbits, 1912. 
M.E.C.]. 

41. (1) Long barrow in plantation just S.W. of 40, not opened by 

Hoare. O.M. 60 NW. ; See Appendix Long Barrows. [Planted 
with trees, otherwise uninjured, 1912. M.E.C.]. 

42. (7) Large bell-shaped barrow on N. edge of plantation, opened 

by Hoare. Cist with burnt bones, bronze knife dagger, large 
awl, and " large stone bead and bead of ivory." O.M. 60 NW. ; 
A. W. I. 210 PI. XXX. : Stourhead Cat. 174a, 174c. [Condition 
good, but bank of plantation cuts through ditch of barrow, 
1912. M.E.C.]. 

43. (8) In plantation ijust E. of last, wide flat barrow 6ft. high, 

opened by Hoare. Burnt bones which had been enclosed in 
wooden box in cist 8^ft. long X 2ft. wide, bronze dagger and 
whetstone. O.M. 60 NW. ; A.W. I. 211 PI. XXVIII. ; Stour- 
head Cat. 134, 179. [Much defaced and cut about, 1912. 
M.E.C.]. 

44. (9) In plantation E. of last, fine bell barrow, 10ft. high, opened 

by Hoare. Burnt bones on floor. O.M. 60 NW. ; A. W. I. 211. 
[Bushy, some rabbits, 1912. M.E.C.]. 

45. (10) Large barrow in plantation E. of last, opened by Hoare. 

Head of deer and skeleton of dog only found. O.M. 60 NW. ; 
A.W. I. 211. [Bushy, some rabbits, 1912. M.E.C.]. 
[45a, 45b]. [11, 12) Two large disc barrows in the plantation, 
opened before Hoare's time. No record. A.W. I. 211 ; not on 
O.M. 60 NW. [Can only be traced with difficulty, 1912. 
M.E.C.]. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 349 

[45c] (13) Small barrow close to last, opened by Hoare. Burnt 
bones. A. W. I. 211 ; not on O.M. 60 NW. [No trace found, 
1912. M.E.C.] 

46. (14, 15) Twin barrow in plantation, N.E. of 45. The smaller 

mound opened before Hoare's time. Tb e larger mound contained 
an immense quantity of ashes on the floor. A small cist with 
burnt bones, 4 glass notched beads, one stone bead, 2 of amber 
and a bronze awl. O.M. 6 N W. ; A. W. I. 211 PI. XXX. [Con- 
dition very dilapidated, 1912. M.E.C.] 
Barrows 16 — 20 just outside plantation. Opened by the Rev. E. 
Duke 1806. Contents preserved at Lake House and sold July 
10th, 1895. Mostly bought by British Museum. W.A.M. xxviii. 
260. Probably referred to as Nos. 1—4 in Rev. E. Duke's MS. 
Notes, printed W.A.M. xxxv. 582. 

47. (16?) {Dukes MS. 1) In cist 3ft. 3in. deep burnt bones with 

bronze knife dagger. O.M. 60 NW. [Overgrown with bushes, 
just distinguishable, 1912. M.E.C.] 

48. (18) {Duke's MS. 2 ?) Large barrow. Burnt bones on floor with 

bronze knife dagger and boar's tusk. O.M. 60 NW. [Condition 
fair, 1912. M.E.C.] 

49. (17 ?) {Duke's MS. 3 ?) Large barrow. Cist 3ft. deep, burnt bones 

and bronze knife dagger. O.M. 60 NW. [Condition fair, 1912. 
M.E.C.] 

50. (19 1) {Duke's MS. 4 ?) Large bell-shaped barrow. Cist 1ft. 8in. 

deep with great quantity of burnt bones spread over bottom, 
bronze knife dagger, and 4 bone objects with patterns on them. 
The bones and other objects had apparently been deposited in a 
wooden box. O.M. 60 NW. A.W. I. 212, PI. XXXI; W.A.M. 
xxxv. 584. [Condition fair, 1912. M.E.C.] 
[50a.] (20) Barrow E. of 49. 1 opened by Duke. [Much ploughed 
down ; still under plough, 1912. M.E.C.] 

4 Barrows, 51— 54, close together \ mile N.E. of Lake Group and 
plantation on E. side of Ditch on Wilsford Down. Shown on 
Hoare's Plan of Barrows on Lake Down. O.M. 60 NW. ; 
A. W. I. 207. Their identification is doubtful. 

51. (24?) Opened by Hoare. Just under the turf burnt bones and 

fragments of drinking cup. Lower down another deposit of burnt 
bones just over the head of a skeleton, and below this another 
skeleton with stag's horns beside it. O.M. 60 NW. ; A.W. 
I. 211. 

52. (23?) Opened by Hoare. Cist with burnt bones. O.M. 60 

NW. ;A.W. I. 211. 

53. (22) Opened by Hoare. Had been disturbed, but probably 

contained 3 skeletons and 3 drinking cups. Skeleton of a child 
with drinking cup was complete. O.M. 60 N W. ; A. W. I. 211, 
PI. XXVIII. 8; Stourhead Cat. 246 fig. 



350 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

54. (21) Opened by Hoare. Had been opened before. Fragments 
of drinking cup, flint arrowhead, and worked flints. A. W. I. 211, 
PI. XXX. ; Stourhead Cat. 173b. Hoare, however, (AW. I. 212) 
speaks of 21 (apparently another barrow) as a wide low barrow 
ploughed over. With the skeleton in a grave 2ft. Sin. deep, was 
the elaborate amber necklace of 8 flat perforated tablets and 
numerous beads and pendants, 4 discs of gold, 1 earrings, a 
drinking cup? and reversible incense cup. O.M. 60 NW. ; 
A. W. PI. XXXI. ; W.A.M. xxviii. 261 ; Arch. xlii. 505. [This 
is No. 20 of Mr. Duke's Notes. W.A.M. xxxv. 586.] 



2 barrows in Starveall Plantation and one outside it at N.E. corner, 
55—57 about | mile E. of 54 and I mile N. of the Wilsford 
Group. 

55. (183). In centre of Starveall Plantation. Opened by Hoare. 

Burnt bones and stag's horns. O.M. 60 NW. ; A. W. I. 207. 
[Planted and much defaced by rabbits, 1912. M.E.C.] 

56. (182) At N. end of Starveall Plantation. Opened by Hoare. 

Burnt bones in wooden box on floor with bronze dagger in 
wooden sheath, small knife dagger, bone tweezers, and pin. 
O.M. 60 NW. ; A.W. I. 207; Stourhead Cat. Ill, Ilia, 174. 
[Planted and much defaced by rabbits, 1912. M.E.C.] 
57 [57a— f]. (181) The barrow just outside N.E. corner of Star- 
veall Plantation, the only one shown on O.M. 60 NW. of 
Hoare's Group 181, 7 small barrows close together, " several 
mean barrows not worthy of investigation, many had been 
opened before," A.W. I. 207. [Two other mounds of this 
group can be seen, but all much ploughed down, and still 
under plough, 1912. M.E.C.] 



The "Wilsford Group," just S.W. of Springbottom Farm and \ mile 
S. of Starveall Plantation. Hoare, Plan of Barrows on Wilsford 
Down, A.W. I. 207, shows 18 barrows, O.M. 60 NW. 'shows 16 
only, 58 — 73, Hoare's Nos. 1 and 6 not being shown. 

The second numbers in brackets are those on Hoare's plan of the 
group. 

[The condition of this most interesting group is deplorable ; the 
very fine Ring Barrows have been practically obliterated by 
cultivation, and the planting of the wood has spoilt the rest of 
the group, 1912. M.E.C.] 
58. (18) Large bell-shaped barrow in wood, most westerly of the 
group, 121ft. in diam., lift. high. Skeleton of very tall man 
lying on floor of barrow, and at his feet a perforated stone axe- 
hammer, flat flanged bronze celt, bone tube, and other bone ob- 
jects, large boar's tusk, and unique bronze object like a prong. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 351 

O.M. 60 NW. ; A. W. I. 209, PI. XXIX. ; Arch. lxi. 122 ; Evans' 
Bronze 51, 405 ; Evans' Stone, 203, 241 ; Stourhead Cat. 167— 
171 Jigs. [Defaced by rabbits, poor condition, 1912. M.E.C.] 
59 (17) In wood just E. of last. Opened before Hoare's time 
O.M. 60 NW. ; A. W. I. 209. [Defaced by rabbits, poor condition, 
1912. M.E.C.] 

60. (16) Bowl-shaped. In wood E. of last. Opened by Hoare. 

Burnt bones, with bronze knife-dagger, bone mesh rules, whet- 
stones, flint lancehead. 0. M. 60 N W. ; A . W. 1. 209, PI. XXVIII. ; 
Evans' Bronze 226 ; Evans' Stone 355 ; Stourhead Cat. 181— 186b. 

61. (15) In wood E. of last. Opened by Hoare. No interment 

found. O.M. 60 NW. [Defaced by rabbits, condition poor, 
1912. M.E.C.] 

62. (13) In wood E. of last. Large bowl-shaped barrow. Opened 

by Hoare. In shallow grave skeleton of young man with drinking 
cup. O.M. 60 N W. : A. W. I. 208, PL XXVIII. ; Stourhead Cat. 
2i5 Jig. [Defaced by rabbits, condition poor, 1912. M.E.C.] 

63. (10?) In wood E. of last. " Pond Barrow." O.M. 60 NW. [In- 
jured by rabbits, 1912. M.E.C.] 

64. (9) In wood E. of last. Large bowl-shaped barrow, 8ft. high. 

In a cist 2ft. deep a heap of burnt bones with a bone pin, a bone 
ring, and very small bronze flanged celt. O.M. 60 NW. ; A.W. I. 
208, PI. XX VIII. ; Arch, lxi., 125 ; Evans' Bronze 51 ; Stourhead 
Cat. 207 Jig. 
[64a.] (6) In wood E. of last. Disc barrow. Opened before Hoare's 
time. Not on O.M. 60 NW. [Very poor condition, 1912. M.E.C.] 

65. (5) In N.E. corner of wood. Flat bowl-shaped barrow. Opened 
by Hoare. Two cists close together. In one a fine urn with 
burnt bones, in the other burnt bones with bronze knife-dagger, 
" almost melted into a rude lump by the heat of the funeral pile." 
A third interment of burnt bones on floor of the barrow near the 
cists. O.M. 60 NW. ; W.A.M. xxi. 262 Jig.; xxxvii. 94 Jig. ; 
Stourhead Cat. 214 Jig. ; A. W. I. 208, PI. xxviii. The references 
in Arch, xliii. 447 ; lxi. 136 to this barrow are erroneous. [In- 
jured by rabbits, 1912. M.E.C.] 

66. (14) Disc barrow just outside N. edge of wood. Opened before 

Hoare's time. O.M. 60 NW. [Under plough, distinguishable, 
1912. M.E.C.] 

67. (12) Low barrow, E. of last. Opened by Hoare. Skeleton in 
grave 10ft. deep. O.M. 60 NW. [Under plough, distinguishable, 

1812. M.E.C.] 

68. (11) On S. side of last. Opened by Hoare. Had been opened 

before. Scattered remains of skeleton and burnt bones found. 
O.M. 60 NW. [Under plough, distinguishable, 1912. M.E.C.] 

69. (8) E of last. Flat barrow with ditch. Opened before Hoare's 

time. O.M. 60 NW. [Under plough, almost obliterated, 1912. 
M.E.C.] 



352 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

70. (7) Disc barrow, E. of last, with three mounds. Opened by 
Hoare. In the central mound burnt bones with a bronze awl. 
Another had been opened before, and in the third remains of the 
"skeleton of a youth" with fragments of a drinking cup were 
found. O.M. 60 NW. [Only the ring distinguishable, the 3 
mounds quite obliterated. Still under plough, 1912. M.E.C.] 

71. (2) Large disc barrow with one mound. Opened by Hoare. 

Burnt bones with bronze knife dagger and awl. O.M. 60 NW. 
[Under plough, traceable but fast disappearing, 1912. M.E.C.] 

72. (3) S. of last. Opened by Hoare. Disc barrow, one mound. 

Burnt bones with " a considerable quantity of glass, jet and amber 
beads," and "a fine brass pin." ? bronze awl. O.M. 60 NW. 
[Under plough, traceable, but fast disappearing, 1912. M.E.C.] 

73. (4) Small barrow close on W. side of 72. Opened by Hoare. 

Cist containing ashes but no interment. OM. 60 N.W. [Under 
plough, traceable, but fast disappearing, 1912. M.E.C.] 
[73a,] (1) Small barrow E. of71, 72. Opened before Hoare's time. 
Not in O.M. [Under plough, traceable, but fast disappearing, 
1912. M.E.C.] 



[73b.] Barrow unnumbered shown on Stonehenge Map, just N.E. of the 
Wilsford Group at Spring Bottom, not marked on O.M. 60 NW. 

74. Barrow just S, of Wilsford Group and N. of the Ditch. O.M. 60 
NW. ; A. W. I. Station V. South. 



On Lake Down, between two parallel ditches running N.W. to S.E., 
\ mile S. of Wilsford Group, and just E. of Westfield Farm, O.M. 
60 NW. shows 8 barrows, 75— 82; A.W. I. Station V. South 
shows 11 barrows between the ditches. 

80. Disc barrow with one central mound. [Condition good, 1912. 
M.E.C.] 

75, 76, 79, 81, 82. Small mounds. [Condition good, 1912. 
M.E.C.] 

77, 78 (?) and apparently two others, not on O.M., are four pond 
barrows. [Condition good, 1912. M.E.C.] 

S. of Westfield Farm and of the S. Ditch one barrow, 83, and 
\ mile E. of 75— 82, and of the N. Ditch, and \ mile S.E. of 
Wilsford Group, 3 barrows near together, 84 — 86, near Lake 
Bottom. Many of these barrows were opened by the Rev. E. 
Duke, of Lake House, and are probably some of those mentioned 
in his MS. Notes printed in W.A.M. xxxv. 584, but the particular 
barrows cannot be identified. The numbers given in brackets 
below are those of Mr. Duke's Notes. Hoare does not describe 
them. A. W. I. 213. 

(5) Bowl-shaped, 5ft. 6in. high. Six skeletons. In centre skele- 
tons of one or two young children with two urns or drinking 



By the Rev. E. R. Goddard. 353 

cups. In a grave 1ft. 6in. deep a skeleton with pointed bone 
implements, at its feet another skeleton. On the floor of the 
barrow another skeleton with necklace of beads, and in grave 
below, another skeleton. W.A.M. xxxv. 584. 

(6) Bowl barrow 4ft. 2in. high. In centre a cist with burnt bones. 
Nearer the surface of the barrow an urn standing upright, 16in. 
high, with burnt bones. W.A.M. xxxv. 584. 

(7) Small bowl barrow. Circular cist with burnt bones. W.A.M. 
xxxv. 585. 

(8) Very large bowl barrow. On the floor a skeleton with bronze 
knife dagger and quantity of flint flakes. Below this a grave 
lft. llin. deep, containing the bones of 2 or 3 grown persons and 
3 or 4 children "confusedly lain." W.A.M. xxxv. 585. 

(9) Bowl barrow. In centre a cist with urn 16in. high, inverted 
over burnt bones and a bone pin. W.A.M. xxxv. 585. 

(10) Large flat barrow. In centre a grave 3ft. deep with skeleton. 
W.A.M. xxxv. 585.' 

(11) Disc barrow, 120ft. in diam. Near centre a cist lft. deep con- 
taining a very small urn with burnt bones. W.A.M. xxxv. 585. 

(12) A " Pond Barrow." Near the centre a circular cist with burnt 
bones. W.A.M. xxxv. 585. 

(13, 14, 15) " Pond Barrows." Opened but nothing found. 

(16) Bowl barrow. Had been opened before. Burnt bones and 
fragments of urn found. W.A.M. xxxv. 585. 

(17) Small flat barrow. Burnt bones near surface. In a grave 3ft. 
deep a skeleton. Broken deer horns in body of mound. W.A.M. 
xxxv. 585. 

(18) Bowl barrow, 4ft. high. Cist with burnt bones covered with a 
large stone. W.A.M. xxxv. 586. 

(19) Bowl barrow. Opened before Mr. Duke's day. W.A.M. 
xxxv. 586. 

(20) See above, Lake Group, 54. 

From one of the above barrows came the fine urn, 15^in. high, in 
the British Museum, figured in Ant. and Top. Cab. PI. I. & 
Romilly Allen's Celtic Art p. 22. 



A curious little urn-shaped cup about 4in. high with 2 pierced ears, 
from a barrow at Wilsford. Salisbury Museum. 

Ground greenstone celt "from a barrow at Lake." Brit. Museum. 
Evans' Stone 114 ; W.A.M. xxviii. 261. 
87. Barrow in park of Lake House just on E. side of Rd. S. of house. 
O.M. 60 NE. ; A. W. I. Station' V. South. 

Lake. Said to have been found by Rev. E. Duke in a barrow, or 
barrows, at Lake, were 2 fine bronze twisted torques with 3 spiral 
bronze " Finger Rings " ?, and 5 penannular armlets of plain 



354 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities, 

strong squared or rounded bronze, formerly in the Duke Collection 
at Lake. Of these the armlets are in Devizes M. Stourhead Cat- 
388—392 fig. ; and the smaller torque and rings in Farnham 
Museum. W.A.M. xxviii. 261. Also " from a barrow at Lake " 
in the Blackmore Museum, 2 similar armlets and one torque ; 
and at Devizes a broad flat bronze armlet. W.A.M. xxviii, 261 ; 
Stourhead Cat. 393 fig. There is no record of the finding of any 
of these objects. 
Earthworks. A bank and ditch runs S.E. from Long Barrow Cross Roads, 
and probably from Winterborne Stoke British villages, appears to 
divide into two branches at the Diamond, which run in same direction 
more or less parallel enclosing the Lake Group of barrows, and just 
S. of the Wilsford Group, over Lake Down towards site of British 
village opposite Greab Durnford. Hoare A. W. I. Station V. South 
shows these ditches as continuous; O.M. 60 NW. shows a gap 
now between the Lake and Wilsford Group of barrows. O.M. 60 
NW. ; 54 SW. shows a bank running NE. over Wilsford and Norman- 
ton Down at right angles to these banks, from near the Diamond to 
Normanton Gorse, and another bank and ditch forming three sides 
of an irregular oblong of large extent joining the northern of the 
two parallel ditches at the Lake Group. O.M. 60 NW. 
Finds, Neolithic. Flint scrapers, &c, Lake. Blackmore Museum. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Lake. Flanged celt and socketed celt, formerly 

in the Duke Coll. W.A.M. xxviii. 261. 
Finds, Late Celtic. Near Bush Barrow. Bronze bow brooch of " La 
Tene I." type. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 301 fig. ; Reliquary xiv . 
95 fig. 4 ; W.A.M. xxxv. 399 fig. 
Roman. British village opposite Great Durnford. A. W. I. Station V. 
South, not on 0. M. 
In 1635, says Aubrey, quoted by Stukeley {Stonehenge 32) as they were 
ploughing about Normanton Ditch they found a large quantity of 
excellent pewter, as much as they sold at alow price for £5 (no doubt 
Roman dishes and vessels like the Manton and Appleshaw finds. 
E.H.G.) 
Iron socketed spearhead. Blackmore Museum. 

WILTON. 
Barrows. 

1. " Neale's Barrow," in S.W. angle of Hare Warren, just E. of junction 

of Rds. from Wilton and Salisbury. Probably the barrow called 
by Stukeley the "Tomb of King Carvilius." O.M. 66 SW. ; 
Stonehenge, 44 Tab. xxxiv. ; A. W. I. 250, Station VIII. 
[la, ta.] Hoare shows three barrows at this point N. of the Rd., two 
opened, one unopened. A. W. I. 250, Station VIII. Only 1 is 
shown on O.M. 66 SW. 

2. Large barrow in centre of Deer Park. O.M. 66 SW. ; not in A. W. 

I. Station VIII. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 355 

Earthworks. Ditch running along S. side of Grovely from Hamshill 
Ditches in Barford, crosses Grovely Down in N. corner of Wilton, 
pointing towards Chilhampton. O.M. 66 NW. ; A. W. 1. 110, Station 
IV. 

Finds, Bronze Age. Cinerary urn inverted over burnt bones in shallow 
cist in chalk just under the surface, in ploughed field 300 yds. N. of 
Wilton Keservoir, found 1910. No sign of barrow, but if one ever 
existed it may have been ploughed down. Salisbury Museum. 
W.A.M. xxxvi. 489. 
Bronze looped palstave (?) W.A.M. xxxvii. 133. 

Saxon. A remarkable bowl of bright yellow alloy, lofin. in diam. x 4^in. 
high, found about 1860, in drainage work between the Abbey and 
Kingsbury Square, preserved at Wilton House. Attached to the 
sides are 4 hooks with animals' heads, holding rings for suspension. 
Of doubtful age. Pagan or Christian 1 Nightingale Church Plate 
of Wilts 28 fig. ; Arch. lix. 40 fig. ; Proc. Soc. Ant. xxii. 67. 



WINSLEY. 

Earthworks. In field called Dane Bottom N.E. of Church, trenches and 
earthworks formerly existed. Not now visible. Tradition of swords 
and weapons found there. W. G. Collins. 

Finds, Neolithic. At Conkwell, on the surface, a great number of 
worked flints found by W. G. Collins, of Bradford, 1910 — 11, 9 arrow- 
heads, barbed and leaf -shaped, 1 fragment of ground celt, 120 
scrapers, worked flakes, cores, &c, 1 fabricator, 2 knives, <fcc. 
Antiquary viii. 380— 287 Jigs. ; W.A.M. xxxvii. 626. 



WINTERBOURNE BASSETT. 
Barrows. 

[la.] " A very irregular mound probably a barrow with a ditch at the 
base and the top cut away," close to N. side of village street just 
E. of the bourne. Has disappeared. Not in O.J/. Smith -p. 121, 
IX. G. II. b. 

[lb.] At top of village, N. of Rd. nearly opposite blacksmith's shop, 
large mound, may be a barrow. Not on O.M. Rev. H. G. O. 
Kendall 1913. 

[lc] Stukeley, quoted by Hoare, says that on N . side of the stone circle 
in a ploughed field was a barrow set round with or rather com- 
posed of large stones. This is gone. Stukeley Abury 45 ; A. W. 
II. 94. 

[Id.] On Millbrow E. of Devizes Rd., at point N. of a corner of Berwick 
boundary, marked as a measuring point on O-M., a low ploughed- 
down barrow 1 Not on O.M. Rev. H. G. O. Kendall 1913. 



356 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

Stone Circle. In field through which " Vize Lane " passed, on E. of Rd. 
Winterbourne to Clyffe are remains of what Stukeley describes as a 
"double circle of stones concentric sixty cubits diameter . . . .1 
west of it is a single broad flat and high stone standing by itself." Of 
these stones six lying prostrate are visible ; Rev. A. C. Smith 1881 
and 1882 found 10 others buried. He shows plan of double circle 
with single stone in centre. 0. M. 22 SW. ; Stukeley Abury 45 ; A. W- 
II. 94 ; Smith 76—78, plan, V. F. I. a. 

Earthworks. Mutilated remains of earthwork enclosure? at WhyrCommon. 
O.M. 22 SW. ; A. W. II. 95 ; Smith p. 78 V. E. II. a. [Only one side 
now shows as a considerable bank in grass field, 1914. E.H.G.] 
Oblong enclosure, low bank and ditch at foot of down S.W. of road up 
White Horse Hill. O.M. 22 SE. ; Smith p. 121, IX. H. II. b. Ditches 
E. & W. to S. of this. [Stukeley somewhere here speaks of a second 
" old chapel " " a square double ditched but small ditches, in the 
middle a broad oblong square bank," Abury p. 48.] A. W. II. 94. 

Ridgeway running along crest of Hackpen Hill crosses end of parish. 
O.M. 22 SE. ; A. W. II. 46. 

Eoliths found at Winterbourne and on Hackpen Hill. H. G. O. Kendall. 
W.A.M. xxxvii. 186. 

Finds, Palaeolithic. Implements of this age found by Rev. H. G. O. 
Kendall on surface at Winterbourne, and Whyr Farm, 1913, and on 
top of Hackpen Hill. Abstract Proc Geol. Soc. Lond. No. 874, 1909 ; 
W.A.M. xxxvii. 186. 

Finds, Neolithic. Large numbers of cores, scrapers, knives, &c, and 
ground flint celt, on high ground near Glory Ann. Rev. H. G. O. 
Kendall. 
Oval quartzite pebble hammer with depressions each side. In Brit. 
Museum. Evans' Stone 2l4,Jlg. 161. 

Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze dagger, rare type, 7in. long, found on down. 
Devizes Museum Cat. II. B 2; W.A.M. xi. 244; xxxvii. 100; Reliquary 
xiv. 243 /<7. 
Bronze spearhead 6fin. long, found near Millbrow 1906. Devizes 
Museum Cat. II. B 4 a ; W.A.M. xxxvi. 508 ; xxxvii. 143. 

Roman. " British village " near Glory Ann, pottery and quern. W.A.M. 
xxii. 238. 
Brooch of iEsica type, 2nd cent. A.D. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 306 ; 

W.A.M. xxxv. 404 ./?(?. ; Religuary xiv. 100 Jig. 
Spindle whorls. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 253. 

WINTEKBOUKNE DAUNTSEY. 

Earthworks. Figsbury Rings, or Chlorus's Camp. (Camden calls it 
Fripsbury.) J mile S.E. of W. Dauntsey village. Circular, area 15 
acres, circuit of ditch 4 furlongs 198 yards, principal entrance to E. 
with slight outworks, another entrance to W. Strong single rampart 
and ditch, but within the area another ditch roughly follows line of 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 357 

rampart. Stukeley Itin. Cur. thought it the ditch of an older camp, 

Hoare thought it made to obtain earth for the rampart. O.M. 67 

NW. ; A. W. I. 217 plan, Station V. South. 
i'inds, Bronze Age. Bronze leaf-shaped sword 24in. long. Figsbury 

1704. Ashmolean Museum. W.A.M. xxxvii. 129. 
toman. The Portway, Old Sarum to Winchester, runs W. to E. across 

parish to Winterslow Corner. Its mound clearly defined. O.M. 67 

NW. 

WINTERBOURNE EARLS. 
Barrows. 

[la.] Barrow just E. of Salisbury — Amesbury Rd. near Four Mile Hill 
(in W. Earls or W. Gunner 1). A. W. I. Station V. South ; not 
in O.M. 60 SE. 
[1 b — d.] Just S.W. of 3rd milestone on Salisbury — Andover Rd. 3 
barrows on line of ditch, the parish boundary, making a sharp 
angle at this point. 2 are on N. edge of ditch, 1 on the S. edge 
and therefore in Laverstock. A. W. I. Station V. South ; not in 
O.M. 67 NW. 
Earthworks. A ditch running S.W. to N.E. forms boundary of Laverstock 
and Clarendon to point just S. of 3rd imilestone on Salisbury — 
Andover Rd., when it turns at sharp angle S.W., and its line appar- 
ently forms boundary of W. Earls and Clarendon for some distance. 
O.M. 67 NW. ; A.W.I. Station VII. 
Bold ditch and bank, says Hoare, runs N.W. towards Roman Rd. from 
British village in extreme point S. of W. Earls, with 2 semicircular 
works projecting from ditch. A. W. I. 227, Station VII. ; not in O.M. 
67 NW. 
Roman. The Portway, Old Sarum to Winchester, forms boundary of 
parish along a modern Rd. for a short distance. O.M. 66 NE., 67 
NW. ; A. W. II. 46 plan. 
British village in extreme S. point of parish (or in Pitton 1) with ditch 
running N.W. (see above). Romano British remains found in semi- 
circular works projecting from ditch. A.W.I. 227, Station VII. ; not 
in O.M. 67 NW. 

WINTERBOUKNE GUNNER. 
Barrows. 

1. The " Horse Barrow " in hedge forming boundary of Idmiston just 

E. of railway and Winterbourne Gunner. O.M. 61 SW. ; A. W. 

I. Station V. South; W.A.M. xxxiii. 410. 
[la.] Barrow N.E. of Figsbury Rings, apparently in W. Gunner (?). 

A. W. I. Station V. South ; not in O.M. 
[lb, c] Two others close together just N.E. of last, in Idmiston or 

Winterbourne Gunner 1. A. W. I. Station V. South ; not in O.M . 

67 NW. or 61 SW. 
[For other barrows near here see Idmiston.] 



358 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

Earthworks. Small oblong enclosure on E. side of track N.W. of Down 

Barn, 1 mile N . W. of Winterbourne Gunner Church. O.M. 60 SE. ; 

not in A. W. I. Station V. South. 
Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze palstave 5jin. long, looped but loop not 

pierced in casting, in possession of Mrs. Cowan, of Purse Caundle, 

Dorset, 1912. W.A.M. xxxvii. 61 3, 634. 
Roman. The Portway, Old Sarum to Winchester. The line of the Rd. 

from Winterslow Corner westwards for J mile forms boundary of 

parish. O.M. 67 NW. ; A. W. EI. 46 plan. 



WLNTEEBOUBNE MONKTON, 
Barrows. 

Windmill Hill. [See also Avebury, to which half of the hill belongs.] 
[Barrows 1—4 under grass, 1913. M.E.C.] 

1. Large bowl-shaped barrow inside the entrenchment, the top lowered 

before Dean Mere wether's time. Seven skeletons, fine grape 
cup, and perforated stone axe-hammer found. Devizes Museum 
Cat. II. X 23, X 23a ; O.M. 28 N W. ; Smith p. 89 VI. F. IV. b ; 
Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury, 93, \0S,fiys. 3, 4 ; Evans' Stone, 166 ; 
Arch. Journ. vii. 399 ; Arch, xliii. 364, i /m?. 47. 

2. Large high bowl-shaped barrow inside the entrenchment, no ditch. 

Opened, no record. O.M. 28 N W. ; Smith p. 89. VI. F. IV. c. 

3. Barrow just outside the ditch on the E. Large wide barrow. 

Opened, no record. O.M. 28 NW. ; Smith p. 89, VI. F. IV. d. 

4. [4a.] On E. slope of hill outside ditch, 2 disc barrows with ditch 

and outer bank, but no tump in centre ; apparently not opened. 
Only 4 shown in O.M. 28 NW. ; Smith pp. 89, 90, VI. F. IV. i. k. 



On Monkton Down, W- of Ridgeway, close to Avebury boundary, 
O.M. 28 NE. shows 2 barrows (5, 6), Smith shows 3, all close 
together. Smith p. 132, X. H. IV. f. g. h. 
5, 6, [6a.] (f. g. h.) Three barrows close together, (f) the northern- 
most a bowl barrow conspicuous on brow of hill, surrounded 
with stones, no ditch. Opened, no record. 

(g, h) Two low almost invisible barrows. 



N.W. of the last, on Down \\ mile E. of Winterbourne Monkton 
Church, a group of 10 barrows, 7 — 16, of which 7 — 10 were 
opened by Dean Merewether 1849. The numbers in brackets are 
his. 7 — 9 lie close together below the 700ft. contour line, the 
most south-westerly of the group. 

(24) Bound barrow. Animals' bones and teeth, sarsen rubber, 
and charred wood only. O.M. 28 NW. ; Smith p. 126, X. H. 
III. a ; Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury p. 104. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 359 

8. (26) A Long low barrow. Opened down its length. Ox skull, 

deer's horns, dog's skull, no interment found. O.M. 28 NW. ; 
Smith p. 126, X. H. III. b. ; Proc. Arch Inst. Salisbury p. 104. 
Dean Merewether's plan shows 8 sarsen stones in line round the 
S. end, and 5 others round the N. end. See Appendix Long 
Barrows. 

9. (25) Animal bones and sarsen muller found. O.M. 28 NW. ; Smith 

p. 126, X. H. III. c. ; Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury 104. 

10. (28?) Very low bowl-shaped barrow to E. of 7—9 just on 700ft. 

contour line. Smith believes this to be No. 28'of Dean Mere- 
wether, but that was apparently a tall oval barrow which had 
3 sarsen stones on top of it. Dean Mere wether removed these 
stones and at a depth of 1ft. found fragments of drinking cup 
(Fig. X.) " containing the skull bones principally of a very young- 
person." At depth of 5ft. were skulls of 2 oxen side by side. 
Below these a grave 6ft. long X 5ft. broad, and 5ft. below the 
skulls a crouched skeleton (Fig. Z) with drinking cup, barbed 
flint arrowhead, and 2 "flint spearheads." O.M. 28 NW. : Smith 
p. 126 X. H. III. e. ; Proc Arch. Inst. Salisbury 105 ; Evans' 
Stone 293. 
[Of the above 4 barrows (7—10) A.W. II. Stations XI. XII. 
shows one large barrow only.] 

11. Just N. of 7 — 10 a small bowl-shaped barrow, by itself, without 

ditch. Opened, no record. O.M. 28 NW. ; Smith p. 126, X. H. 
III. d. 
Just N.E. of 11, 5 barrows close together, 12 — 16. 

12. (27) To S.E. of 11 and just N. of the ditch and W of track, 

O.M. 28 NW. shows a small pit not marked " tumulus." This 
apparently must be the circular depression with ditch and bank 
round it, 15yds. in diam., a disc barrow ?, opened by Dean 
Merewether 1849. Four large sarsen stones near the centre with 
teeth and bones of oxen and deer and boars' tusks. Smith p. 
127, X. H. III. f. ; Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury pp. 103, 104, plan. 



N. of the last in a line S.E. to N. W. O.M. 28 NW. shows 5 barrows 
13—17 ; as also A.W. II. Stations XI. XII. 
13—15. Three low bowl-shaped barrows without ditches, close to- 
gether in line E. of the track. Opened, no record. Smith p. 1 27, 
X. H. III. k, 1, m. 

16. Large high bowl-shaped barrow just on W. side of track, just W. 

of 15. Opened, no record. Smith p. 127, X. H. III. n. 

17. N.W. of last, low bowl-shaped barrow without ditch. Opened by 

Dean Merewether 1849 (No. 31 1). In centre urn containing 
burnt bones inverted on a flat sarsen stone and packed round 
with sarsens on edge. Smith p. 127 X. H. III. o ; Proc. Arch. 
Inst. Salisbury p. 107 fig hh. 



360 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

[17a.] Millbarrow, a Long Barrow, set round with a peristalith of 
sarsen stones, was destroyed before Hoare's time (1821). It lay 
W. of village and 1ST. of Windmill Hill. A. W. II. 94 ; Smith p. 
84, VI. F. III. f ; W.A.M. iv. 343. See Appendix Long Barrows. 

[17b.] The cromlech (?) called " Shelving Stone," in Monkton Field 
not far from Millbarrow, destroyed in 19th century. Hoare A. W. 
II. 94 regards it as a " Sepulchral monument set on a barrow." 
It was a large stone propped up against two uprights. Smith p. 
83 VI. F. III. e. See Appendix Long Barrows. 

[17c] E. of Hackpen Barn Smith p. 134 X. H. IV. s notes 7 sarsens 
piled on one another surrounded by remains of earth mound. 
Not in O.M. 

[17d.] A short distance N. of barrows " Avebury 36 — 40" on 
Avebury Down, (? whether in Avebury or Winterbourne Monk- 
ton,) a small barrow (No. 30) opened by Dean Merewether in 
1879, surrounded by a circle of 8 stones with holes showing 
where 4 others had stood. Diam. of circle about 9ft. Quantity 
of pottery fragments, animals' teeth and bones, and charcoal. 
No interment. Possibly opened before. Proc. Arch. Inst., 
Salisbury, p. 106 fig. gg ; Smith p. 134 ; not in O.M. or Smith's 
Map. 

Earthworks. The top of Windmill Hill (half of which is in Avebury) is 
surrounded by a single ditch of moderate size, very visible still on 
the N. side which is under grass, but ploughed down level on the S. 
side which is arable. 1913. O.M. 28 NW. ; Smith VI. F. IV. a, a. 
A bank and ditch, apparently old, runs from Ridgeway down into vale 
between barrows 7—10 and 11—16. O.M. 28 NW. ; Smith p. 
127 X. H. III. h. 

Finds, Neolithic. Flint scrapers, &c. Rev. H. G. O. Kendall. 

[For the remarkable occurrence of ground flint celts, &c, at Windmill 
Hill, see Avebury.] 

Finds, Neolithic or Early Bronze Age. 300 yds. W. of Millbarrow a 
number of large sarsen stones lay N. and S. of the Rd., Monkton to 
Yatesbury. Four of them covered interments in circular graves 
about 4ft. deep, opened by Mr. Eyles 1856. In one case the grave 
was paved with stones. 

(1) Contained 6 skeletons, 2 males, 2 females, and a child. 

(2) Contained 22 skeletons with bones of dog, pig, sheep, ox, and conical 

sarsen muller weighing 12j lbs. 

(3) Contained 2 or 3 decayed skeletons. 

(4) contained a single skeleton with 2 drinking cups, curved flint knife, 

object of polished serpentine, 2 large and one smaller lignite but- 
tons and " pulley ring." Devizes Museum Cat. II. X83— X87a, 
X95 ; Smith p. 85, VI. F. III. g ; Gran. Brit. II. p. 2, PI. LVIII. ; 
Evans' Stone 223 ; W.A.M. i. 303; iii. 252; iv. 343; xxxvii. 114 

fig*- 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 361 

Bronze socketed, looped sickle. J. W. Brooke. W.A.M. xxxvii. 103, 
140, fig. ; Reliquary xiv. 244 fig. 

Ridgeway running along the crest of Hackpen Hill forms whole E. 
boundary of parish. O.M. 28 NE. 

Finds, Late Celtic. Making a reservoir on slope of Monkton Down 
1912 two dwelling pits were cut through, one 4ft. 6in. the other 
5ft. 5in. deep, diameter about 3ft. 9in. at bottom and 3ft. at top. In 
one pit two plain cooking pots, half of a small crucible, a chalk disc, 
two flint scrapers, animals' bones, &c, were found. Devizes Museum. 
W.A.M. xxxviii. 108 figs. 

Roman. British settlement on Monkton Down amongst the sarsen stones 
li mile E. of Monkton Church. O.M. 28 NW. 
Gold coin found cir. 1670. Jackson's Aubrey 341. 

Stone Circle % Winterbourne Monkton Down. Circle of stones, 16ft. 
diameter described by Merewether (Fig. ee). 7 stones then 
remaining of circle, enclosing 5 in centre surrounding one flat 
sarsen. Immediately under the flat stone a fragment of Samian. 
Lower down, fragments of British pottery, animals' bones, flint 
scrapers, and flakes {Fig. f f.) Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury p. 106. 



WINTERBOURNE STOKE. 
Barrows. 

Winterbourne Stoke Down group of barrows (1 — 21). In angle 
of cross roads H mile S.W. of Stonehenge. Hoare in his Plan 
(A.W. I. 121) shows 27 barrows in this group ; Soc. Ant. Map 
{O.M. 1st Ed.), shows 23 ; O.M. 54 SW. 2nd Edition shows 
21 only. 

The numbers in brackets are those on Hoare's plan of this group, 
A. W. I. 121. 

1. (1) Long Barrow at angle of cross roads. Soc. Ant. Map 468. 

[Condition good except that a hole was dug in its side some 
years ago. 1912. M.E.C.] See Appendix Long Barrows. 

2. (2) Large barrow just N. of Long Barrow, beside Devizes Rd. 

Opened by Hoare. Burnt bones with a " small vessel." Frag- 
ments of pottery, flint scraper, piece of bone of large bird found 
1887. Devizes Museum Cat. II. X 88 ; O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 
1-21 ; Soc. Ant. Map 467. [Condition good, 1912. M.E.C.] 
Barrows 3 — 10 lie in a straight line on the Wilsford parish boun- 
dary. 

3. (12) In boundary of Winterbourne Stoke Clump, small barrow. 

Burnt bones. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 121 ; Soc. Ant. Map 466. 
[Site traceable, but nearly all carted away, 1912. M.E.C.] 
[3a.] (14) A pond barrow touching the ditch of 4, shown on Soc. 
Ant. Map 465 (O.M. 1st Edit.). Not on O.M. 54 SW., 1901 ; 
A. W. I. 121. [Condition good, 1912. M.E.C.] 
VOL. XXXVIII. — NO. CXX. 2 B 



362 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

4. (15) Large bell-shaped barrow, 14ft. high, at N. corner of plantation. 

Opened by Hoare. Burnt bones in wooden box on floor of barrow 
with ivory 1 pin and bow tips ?, strips of thin bronze, 2 bronze 
daggers, one very large, and bone tweezers. 5 later skeletons 
near surface. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 122, PI. XIV. ; Arch. lxi. 
125, fig. 75 ; Evans' Bronze 241, 302 ; S tow-head Cat. 21—22, 78a ; 
W.A.M. xxxvii. 99 fig. ; Soc. Ant. Map 464. [Condition good, 
1912. M.E.C.] 

5. (16) Touching the last on N.E., large bell-shaped barrow. Opened 

by Hoare. Skeleton in hollowed elm tree with urn of ginger jar 
shape, 2 bronze daggers, and awl in bone handle. O.M. 54 SW. ; 
A.W. I. 123, PI. XV. ; Arch. lxi. 122 ; Evans' Bronze 190, 241, 
fig. 227 ; Stourhead Cat. 23—25 ; Soc. Ant. Map 463. [Defaced 
by rabbits; bushes on top, 1912. M.E.C.] 

6. (22) N.E. of last. Opened by Hoare. Skeleton covered with pile 

of flints. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. 1. 124 ; Soc. Ant. Map 458. [Con- 
dition good, 1912. M.E.C.] 

7. (23) N.E. of last, small barrow. Opened by Hoare, nothing found. 

O.M. 54 SW.; A.W. I. 124; Soc. Ant. Map 457. [Very low, 
barely traceable, 1912. M.E.C.] 
[7a.] (24) A small low barrow between 7 and 8. Opened by Hoare, 
nothing found. A.W. I. 124; not on O.M. 54 SW. [No trace 
visible, 1912. M.E.C.] 

8. (25) Large rude bowl-shaped barrow, 107ft. diam., 6ft. high, opened 

by Hoare. Bones of " several dogs " and deer, skeleton on floor 
of barrow, apparently disturbed by subsequent interment of 
burnt bones at its feet, 2 incense cups near the head, 2 bone 
beads, 2 whetstones, pebble, fossil Rhynconella, what Hoare calls 
an ivory bracelet, really incisor teeth of beaver, pebble and piece 
of stalactite. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 124 ; Arch, xliii. 364 ; 
Evans' Stone 419 ; Stourhead Cat. 49— 49b, 187— 187b ;Soc. Ant. 
Map. 454. [Defaced by rabbits, bushes on top. 1912. M.E.C.]. 

9. (26) Fine bowl-shaped barrow, 97ft. diam. 9Jft. high, opened 1804 

by W. Cunnington fruitlessly, again by Hoare. Skeleton in 
shallow trough of wood of boat-like form, necklace of amber and 
jet beads, bronze knife dagger and awl and small vessel. O.M. 
54 SW. ; A. W. 1. 124 ; Soc. Ant. Map 453. [Defaced by rabbits. 
1912. M.E.C.] 

10. (27) Barrow 90ft. dia., 7ft. high, at junction of W. Stoke, Ames- 

bury and Wilsford parishes, opened by Hoare. Skeletons of 2 
dogs near surface. In floor large cist 5ft. X 4ft. X 2jft. deep. 
At the bottom 2 skeletons side by side with drinking cup at head ; 
above these 5 other skeletons side by side, two of them of young 
persons ; above these a skeleton with an urn inverted over burnt 
bones in its lap, for which a semi-circular niche in the side of 
the cist had been cut. Hoare found proof that these burials 
were made at different times, the urn last. He regarded it as 
a family burial place. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 125 ; Stowhead 
Cat. 274 ; Soc. Ant. Map 452. 



By the Rev. E. H. Ooddard. 363 

11. (21) Small barrow on W. side of 7 opened by Hoare, nothing 

found. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 124 ; Soc. Ant. Map 456. [Very 
low and indistinct. 1912. M.E.C.] 

12. (20) " Pond Barrow " just W. of last. O.M. 54 SW. ; Soc. Ant. 
Map 455. [Apparently destroyed. 1913. M.E.C.] 

13. (19) Just on W. side of 6, 97ft.diam. 7ft. high, opened by Hoare. 

2 piles of burnt bones, and at 3ft. deep urn inverted over burnt 
bones, under this a skeleton, and on floor below this another 
skeleton, and oblong cist with nothing in it. A perforated pol- 
ished stone found. O.M. 54 SW.; A.W. I. 123, PI. xvi. ; Arch. 
xliii. 431 ; Stourhead Cat. 130, 249 ; Evan's Stone 419 ; Soc. Ant. 
MapAhQ. [Condition good. 1912. M.E.C.] 

14. (18) Large disc barrow touching W. side of last. 3 small mounds 

within the ring. Opened by Hoare. In centre mound, small 
urn and burnt bones and buttons and beads of amber, in second 
mound burnt bones and beads, in third burnt bones only. O.M. 
54 SW ; A. W. I. 123 ; Stourhead Cat. 48, 249a ; Soc. Ant. Map 

460. [Condition good. 1912. M.E.C.]. 

15. (17) Large disc barrow touching last on SW. side, opened by 

Hoare, burnt bones. O.M. 54 S W. ; A. W. 1. 123 ; Soc. Ant. Map. 

461. [Condition good, 1912. M.E.C] 

16. (10) Small barrow SW. of last opened by Hoare, nothing found. 

O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 121 ; Soc. Ant. Map 462. [Very low and 
inconspicuous. 1913. M.E.C] 
[16a.] (11). A very small barrow close to last (it is doubtful whether 
16 is No. 10 or 11) opened by Hoare, burnt bones, incense cup, 
curved bone pin. A. W. 1. 121 ; W.A.M. xxii. 232 figs. ; Stourhead 
Cat. 79a ; not on O.M. 54 SW. [Site traceable, but nearly all 
carted away, 1913. M.E.C] 

17. (8) Disc barrow with ditch and vallum, near W. side of Devizes 

Rd. opened by Hoare, cist with burnt bones and " fine Drinking 
cup." O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 121 ; Soc. Ant. Map 447. [Fine 
disc barrow in good condition, 1913. M.E.C]. 

18. (9?) Indistinct disc barrow just E. of last, opened by Hoare. 

Burnt bones. O.M. 54 SW. ; A.W. I. 121 ; Soc. Ant. Map 448. 
[Condition good, 1913. M.E.C] Two skulls obtained by 
Thurnam from " No. 9 on Hoare's map " (? this barrow) in Cam- 
bridge Museum, Nos. 265, 266. 

19. (5?) Smalls-barrow S. of 17, close to Devizes Kd. opened by 

Hoare, burnt bones. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. 1. 121 ; Soc. Ant. Map 
443. [Condition good, 1913. M.E.C] 

20. (7) Small barrow close to E. side of last, opened by Hoare. In 
grave skeleton with drinking cup, above the floor skeleton of 
child with bason-like vessel. 0. M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 121 ; Soc. 
Ant. Map 455. [Nearly all carted away, 1913. M.E.C] 

21. (6) Small barrow close to Devizes Rd. just S. of 19, opened by 

2 B 2 



364 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

Hoare, burnt bones. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 121 ; Soc. Ant. Map 

445. [Condition good, 1913. M.E.C.] 
[21a], (4) A very small barrow between the last and the Rd. Opened 

by Hoare, burnt bones. A. W. I. 121 ; not on O.M. [Condition 

good, 1913. M.E.C.] 
[21b] (3) Large barrow cut by the Rd. A. W. I. 121 ; not on O.M 

[Condition unaltered since Hoare's day, 1913. M.E.C.] 



In triangle on Winterbourne Stoke Down formed by Devizes Rd., 
Warminster Rd., and parish boundary, to N. of the Winterbourne 
Stoke Group, are 6 barrows, 22—27. O.M. 54 SW. 
22 [22a.] Small barrow on Amesbury boundary continuing the line 
of the Winterbourne Stoke Group, barrows 1 — 10. A little N.E. 
of 10 (27). Hoare opened two small barrows here, and found 
nothing. O.M. 54 S W. shows only one, ? that in which Thurnam 
found a large plain urn 15in. high. Arch, xliii. 353 note ; Soc. 
Ant. Map 451. 

[The numbers in brackets following are those on Hoare's Stonehenge 
Map.] 

23. (11) N.W. of 22 and between it and the square earthwork, " Pond 

Barrow." O.M. 54 SW. ; Soc. Ant. Map 450. [Condition good, 
1912. M.E.C.] 
[23a.] (10) N". of 23, between it and 24, Stonehenge Map shows 
barrow (10). Opened by Hoare, cist with burnt bones and glass 
bead. A. W. I. 119 PI. XIV. ; Stourhead Cat. 79 ; not on O.M. 

24. (9) N. of 23 and just N.E. of square earthwork, small barrow. 

Opened by Hoare. Skeleton in grave 4ft. deep, over this another 
skeleton, and over this an urn inverted over burnt bones with 
stag's horns at the sides. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 119, PI. XVI. ; 
Soc. Ant. Map 448. [Low but condition good, 1912. M.E.C.] 

25. (8) W. of the last and N. of square enclosure. Bell-shaped 
barrow, 82ft. diam. 7^ft. high. Opened by Hoare, cist with burnt 
bones, whetstone, and square polished stone. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. 
I. 118 ; Soc. Ant. Map 447. [Fine mound on one side, half the 
other side carted away, 1912. M.E.C.] 

26. (7) Fine bell-shaped barrow just W. of last, 122ft. diam., 9ft. 
high. Opened by Hoare, only a fragment of large urn ; possibly 
opened before. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 118 ; Soc. Ant. Map 446. 
[Condition good, 1912. M.E.C.] 

27. (6). Barrow opened before Hoare's time, no record. O.M. 54 

SW. ; A. W. I. 118 ; Soc. Ant. Map 445. [Condition fair, a hole 
dug in one side, 1912. M.E.C.] 
[27a.] A very small barrow numbered 444 shown on Soc. Ant. Map 
{O.M. 1st ed.)just N. of 27, close to Ed., not on O.M. 1901, or 
Stonehenge Map. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 365 

28. (42) Barrow in corner formed by Warminster— Amesbury R.d. 
and boundary of Amesbury on S. edge of Rd. opposite large 
barrow, Amesbury 55, at corner of Fargo Plantation. Opened 
1803, cist with urn and burnt bones and bronze awl in handle. 
O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 164. PI. XVI. XVII. ; Stourhead Cat. 228, 
264—264 g. 



29. (41) On N. side of Warminster Rd. just W. of Fargo plantation, 

opened by Hoare, burnt bones. O.M. 54 S.W. ; A. W. I. 164 ; 
Soc. Ant. Map 333. 

30. (44) Barrow inside W. end of cursus just outside Fargo plan- 

tation, opened by Hoare. Burnt bones. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. 
I. 165 ; Soc. Ant. Map 329. [Never ploughed, but defaced by 
rabbits, 1913. M.E.O.] 
Three barrows in line close together \ mile W. of Fargo plantation, 
and | mile N. of Amesbury Kd. 31—33. 

31. (47) The most westerly of the three, opened by Hoare. Burnt 

bones. O.M. 54 S W. ; A. W. I. 165 ; Soc. Ant. Map 312. [Much 
ploughed down, under turf again, 1913. M.E.C.] 

32. (46) On S.E. side of last, opened by Hoare. Urn and burnt 
bones. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 165 ; Soc. Ant. Map 313. [Con- 
dition good, 1913. M.E.C.] 

33. (45) Disc barrow on SE. side of last, opened by Hoare. Burnt 
bones. O.M. 54 S W. (not shown as disc barrow) ; A. W. I. 165 ; 
Soc. Ant. Map 314. [Ditch and central mound distinguishable, 
bank ploughed down, now turf again, 1913. M.E.C.] 

34. (48) Large disc barrow N.W. of 31 and S.W. of Lesser Cursus. 
Opened by Hoare. Burnt bones and bronze awl. O.M. 54 SW. ; 
A. W. I. 165 ; Soc. Ant. Map 311. [Site of this barrow only 
marked by slight hollow in ground, now under turf again, 1913. 
M.E.C.] 

35. (49) Oval barrow at W. end of Lesser Cursus, 140ft. long X 70ft. 

broad, slight ditch all round it, opened by Thurnam 1864. Near 
E. end 18in. under surface a crouched skeleton with drinking 
cup at the head. A small cup of thick pottery found near centre, 
and at W. end, 2ft. under surface, crouched skeleton of tall man, 
with 4 beautiful leaf or lozenge-shaped fiat flint javelin heads. 
British Museum. O.M. 54 SW. ; W.A.M. xi. 42 figs. ; A.W. I. 
165 ; Evans' Stone, 273 ; Soc. Ant. Map 303. [Condition good, 
turf, 1913. M.E.C.] 

36. (50) Just W. of the last, bowl-shaped, opened by Hoare. Skele- 
ton in cist and large stag's horn. O.M. 54 SW. ; A.W. I. 165 ; 
Soc. Ant. Map 304. [Condition good, turf, 1913. M.E.C.] 

37. (51) Just W. of last, bell-shaped barrow, 95ft. diam., 7ft. high, 

opened by Hoare. In grave 4jft. deep 2 skeletons, adult and 
young person of 12. O.M. 54 S W. ; A. W. I. 165 ; Soc. Ant. Map 
305. [ Half of this barrow under plough and much cut down, 
1913. M.E.C.] 



366 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

38. (52) Just W. of last, large barrow opened by Hoare, marks of 

intense fire, nothing else. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. 1. 165 ; Soc. Ant. 
Map 306. [Much ploughed down, still under plough, 1913. 
M.E.C.] 

39. (53) S. W. of last, opened by Hoare, circular cist containing ashes 
only. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 165 ; Soc. Ant. Map 307. [Much 
ploughed down and still under plough, 1913. M.E.C.] 

40. (54) Fine bell-shaped barrow S. W. of last, 80ft. diam., 7ft. high. 
Opened by Hoare. Circular cist 1ft. deep full of wood ashes and 
a few fragments of bone, another larger oblong cist with burnt 
bones. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 165, 166 ; Soc. Ant. Map 308. 
[Much ploughed down and still under plough, 1913. M.E.C.] 

41. (55) S.W. of last, just on E. side of Devizes Kd. Opened before 

Hoare's time, burnt bones only. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. 166 ; 
Soc. Ant. Map 309. [No trace visible, 1913. M.E.O.] 

42. (56) Large flat bowl-shaped barrow with ditch, S.W. of last, on 
W. side of Devizes Rd., N. of cross roads. Opened by Hoare. 
Previously opened. Flint arrowhead. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. 166 ; 
Stourhead Cat. 8.3 ; Soc. Ant. Map 310. [Condition good, 1912. 
Never ploughed. M.E.C.] 

A mound just S. of 42 on Stonehenge Map, says Hoare, is a land- 
mark only and not numbered accordingly. [No signs of it visible, 
1912. M.E.C.] 



43, 44. Two barrows near together about J mile N. W. of 42, J mile 
N.E. of British village. O.M. 54 SW. ; not on Stonkenge Map or 
A. W. I. Station V. North ; Soc. Ant. Map 293, 292. 

45. Barrow E. of Devizes Ed. 1 mile M. of Greenland Farm. O.M. 
54 SW. ; A. W. I. Station V. North ; not on Stonehenge Map ; 
Soc. Ant. Map 300. [Much ploughed down and still under 
plough, 1913. M.E.C.] 



Group of 5 barrows 46—50, close together in N. corner of parish 
\ mile N. of Fargo Plantation, on Durrington boundary. 3 more 
of same group are in Durrington (1—3), altogether, says Hoare, 
4 disc and 5 round barrows (A. W. I. 166), but Stonehenge Map 
shows 4 disc arid 4 round barrows only. 

46. (57) Large barrow, westernmost of group. Opened by W. 
Cunnington, F.S. A. In a cist bronze knife dagger (?), whetstone, 
bone tweezers, and bone implements, O.M. 54 SW. ; A.W. I. 
166 note ; Soc. Ant. Map 301. [Somewhat ploughed down, but 
under turf again, condition fair, 1913. M.E.C.] 

47. (61) Large disc barrow. Opened by W. Cunnington, no exact 

record. O.M. 54 SW. ; A.W. I. 166 note ; Soc. Ant. Map 317. 
[Much ploughed down, but under grass again, 1913. M.E.C.] 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 367 

48. (60) On Durrington boundary, bell barrow. Opened by W. 

Cunnington, no record. O.M. 54 SW. ; A.W. I. 166 ; Soc Ant. 
Map 318. [Fair condition, 1913. M.E.C.] 

49. (58) Large disc barrow. Opened by W. Cunnington, no exact 

record. O.M. 54 SW ; A. W. I. 166 note ; Soc. Ant. Map 315. 
[Bas been much ploughed down, now grass again, 1913. M.E.C.] 

50. (59) Disc barrow, opened by W. Cunnington, no exact record. 
In 47, 49, 50, Cunnington found, in one, an interment with 
bronze knife dagger ? in another burnt bones, beads of jet and 
amber, and fragment of knife dagger. A. W. I. 166 note ; 
O.M. 54 SW. ; Soc. Ant. Map 316. [Much ploughed down but 
under grass again, 1913. M.E.O] 

51. (1) Winterbourne Stoke Down, just S. of Warminster Rd. on E. 

side of ditch, running to British village, small low flat barrow 
with ditch. Opened by Hoare. Burnt bones. O.M. 54 SW. ; 
A.W.l.Ul; Soc. Ant. Map 295. [Never ploughed, 1912. M.E.C.] 

52. (2) Barrow i mile S.E. of last, N.E. of British village. Opened 
by Hoare. Burnt bones. O.M. 54 S W. ; A. W. I. 117 ; Soc. Ant. 
Map 296. [Very small, 1912. M.E.O] 

53. (3) Long barrow, 104ft. X 64ft. lying E. & W., just E. of last. 

O.M. 54 SW. ; A.W. I. 117 ; Soc. Ant. Map 297. [Condition 
good, 1912. M.E.O] See Appendix Long Barrows. 
[53a.] (4) To S. of last. Opened by shepherds, no record. A. W. I. 
117 ; not on O.M. 54 SW. 

54. (5) Large barrow near W. side of Devizes Rd., \ mile E. of 

British village. Grave 4ft. deep with part of skeleton, above 
this, skeleton of infant, over the side of the grave skeleton of 
young person, jet button, and " pulley ring," flint dagger or 
spearhead rudely chipped, 2 whetstones 1 of slate, and drinking 
cup. O.M. 54 SW. ; A.W. I. 118, PI. XIV. ; Arch, xliii. 425; 
Evans' Stone 239 ; Stourhead Cat. 72 ; Soc. Ant. Map 443. [Under 
plough, 1912. M.E.C.] 

55. Very large disc barrow near small plantation S.E. of British village, 

apparently not shown on Stonehenge Map. O.M. 54 SW. ; Soc. 
Ant. Map 442. 



Winterbourne Stoke " East Group." On Fore Down \ mile S. of 
Shrewton Rd., \ mile W. of British village, Stonehenge Map 
and plan on p. 113 of A. W. show 11 barrows enclosed in space 
of 7 acres within oval bank and ditch. O.M. 54 SW. shows 5 
barrows only, 56 — 60. All opened by Hoare. A.W. I. 115. 
Group numbered 439 in Soc. Ant. Map. [Condition perfect 
except for levelling of a few yards of bank and ditch for the 
training gallop, 1912. M.E.O] 

[The numbers in brackets are those in Hoare's Plan of the group- 
A.W.I. US.] 



368 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

56. (7) Large barrow nearest NE. side of enclosure with 3 interments. 

In cist in floor of barrow crouched skeleton of man, and enor- 
mous stag's horn. Above this above level of floor burnt bones 
and drinking cup, and immediately over this skeleton of infant. 
0. M. 54 SW. ; A. W. 1. 115. Stourhead Cat. 71a. 

57. (8) Large bowl-shaped barrow 100ft. diam., skeleton on floor of 

barrow. A. W. 1 116. O.M. 54 SW. 

58. (5 1 ) Urn and burnt bones and bone pin 1 O.M. 54 SW. 
[58a.] (4) Small barrow, burnt bones, apparently gone, not on O.M. 

54 SW. 

59. (3?) Opened before Hoare's time, burnt bones and "a little 

cup." 0JK54SW. 
[59a.] (2) Burnt bones, not on OM. 54 SW. 

60. (1) Small barrow nearest the E. point of enclosure, burnt bones. 

O.M. 54 SW. 
[60a — 60c]. (9 — 11). One small barrow near N. side and two near 
S. side of enclosure. Opened by Hoare but no sign of interment 
found. A.W. I. 116. Apparently gone, not on O.M. 54 SW. 



Winterbourne Stoke West " Conygar " group, | mile S.W. of last 
group, 1 mile N. of village, E. of Rd. and W. of bourne. Hoare 
A.W. I. 113 plan shows 9 barrows enclosed within pentagonal 
bank and ditch, in area of about 4 acres, and just outside the 
enclosure on S.W. O.M. 53 SE. shows 6 inside and 3 outside 
[1 to 9] numbered 438 on Soc. Ant. Map. All except one opened 
by Hoare 1809. Hoare regards the enclosure as long subsequent 
to the barrows, 1 a rabbit warren. [In good condition except for 
damage by rabbits, 1912. M.E.C.] 

[The numbers in brackets are those on Hoare's plan.] 

61. (1) Large disc barrow in N. corner of enclosure, original interment 

of burnt bones in cist had been displaced and skeleton with iron 
knife buried in its place. A. W. I. 113. 

62. (2) Wide barrow, mutilated, 4ft. high. Large urn with burnt 

bones enclosed in linen cloth. A. W. I. 113. 

63. (3 or 5 1) Flat barrow, mutilated, about 4ft. high. Oval cist, 

burnt bones and linen. A.W. I. 113. 
[63a.] (4) Small, just on E. side of 3. N"o interment found. Prob- 
ably, says Hoare, not a barrow. A. W. I. 113 ; not on O.M. 53 SE. 

64. (7?) Pond barrow. A.W.' 1.114. O.M. 53 SE. ? 

[64a.] (5 1) Flat barrow. 2 cists, in one a small bronze dagger and 
about 48 " beads of clay," with 3 encrinite joints, and number of 
Dentalium shells. The other cist had only sheep bones. A. W. 
I. 114, PI. XIII. ; Evans' Bronze 394 ; Stourhead Oat. 67—69. 

[64b.] (6) Hat barrow. Oval cist with burnt bones and "rude little 
cup like saucer." A.W. I. 114. 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 369 

65. (9) Flat barrow. 2 small round cists with burnt bones, in one 

a reversible incense cup. A. W. 1. 114, PI. XIII. ; Stourhead Cat. 

66. (8) Irregular flat barrow 3ft. high. Large urn upright in circular 

cist with burnt bones, {A. W. I. 114, H. XIII.,) small bronze 
dagger, and a "few black beads." Stourhead Cat. 86, 86a, 254. 

67. (10) Just outside ditch on E., flat barrow with ditch and vallum. 

Opened by W. Ounnington, 1804. Urn inverted over burnt 
bones, bronze awl, shale button, and 5 rings and glass beads. 
Evans' Stone 418 ; Stourhead Cat. 70, 70a, 70c. 

68. (12) Large disc barrow furthest of the 3 outside to the E. Large 

urn 16^ in. high inverted over burnt bones with small cup and 
glass, amber, and shale bead necklace. Stourhead Cat. 70b. 

69. (11) Disc barrow between 7 and 8, outside enclosure. Cist with 

burnt bones. 
Earthworks. The extreme W. end of the greater Cursus projecting from 
Fargo plantation is in W. Stoke. See Amesbury. 

The lesser Cursus, \ mile N. of Shrewton— Amesbury Rd. just W. of N. 
end of Fargo plantation, extends E. to W. about \ mile. Same plan 
as larger Cursus on a smaller scale, parallel banks and rounded end. 
Stonehenge Map and O.M. 54 S. W. show the E. end as imperfect, 
and the VV. end as rounded. Hoare thought both greater and lesser 
Cursus to be for chariot races, and probably Roman. A.W. I. 159. 
[Much ploughed down, but still discernible, now under grass again, 
1912. M.E.C.] 

Square enclosure shown on O.M. 54 SW. \ mile N. of Long Barrow 
cross roads, not shown on Stonehenge Map. Soc. Ant. Map 449. 

For enclosures surrounding barrows on Fore Down and at the Conygar 
see under Barrows above, Winterbourne Stoke East and West Groups. 

Ditch running N. to S. from site of British village just N. of Shrewton 
— Amesbury Rd. to British village within square enclosure with 
many banks and ditches \ mile S. of the Rd. Probably same ditch 
appears again at Long Barrow cross rds. running SE. for 1 mile 
forming boundary of Wilsford to the Lake Group of barrows. O.M. 
54 SW. ; 60 N W. Probably this ditch is a continuation of that which 
runs S.E. across the Rd. to Shrewton in Tilshead, and is lost in 
Shrewton. A. W. I. Station V. North. 

A fragment of ditch running N. W. to S.E. cuts across Berwick St. James 
boundary and the Devizes — Salisbury Rd. at N.E. corner of " The 
Park " 7i miles from Salisbury. O.M. 60 NW. 
Roman. Inequalities of ground, mostly now ploughed down just on N. 
side of Amesbury — Shrewton Rd. at 4f miles from Amesbury, site 
of British village. O.M. 54 SW. ; A. W. I. Station V. North. 

Opposite the last, ^ mile S. of the Rd. square enclosure and many banks 
and ditches show site of British village connected with former by 
ditch. 

British village just N.E. of the Conygar W. of Rd. to Winterbourne 



370 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

Stoke, pottery, coins, etc., found here. A. W. I. 95 Station III. ; not 
on O.M 53 SE. 
T-headed hinge pin bow brooch 1863, Blackmore Museum. 
Saxon ? Skeleton with iron knife secondary interment in Barrow Winter- 
bourne Stoke West Group, 1. A. W. I. 113. 

WINTERSLOW. 
Barrows. 

[la— k.] A.W. I. Station V. South shows a group of 11 small barrows 
in the two rectangular enclosures at the back (north) of the 
Pheasant Inn, or Winterslow Hut. None of these shown in O.M. 
61 SE. ; 67 NE. 
[11.] A. W. I. Station VII. shows a barrow N. of Roman Ed., N.E. of 
West Winterslow Not in O.M. 67 NE. 
A bell-shaped barrow 84ft. in diam., at the angle of the Idmiston 
and Salisbury — London Roads, was opened by Rev.A.B. Hutchins 
1814. Ijft. below top under a kind of arch of large flints a large 
urn 18in. X 18in. inverted over burnt bones. A covering of linen 
over the bones within the urn. Many amber conical buttons and 
beads, bronze awl, and bronze fluted razor, a fiower-pot-shaped 
incense cup, and a smaller urn 12in. X lljin. containing burnt 
bones, surrounded by flints, near the large urn. Also a heap of 
burnt bones, bronze knife dagger ("spearhead,") and "4iron arrow- 
heads together with a small circular earthen vase." The primary 
interment 4ft. below original surface, large skeleton with head to 
N. A drinking cup inverted over two flint arrowheads between 
the knees and feet, a bronze flat tanged dagger, and a slate wrist- 
guard under the right arm. Ashmolean Museum (except the 
iron "arrowheads.") Not in O.M. ; Arch, xliii. 361, 449,7?<? 40, 
PL XXXII.Figs. 2, 3, 8 ; lxi. 106 ; Arch. Journ. 1. 156, 157 ; Proc. 
Soc. Ant. Scot. xli. 247 fig. 89, 274, fig. 198 ; Evans' Bronze 
216, fig. 265 ; W.A.M. xxxvii. 117, 145, 151. 
Other barrows here also opened by Kev..A. B. Hutchins, apparently 
finding another tanged bronze dagger with pointed blade. A.sh- 
molean Museum. W.A.M. xxxvii. 117. 
Earthworks. Hoare A.W. I. 216, 217, Station V. South, shows a ditch 
coming from Boscoinbe 1 crossing Roman Rd., passing through 
Idmiston to near Winterslow Hut, where with other ditches it forms 
a large oblong with the two largest barrows inside it, a ditch from 
the S.E. corner running E. into Hampshire. Not in O.M. 
Roman. Road Old Sarum to Winchester runs just S. of Middleton Farm 
at Middle Winterslow along a modern road, its course W. of this being 
lost for some distance. E. of Middle Winterslow its course is again 
lost, but resumed as a modern road N. of St. John's Church. It 
leaves parish and county at Owl's Castle. O.M. 67 NE. ; A.W. II. 
Roman JEra 58 plan. 
T-headed bronze bow brooch, 1913. Blackmore Museum. 



Bij the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 371 

WISHFORD, GREAT. 

Earthworks. Irregular oval enclosure in Heath Wood at E. end of 
Grovely. O.M. 65 NE. 
A ditch coming out of the E. end of Grovely Wood on Grovely Hill. 

O.M. 66 NW. 
See also below under Roman. 

Finds, Neolithic. Ground flint celt, Blackmore Museum. 

Roman. Grovely Works extending for 1J miles round 3 sides of pro- 
montory on N. side of Grovely Wood, about 1 mile West of Wishford 
village ; extensive Romano British settlement covering 60 acres, with 
irregular ditches outside the wood. In the centre of N. side a section 
of strong triple ramparts (for what purpose 1 ) and again for short 
distance on E. O.M. 59 SE. ; A. W. I. 110, 111 plan, Station IV. 
Roman Rd. to Old Sarum running straight through Grovely issues 
from the E. end of wood in a " raised and straight causeway " says 
Hoare. A. W. I. 110 Station IV. ; not on O.M. 66 NW. 



WOODFORD. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow just E. of Salisbury — Devizes Rd. at Druids' Lodge. O.M. 
60 NW.; A. W. I. Station V. South. 

[la — g]. Just W. of the last and between it and the Rd. Hoare, 
A. W. I. 214 Station V. South shows a cluster of barrows close 
together " so diminutive in size that their elevation above the 
soil scarcely exceeds a foot " all opened by him. 4 contained 
urns of the " rudest texture," another burnt bones only. Not on 
O.M".60NW. 



2. Long Barrow just E. of parish boundary and Devizes — Salisbury 
Rd. at 5| miles from Salisbury. O.M. 60 SW. ; A. W. I. Station 
V. South. See Appendix Long Barrows. 
3 — 7 [7a]. Five barrows inside the earthwork enclosure at Hooklands 
Plantation on Heale Hill \ mile W. of Upper Woodford. O.M. 
60 SW. ; A. W. I. Station V. South shows 6 barrows inside. 
[7 b, c]. A. W. I. Station V. South shows 2 barrows close together 

just outside enclosure at NE. point. Not on O.M. 60 SW. 
8 — 14. Scattered group of 7 barrows W. of Hooklands Plantation, 
between it and Salisbury— Devizes Rd. O.M. 60 SW. ; A. W. 
I. Station V. South shows only 3. 
From a barrow at Woodford a small cinerary urn with overhanging 
rim about 7in. high. Salisbury Museum. 
Earthworks. At Hooklands plantation on Heale Hill £ mile W. of Upper 
Woodford irregular oval earthwork enclosure, area about 5 acres, 
with slight vallum. O.M. 60 SW. ; A. W. I. 215 Station V. South. 



372 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

1 mile W. of Woodford Church, and just W". of Woodford Clump a 
small earthwork enclosure, vallum slight, entrance to E. says Hoare. 
O.M. 60 SW. ; A. W. I. 215, Station V. South. 

Hoare A. W. I. 215 notes faint remains of ditch pointing to Heale Hill 
from the last enclosure. Not in O.M. 60 SW. 

Hoare notes a ditch coming from Hamshill ditches in Burf ord along S. 
side of Grovely, crossing Wylye river at Chilhampton and running 
across Devizes — Salisbury Ed. into Woodford, " opposite Little 
Durnford." A. W. I. 110 Station IV. ; not in O.M. 66 NW. 
Soman. Square cultivation marks, etc., on Heale Hill S.W. of the Hook- 
lands plantation enclosure ; a British village. O.M. 60 SW. ; A. W. 
I. 215. 

WOOTTON BASSETT. 
Barrows. 

[la.]? A mound at Brynards Hill, 66ft. diam., 2|ft. high. Opened 
by E. C. Trepplin, 1891, contained Norman pottery fragments 
only, probably not sepulchral. Not in O.M. 
[lb.] A similar mound in field called " Woolleys " at Knighton, also 
opened same time. Similar pottery fragments, but in centre a 
pit 7ft. or 8ft. deep, contained charcoal and fragments of iron. 
Tradition said it was the site of Windmill. W.A.M. xxvi. 416 ; 
xxviii. 263 ; not in O.M. 
Finds, Neolithic. A few flint arrowheads. A. D. Passmore Coll. 

Sarsen muller, long shape. Devizes Museum Cat. II. 9. 

Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze socketed spear head without loops. Hunt's 

Mill, 1899. Devizes Museum Gat. II. Bo ; Reliquary, xiv. 246 fig. ; 

W.A.M. xxx. 290. 

Small bronze flanged celt found in making Badminton line, " near 

Wootton Bassett" (? in what parish). In private hands. Cast in 

Devizes Museum Oat. II. B27a ; W.A.M. xxxiii. 343 ; xxxiv. ZWfig. 

[Human remaius found 1863 just W. of Vicarage, no details. O.M. 14 

SE.] 
[Pottery Kiln, Norman, just on S. side of main Rd. at Hunt's Mill. 
O.M. 14 SE] 

WKAXALL, NORTH. 

Barrows. [Group of 4 round barrows just over boundary of Marshfield 

and Gloucestershire. O.M.~\ 
Finds, Late Celtic. On site of Roman villa, 1860. A bronze cushion - 

shaped bow-brooch of " Italian " type dr. 400 or 500 B.C. Devizes 

Museum Cat. II. 425 ; Reliquary xiv. 102 Fig. 24; W.A.M. xxx v. 

394, 398,,/fy. 1. 
Roman. A considerable villa and cemetery in field called " Coffin Ground," 

in N.E. extremity of parish, 1 mile N.E. of Church, just N.E. of 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 373 

Truckle Hill Barn, excavated 1859, 1860, by G. Poulet Scrope. Villa 
180ft. X 36ft. 16 rooms, baths, hypocausts, stone bath. Well exca- 
vated to depth of 68ft. Many parts of columns, capitals, roof finials, 
&c, found in it, now at Castle Combe Manor. 60 yds. away four or 
five tombs, in one a large stone coffin (at Castle Combe). Remarkable 
crescent ornament of two boars' tusks with bronze mount (British 
Museum). Fragments of pottery, glass vessels, marble wall veneer, 
bronze nails, earpick, armlets, key, statuette, coins, &c. Devizes 
Museum Cat. II. 417—451 ; O.M. 19 SE. ; Gent. Mag. 1860, Pt. II. 
157 ; W.A.M. vii. 59^s. ; Lewis' Hist, of N. Wraxhall 166. 
Large stone coffin found here in 18th cent., destroyed. Hist, of N. 
Wraxhall 166. 

WKAXALL, SOUTH. 

Earthworks. The Roman Road and Wansdyke combined form N. 
boundary of parish throughout. O.M. 25 SE. ; 32 NW. ; A.W. 
II., Roman Mra 16—30, 73 plan. 

WROUGHTON. 
Barrows. 

1 — 3. Barbury Castle. 3 small barrows close together at foot of hill 
on W. side of camp, just on N. edge of track descending from 
camp, and just W. of track which cuts it going S. to Rockley. 
0. M. 22 SE. Smith p. 191 XIII. K. I. k, 1 shows 2 only (1 & 2), 
low bowl-shaped barrows, one opened, no record, the other not 
opened. Hoare A. W. II. 41 mentions 2 round barrows, but they 
are not shown in Stations XI. XII. 

4. Large disc-shaped barrow on W. slope of hill on the 800ft. contour 

line, under the camp, N. of track through camp, E. of 1 — 3. 
Apparently opened, no record. O.M. 22 SE. ; A.W. II. 41, not 
in Stations XL XII. ; Smith p. 191 XIII. K, I. c. 

5. N.E. of the last a small bowl-shaped barrow just outside N.W. 

rampart of camp. O.M. 22 SE.; Smith p. 191, XIII. K. I. d. ; 
not in A. W. II Stations XL XII. 

6. 7. | mile N.E. of camp just W. of Rd. 2 large bowl-shaped barrows 

close together, much ploughed down. Opened, no record. O.M. 
22 NE. ; Smith p. 191, XIII. K. I. g, f . ; A. W. II. Stations XL XII. 
[7 a — c] A. W. II. Stations XL XII. marks 3 barrows near together 
on "Ufcot Down," S.W. of Barbury Castle and S. of Ridge way. 
In Wroughton or Preshute 1 Not in O.M. 22 SE. 
[The barrow mentioned by Hoare A. W. II. 41, Stations XL XII. as 
on " Down belonging to Elcombe " is apparently in Preshute 1] 
Earthworks. Barbury Castle (half in Wroughton, half in Ogbourne St. 
Andrew), one of the finest and strongest of Wiltshire camps. Oval, 
double ramparts. Area 12^ acres, circuit 880 yds. Entrances E. & W. 
with outer works covering the former. O.M. 22 SE. ; A. W. 11.41, 
PI. VIII. plan, Stations XL XII. 



374 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

Just S. W. of Vicarage and School the Broad Hintoa Rd. runs apparently 
in ditch of a camp which occupied the whole promontory on which 
Vicarage, Church, and Manor House stand. Earthworks not very 
evident now, not shown in OM. 15 SE. ; or A. W. II. Stations XI. XII. 

Rectangular earthwork in low ground N. of Barbury Castle. O.M. 22 
NE. See Roman, below. 

A smaller rectangular earthwork | mile to W. Mutilated. O.M. 22 NE. 

Ridgeway crosses S. end of parish below N". side of Barbury Castle, forming 

parish boundary W. of Barbury. O.M. 22 SE. ; A. W. II. 46, Stations 

XI. XII. 

Finds, Neolithic. Flint celt. A. D. Passmore Coll. Scrapers, &c. 

Devizes Museum. 
Roman. On N". side of Barbury Castle in low ground below the camp, 
rectangular earthworks excavated by N. Story Maskelyne 1836. Site 
of Roman dwellings, coin of Tetricus Senr., Samian and other pottery, 
glass bead. Devizes Museum Oat. II. 479—483 ; OM. 22 NE. : 
W.A.M. xxiii. 180 ; A.W. II. 41. 

Large and fine bronze bow T-shaped hinge pin brooch, Barbury, 1888. 
Devizes Museum Cat. II. 312 fig. ; W.A.M. xxiv. 130. 

Silver spoon, " Verecunda" scratched on bowl, Barbury. J. W. Brooke 
Coll. 

Quern, Barbury. Devizes Museum Cat. II. Q. 32. 

WYLYE. 
Barrows. 

1. Small barrow just outside S. rampart of Wylye Catnp or Bilbury 

Rings, opened by Hoare, contained burnt bones only. O.M. 59 
SW. ; A. W. I. 108 Station IV. 
[la, b]. A. W. I. Station IV. shows a barrow on Wylye Down to SW. 
of the camp, and another half-way between the camp and Wylye 
village, neither shown on O.M. 59 SW. 

2. Barrow NW. of Deptford Field Barn and Chalk Pit. O.M. 59 

NW. ; A. W. I Station III. 

3. Barrow 1 mile N. of the last on Deptford Down. O.M. 59 NW. ; 

A. W. I. Station III. 
A bowl-shaped incense cup with perforated bottom found on site 

of ploughed down barrow at Deptford 1908. In possession of 

the finder 1914. 
Earthworks. Bilbury Rings or Wylye Camp 1 mile S. of Station on 
projecting point of Grovely Ridge, area 17£ acres, circuit 4 furlongs 
190 yds., many modern entrances. " Fortified (says Hoare) on the 
E. by double, and on the W. by triple entrenchments, the outward 
one particularly on the E. side being very broad and flat. Within 
the area of this camp we find the remains of another work of a very 
irregular form having the ditch within." See Roman below. O.M. 



By the Rev. E. H. Ooddard. 375 

59 SW. ; A. W. I. 108 plan, Station IV. [The whole area including 
banks and ditches is under cultivation, and the lines of the entrench- 
ment can now only be traced with some difficulty. 1913. M.E.C.] 
Winding ditch which forms N. boundary of woods at Dinton Beeches 
and westwards, N. of the Ox Drove, is the S. boundary of the parish. 
O.M. 59 S W. ; A. W. I. Station IV. 

Finds, Neolithic. Very large tanged and barbed flint arrow or lance 
head, Church Bottom 1872. Blackmore Museum. 

Finds, Bronze Age. Bronze looped palstave 1876. Blackmore Museum. 
W.A.M. xxxvii. 134. Socketed spearhead, imperfect, 1881. Black- 
more Museum. W.A.M. xxxvii. 144. 

Finds, Late Celtic. Bronze bow brooch, La Tene I. type. Blackmore 
Museum. Reliquary xiv. 97 fig. 12 ; W.A.M. xxxv. 400 ./Eg'. 11. 

Roman. Inside the irregular entrenchments within Bilbury Lings or 
Wylye Camp, all sorts of pottery, coins, bronze bracelet, iron nails, 
querns, &c. found by Hoare. A.W.I. 108 Station IV. Inside the 
camp, bronze bow brooch La Tene III. type, and one of 3rd cent, 
type. Blackmore Museum. W.A.M. xxxv. 405 fig. 
Roman Rd. Fragment of the straight road running W. through 
Grovely, just N. of Dinton Beeches in S.E. corner of parish. O.M. 
59 SW. 
Deptford Farm. Roman narrow necked vase of good New Forest 
ware found with skeleton and a " saucer-like " vessel, by pond 
diggers 1898. Other skeletons were found at the same time. 
Devizes xYluseum Cat. II. 228 ; W.A.M. xxxiii. 170 fig. 

YATES BUEY. 
Barrows. 

1. Barrow in centre of village, N.E. of Church. Opened by Dean 
Merewether, 1849. Nothing found. O.M. 27 NE. ; Proc. Arch. 
Inst. Salisbury, 95 ; W.A.M. xviii. 331 ; Smith p. 87, VI. E. 
IV. d. [A good deal mutilated, several large trees growing on it 
a brick water tower 1 built on it. 1914. E.H.G.] 

2. Barrow in S.E. corner of village, E. of Barrow Lane. Opened by 
Dean Merewether 1849. No interment found. Animal bones 
and fragments of iron in mound. O.M. 27 NE. ; Proc. Arch. 
Inst. Salisbury 95 ; Smith p. 86, VI. E. IV. a. 

3. 4. Two barrows close together in Barrow Field, S. of Barrow 
Way. Opened by Dean Merewether 1849. (b) A large barrow 
originally very high but ploughed down ; in the centre a cist 
containing burnt bones deposited in a hollow tree coffin 4ft. 
X 2^ft. x l£ft. thick with a bronze knife dagger 4g X ljin. 
(c) A large barrow cut down dr. 1833 when 2 skeletons with 
knife and metal box were found (? Saxon). Dean Merewether 
found only a cist with burnt bones, with much charcoal and 
pottery sherds in the mound. O.M. 27 NE. ; A. W. I. Stations 



376 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 

XI. XII. ; Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury 96, 97, fig. T ; W.A.M 

xviii. 332 ; Smith p. 86, 87, VI. E. IV. b, c. 

5. 1 barrow N.W. of village E. of Nolands Farm, close to parish 

boundary. Bowl-shaped, no ditch. Not opened. O.M. 27 NE. ; 

Smith p. 86, VI. D. IV. d. 

[5a, b.] Between the Bath Rd. and the old Bath Rd; toS.of it, W. of " Vize 

Way," a low wide barrow ploughed down. Not opened? Not 

in 0. M. And opposite this, on N. of Bath Rd. a very low ploughed- 

down barrow. jM ot in O.M. ; Smith pp. 97, 98, VII. E. V. n. y. 

Stukeley, Abury p. 45, says " Mr. Bray of Monkton open'd a barrow 

among many others, at Yatesbury. There was a great stone laid 

at top, just under the surface. When taken up they found a 

body laid in a stone coffin, form'd by several stones. He says, in 

another they found a body with a flat gold ring, which was sold 

for thirty shillings, and a piece of brass, about the bulk of a pint 

mug, with spearheads of iron." W.A.M. xviii. 334 ; Smith p. 88. 

A mound shown on O.M. 27 N E., f mile E. of Yatesbury Copse. 

Between Yatesbury and Avebury many interments with no sign 

of any mound have occurred ; in one case covered by two large 

sarsens. W.A.M. xviii. 330. 

Earthworks. N.W. of village in field called Cowleaze, a very small square 

enclosure with low bank and ditch, banks and ditches diverge from 

it to some distance on three sides. O.M. 27 NE. ; Smith p. 86, VI. 

D. IV. a ; Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury p. 95. 

Roman. Coins from Trajan to Valens found in a field called Boxbury(or 

Foxbury ?) Smith, p. 86 ; W.A.M. VI. 259, XVIII. 331. 
Saxon. Two Saxon (?) skeletons, knife, metal box, and pottery beads found 
near top ot barrow 4, cir. 1833. W.A.M. xviii. 332. See above. 






ADDENDA. 



ALTON PEIOES (p. 163). 
Barrow [10b.] [Small but in good condition, 1913. M.E.C.] 

AMESBUKY (pp. 167, 170). 

Barrows 20, 21. (Hoare, 128, 129) [These two barrows almost touch 
each other. Overgrown in wood and in poor condition, 1913. 
M.E.C.] 
22. (Hoare 130) [On edge of wood, overgrown, 1913. M.E.C.] 
58, 59, 60. [All under plough, 60 a large barrow, 1913. M.E.C.] 



By the Rev. E. H. Goddard. 377 

ASHLEY (p. 175). 
Barrow [la.] Hoare, A. W. II. Roman JSra 98 in plan of the Fosseway 
marks " a very fine barrow " close on edge of Fosseway just 1 
mile S. of Church. Not in O.M. 3 SE. 

AVEBUKY (pp, 176, 179, 180). 
Barrows 17. JBeckhampton. See Appendix Long Barrows. 
[19a.] [Good-sized barrow, under plough, 1913. M.E.C.] 
20. [Planted with trees, 1913. M.E.C.] 

Windmill Hill (p. 179). [Two barrows not shown in O.M. 28 N W. 
can still be seen on the ploughed land, 1913. M.E.C.] 
[44c] [Still of considerable size, though not shown in O.M. 28 NW., 

1913. M.E.C.] 
45. O.M. 28 N W. [Half of this barrow under plough, 1913. M.E.C.] 

BRATTON (p. 209) 

Barrow [6a], Small round barrow less than 1ft. high on down near 
Bratton Castle. Opened, circular cist with crouched skeleton, 
no relics. Skull at Cambridge Museum, No. 254. This barrow 
is apparently not mentioned in the list or shown on O.M. 45 SW., 
unless it is the "mound" S. of the camp. 

BROUGHTON GIFFORD (p. 215). 

Romano British (?) skulls from graves found in digging gravel for rail- 
way ballast 1862. Skeletons were extended. Excavated by Rev. J. 
Wilkinson, W. Cunnington, and Dr. Thurnam. 3 skulls at Cambridge 
Museum, Nos. 175—7. 

CHARLTON, NEAR PEWSEY (p. 221). 

Roman. The bronze plaque with relief of Minerva (Devizes Musum Cat. 
II. 354 fig.) wrongly assigned to Lavington, was really found on 
Charlton Down, with a bronze figure Sin. high and many coins. 
Arch. Journ. viii 318. 

DEVIZES (p. 239). 
Roman. Pans Lane railway cutting 1861. Romano British skull. Cam- 
bridge Museum, No 144. 

KNOOK (p. 274). 
Barrow [5b]. Small barrow inside an irregular earthwork with vallum 
outside ditch, much ploughed down, S. of Old Ditch, S.W. of 
Knook Castle, N.of Amesbury Rd. Opened by Hoare. Crouched 
skeleton 1ft. 6in. under surface and 3ft. to S. of it a circular cist 
with burnt bones. A. W. I. 82, Station III. ; not in O.M. 52 SE- 



378 List of Prehistoric, Roman, and Pagan Saxon Antiquities. 



LAVERSTOCK (p. 278). 

Barrows 3, 4. " Hand Barrows." [This appears to be a Long Barrow 
and does not at all resemble 2 round barrows, 1913. M.E.C.] 
See Appendix Long Barrows. 

MILTON LILBOURNE (p. 292). 

A small gold penannular bracelet formed of twisted strands found 1910 
on Mr. Bush's farm, Clench Common (? in what parish). In possession 
(1913) of Mr. Rudge, of Swindon. Of doubtful age. 



Total Number of Barrows in Wilts. 

Dr.Thurnam reckoned the total number of barrows in the County 
at about 2000. Probably he arrived at this number by counting 
those shown on the " Station " maps of Hoare's Ancient Wilts. 
These maps, however, are so difficult to compare with the modern 
Ordnance Maps that in a considerable number of cases it has been 
found impossible accurately to locate or identify barrows shown 
by Hoare. Moreover since Dr. Thurnam wrote the County has 
lost the parishes of Damerham, Martin, &c, on its southern border, 
and with them a good many barrows. The total number of barrows 
of all kinds identified in the foregoing List as either existing now, 
or having been accurately recorded is 1854, of which 471 are not 
shown on the 2nd edition of the Six-Inch Ordnance Maps. This 
does not always mean that they cannot now be distinguished, 
though in the great majority of cases they have been destroyed. 
Mrs. Cunnington reckons the number of Long Barrows which can 
he now identified as 86, of which 72 exist still wholly or in part. 
Deducting these from the total, 1854, we have 1768 as the number 
of round or "oval" barrows mentioned in the List. This includes 
a certain number of doubtful "mounds" and "pond barrows." 

Appendix, Long Barrows. In consequence of the large 
amount of space occupied by the foregoing " List," this Appendix 
is unavoidably held over to the next number of the Magazine. 



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No. CXXI. 



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WILTSHIRE 

Irrjjivologiral im& fetal iisturq 
MAGAZINE. 



Io. OXXL JUNE, 1914. Vol. XXXVIII. 



Contents. page 

List of the Long Barrows of Wiltshire: By Mrs. M. E. 

Cunnington 379 

The Church of S. John the Baptist and S. Helen, 

Wroughton: By C. E. Ponting, F.S.A 415 

Sir William Sharington's Work at Lacock, Sudeley, and 

Dudley : By the Rev. W. G. Clark-Maxwell, F.S.A 426 

The Sixtieth General Meeting at Devizes 435 

Malmesbury Abbey : By Harold Brakspear, F.S.A 458 

Wilts Obituary 498 

Recent Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, Articles, &c 511 

Books and Articles by Wiltshire Authors 532 

Wiltshire Portraits 535 

Wiltshire Illustrations 537 

Additions to Museum and Library 540 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1913 543 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Figs. 1—6, Wroughton Church 418 

Figs. 1—10, Lacock Abbey, Sudeley and Dudley 

Castles 426 

Folding Plan of Malmesbury Abbey and Precincts 458 

Figs. 1—26, Malmesbury Abbey 458 



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THE 

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" MULTOEUM MANIBUS GBANDE LEVATtTE ONUS." — Ovid. 

June, 1914. 

LIST OF THE LONG BAEEOWS OF WILTSHIEE. 

By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 

[Referred to in the previous List of Prehistoric Antiquities, pp. 153 — 378, 
as " Appendix, Long Barrows."] 

This list of Wiltshire Long Barrows, includes all those known 
to the writer, and it is hoped that it is fairly complete, but there 
may be a few small ones that have escaped notice, It is not always 
possible from the Ordnance Survey maps to decide whether a 
barrow is round or long, and to visit all the barrows in Wiltshire 
would be indeed a very great labour. All those included in this 
list have been visited within the last year or two, and a note made 
on their present condition. Many other barrows as to which it 
was doubtful whether they should be included in the " Long " 
barrow class, have also necessarily been seen, and none have been 
included that do not appear to be genuinely of that class, and in 
cases where there may still be a doubt that could only be dispelled 
by excavation, mention has been made of the fact. 

Sir E. Colt Hoare, in Ancient Wilts, (as in vol. I., p. 169, barrow 
118), sometimes speaks of a barrow as a " long barrow " referring 
apparently to its general shape only, when from the context it is 
clearly not one of this class, and these have not been included in 
the list. 

It appears that there are 72 Long Barrows, or remnants of Long 
Barrows, still in Wiltshire, and that 14 others have been destroyed 
; VOL. xxxviii. — no. cxxi. 2 c 



380 List of the Long Barrovjs of Wiltshire. 

within the last, hundred years or so. 1 There were, therefore, at one 
time at least 86 Long Barrows in Wiltshire. These are, or were, 
strictly within the present administrative boundary of the county, 
hut if we include the area within the county boundary, when 
Hoare made his survey, we should add at least 5 more. 2 

17 of the Long Barrows are known to have been opened by Dr. 
Thurnam between the years 1855 and 1868; 19 by Hoare 3 and 
Wm. Cunnington in the beginning of the 19th century (8 of these 
re-opened by Dr. Thurnam are not included in the above 17) ; 4 
have been opened by other excavators, and 32 have not been opened, 
or if so, there is no record of it. 

Out of the 40 opened, the results of which are more or less 
known, in 32 cases burials of one or more skeletons were found 
near the larger end of the barrow, and in 5 of these the bones had 
been burnt or partially burnt (Old Ditch and Kill Barrow at Tils- 
head, Winterbourne Stoke No. 53, Bratton, and Knook); in 7 the 
primary burial does not seem to have been found, and in one case 
(Lanhill) it was not at the larger end of the mound. 

Dr. Thurnam's list of 11 chambered barrows for the county re- 
mains unaltered, except that it is very doubtful if the one referred 
to by him as " Oldbury " should properly be included {see under 
Cherhill). 

The outward characteristics of a " Long Barrow " are that it is 
long in proportion to its width, that one end is considerably broader 
and higher than the other, and that a ditch, or trench (usually 
wider than the ditches of round barrows) is found on both sides of 
the mound, but never running round the ends. Wherever this 

1 This does not include 3 unidentifiable Long Barrows mentioned by 
Stukeley in the neighbourhood of Avebury. 

2 These are Grans Barrow and Knap Barrow, only about a hundred yards 
apart, on Knowle Hill, one in the parish of Rockbourne, the other in Toyd 
Farm and Allenford parish : Round Clump Barrow in Whitsbury parish, 
near Great Yews ; Giant's Grave on Breamore Down close to the Maze, in 
the parish of Breamore ; all now in Hants. One now in Dorset in the parish 
of Martin, close to and north of Bokerly Dyke. 

3 One of these was opened after the publication of Ancient Wilts. See 
under Nettleton. 



By Mrs. M. E. Cunning ton. 381 

latter feature exists it may be taken as a sure sign that the mound 
is a true Long Barrow ; but unfortunately cultivation and other 
causes, have often obliterated this most sure indication, so that in 
some cases, where other evidence is lacking, there must remain 
a doubt as to the true character of the mound, But in some cases, 
especially in • the stone-built mounds, there seems never to have 
been a ditch. 

On the other hand, where the ditch is obviously continued round 
the ends of the mound, there can be little doubt that the barrow is 
only an oval, or multiple round one, and all mounds that have these 
■continuous ditches, but that otherwise look like "Long" Barrows, 
have been rejected from this list. 

The barrows are listed alphabetically under the names of the 
parishes in which they are situated. This method has some diffi- 
culties, but it seems the only possible way to classify mounds that 
are, as a rule, nameless, and have no distinctive features by which 
they may be distinguished. Under each barrow references are 
given to the original sources of information, but the details of the 
discoveries that have been made in them are lacking in many cases. 

kThe following abbreviations have been used : — 
0.jJf.r=Ordnance Map ; the number in every case is of the Wiltshire 
Sheet of the 6in. scale. 
A. W.=" Ancient Wiltshire," by Sir R. Colt Hoare. 
Arch.— 1 Archosologia." 
W.A.M.~= Wilts Archaeological Magazine ; the reference is to the volume, 

not the number as published. 
Smiths" British and Roman Antiquities of North Wiltshire" by the 

Rev. A. C. Smith. 
MS. Cat. This refers to a MS. Catalogue compiled by Dr. Thurnam 
of the Thurnam Collection of Skulls, now at Cambridge. A large 
number of these skulls came from Wiltshire barrows, and in several 
cases the entries give information, or further details, in reference to 
the discoveries in the barrows that are not included in Dr. Thurnam's 
published notes. I am indebted to the courtesy of Professor 
Macalister and Dr. W. L. H. Duckworth for permission to consult 
the catalogue, and to make extracts therefrom. 
After the length of the barrow, its direction is stated, the larger end of 
the mound being always put first ; thus " S. and N." means that 
the larger end is to the south, and " N. and S. " the reverse. 

[The numbers after the name of the parish are those in the previous " List 

2 C 2 



382 List of the Long Barrows of Wiltshire. 

of Prehistoric Antiquities," which are also marked on the set of 6 inch 
maps in the Society's Library.] 

Alton Priors. 1 . » " Adam's Grave," or " Old Adam," on Walker's Hill. 
Length 130ft. (Mere wether) ; S.E. and KW. Chambered. Opened 
by Thurnam in 1860. Near the east end there was a single chamber 
built of large sarsen stones ; it had been previously disturbed, and 
he only found traces of human skeletons, and a finely worked leaf- 
shaped arrowhead of flint. There seems to have been a containing 
wall round the mound, of which remains were found near the eastern 
end, built of upright sarsen stones set a little distance apart, with 
the space between filled in with a dry walling of oolitic stones. 2 
This large and finely situated barrow has been a good deal disfigured 
by the various excavations in it, and several of the large sarsens dis- 
covered by Thurnam are partly exposed. The ditches on both sides 
are still quite distinct, but that on the north has been somewhat 
encroached upon by a chalk quarry. The damage in this direction 
is, however, not likely to be continued, attention having been called 
to it. The central ridge of the mound is still unusually sharp, a 
feature commented on by Hoare. Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury, p. 98 ; 
Smithy. 181, XII. H. viii. a ; O.M. 35, SW. ; A. W. II. 12, 29 ; Arch. 
xxxviii. 410 i. ; xlii. 203, 230 ; W.A.M. xi. 45. 

Amesbury. 14. On Normanton Down, No. 165 of Hoare's " Normanton 
Group," close to S. side of road from Stonehenge to Winterbourne 
Stoke. Length 100ft. ; S.S.E. by N.N.W. Opened by Hoare and 
Cunnington, who failed to find interments, and later by Thurnam, who 
found the primary burial of three skeletons, and some secondary 
burials, but beyond the reference in the summary list in Arch. xlii. no 
account of the discoveries seems to have been published 3 ; in the MS. 
Cat. there are however, the following entries :— " No. 240. From the 
small long barrow No. 165 of Hoare — this dolichocephalic skull was 
obtained in 1866 from the primary interment below a stratum of 
black earth on the natural level. The marks of cleavage on this 
skull are very distinct. It is remarkable that there were no bones 
of upper or lower maxillae, or any teeth." 
240a. Ancient British. Part of calvarium, also with distinct marks 
of old cleavage found with portions of a third skull, apparently that of 
a child, close to No. 240. The upper and lower jaws found with it 
indicate an age of about 15 years. This sepulchral deposit was found 
nearer the centre of the mound than is usual in Long Barrows, and 
about 15ft. to the north of the opening made by Mr. Cunnington in 
1808, and 20ft or more to the north of that made by myself in 1856. 

1 Referred to by Thurnam as " Walker Hill." 
• The oolitic stone is foreign to this immediate locality. The same kind 

of walling with oolitic stone was found at West Kennet. See under Avebury. 
3 This barrow is referred to by Thurnam as " Stonehenge No. 165 " in the 

list of barrows opened by himself, but is not included in his list of those 

opened by Hoare and Cunnington. Arch. xlii. 180. 



By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 383 

The impression made by the appearance of the deposit was that the 
bodies had been dismembered and the skulls more or less shattered 
and broken before their final interment in this place where they 
were found." 

"241. Ancient British. From the same barrow, about a foot beneath 
the surface and nearer to the S. end than Nos. 240 and 240a. No 
other part of the skeleton, nor even a trace of jaws or teeth, was 
found with the calvarium, which was of a dark earthy colour when 
found. It is probably Ancient British of the dolichocephalic Stone 
Age of Long Barrow type, and brought here after the partial com- 
pletion of the tumulus." 

"242. Ancient British. From a secondary interment of a boy or girl, 
12 or 15 years of age, ljft. deep in the same barrow. The skeleton 
was doubled up, with head to the south. There was no relic of art 
with the skeleton, but 2ft. deeper another and also brachycephalic 
skeleton, also doubled up. The skull was too imperfect to be pre- 
served. There was likewise part of a tibia of Bos longifr-ons, and an 
entire skeleton of a goose, all these above the stratum of black earth. 
Exhumed April 28th, 1866." 

Mound and ditches in very fair condition, but both are now beginning 
to be attacked by rabbits. Turf. O.M. 54 S W. ; A. W. I. 206 ; Arch. 
xlii. 180; MS. Gat. 240—2. 

Amesbury . 42. 1 Close to, and parallel with, the E. end of the " Cursus," 
near Stonehenge, Length 265ft. (Thurnam) S. and N. Opened by 
Thurnam who regarded it as a true Long Barrow, but Hoare and 
Stukeley seem both to have thought otherwise. Stukeley shows it 
merely as a bank (Stonehenge Tab. III.). Hoare spoke of it thus " The 
head (of the Cursus), which is towards the east, is marked by a mound 
of earth, resembling a Long Barrow, which extends across the whole 
Cursus." The Cursus, Hoare regarded as the " Race course of the 
Britons," and on the mound he suggests the " spectators were seated, 
and a more eligible post could not have been chosen." Thurnam 
never seems to have published any account of his discoveries in the 
mound, and the only mention of it is that in the Summary List in 
Arch, xlii., where it is stated that secondary burials, but no primary 
one, were found. 
The following is an entry in the MS. Cat. " No. 234 : — Ancient British. 
From a secondary interment in the Long Barrow at the east end of 
the ' Cursus ' near Stonehenge. I see no reason to doubt this 
mound being a true Long Barrow, though like some others it lies N. 
and S., with the broadest end to the S. There are still traces of the 
ditch at each side. It measures 265ft. long, 55ft. to 70ft. broad, and 
4ft. high. It is named by Sir R. C. Hoare as ' a mound resembling 
a Long Barrow.' The skeleton from which this brachycephalic 
calvarium was taken was lying within a foot of the present surface, 

'This is the mound referred to by Thurnam as " Stonehenge," " Cursus." 
i Arch. xlii. 180. 



384 List of the Long Barrows of Wiltshire. 

about 50ft. from the southern skirt of the barrow. It was in the 
contracted posture, and close to it was the skeleton of an infant. The 
femur measured I7in., the humerus 12in., though the bones of the 
skull are very thick I think it female. The skull had been smashed, 
probably by the plough. Though great labour was bestowed upon 
it, the true primary interment was not found in the barrow. There 
were portions however of the skeleton of an infant about 3ft. (deep) 
and just over the dark stratum. About 2jft. (deep) were parts of 
the skeletons of at least three individuals of Bos longifrons, consist- 
ing of several entire carpi and tarsi, every bone, down to the 
sesamoids, being in situ ; and parts of a pelvis and of a skull of the 
same animal. The greater part of these were presented by me to the 
Museum of Anatomy, at Oxford. I retain one carpus and two tarsi, 
the bones of which were perfect enough to be articulated. They had 
evidently been cut off from the carcases Avith the hoofs and probably 
the enteguments entire, and thrown on the incomplete funeral mound, 
whilst the flesh was probably cooked and eaten on the occasion of a 
feast and sacrifice. Exhumed by J. T. (John Thurnam) March 29 
and April 6, 1866." 
This mound and the whole of the eastern part of the Cursus, is now, as 
it seems to have been in Thurnam's time, under cultivation ; the 
mound is much lowered and scattered about, and no sign of the 
ditches referred to by Thurnam can now be seen on the surface. 
O.M. 54 SE.; Arch, xlii., 180, 182 ; A.W. I. 158; MS. Gat. No. 239. 
Amesbury. 59. N. of Amesbury-Andover Road, between New Barn 
and the second milestone out of Amesbury. Length 125ft ; S.S.E. 
by N.N.W. No recorded opening. A fine barrow with ditches still 
traceable, but now under cultivation. There is a large round barrow 
almost touching its fringe at the northern end. O.M. 55 SW. Not 
shown by Hoare. 
For two Long barrows, now destroyed, in Amesbury parish, see end of 
this list. 

Ansty. 1. On Whitesheet Hill, at junction of Donhead St. Andrew, 
Ansty, and Berwick St. John parish boundaries, close to and N. of the 
old Shaftesbury Road, E. of the 14th milestone to Salisbury. Length 
132ft. N.E. by S.W. There is no recorded opening of this barrow, 
but it appears to have been dug into near the centre. It is otherwise 
in good condition^ and stands on uncultivated ground, and the ditches 
are well defined. O.M. 69, SE ; A. W. I. Map of Fovant Station. 

Avebury. 17. " Longstone Barrow," at Beckhampton, in a field north of 
Beckhampton House, and S.W. of the Longstones. Length 1 N.E. 
by S.W. 1 Much of the material of this once large barrow has been 
taken away from time to time, and it is now only a large unshapely 
heap, without any vestige of ditches. There is no record of its ever 
having been systematically opened, but according toDeanMerewether 
burials have been found in the course of its partial destruction. He 

1 As shown by Hoare. 



By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 385 

mentions a fragment of a large urn and a piece of bronze knife 
dagger 1 as having been found, these no doubt belonging to secondary 
interments. O.M. 28 SW. ; A. W. II. Map of Calne and Swindon 
Station ; Stukeley's Abury, 46 ; Smith p. 100, VII. F. v. a ; Proc. 
Arch. Inst. Salisbury, 109 (Mere wether). 

Avebury. 22. West Kennet Long Barrow. Length according to Hoar e 
344ft., to Thurnam 335ft. ; E. and W. Chambered. This barrow 
was partially opened by Thurnam in 1859. He found one large 
chamber formed of six upright sarsen stones, covered by three other 
large sarsens ; it measured 8ft. by 9ft., and 8ft. in clear height ; the 
spaces between the large stones were filled in by a dry walling of 
stones of a calcareous grit, the nearest quarries of which would be 
about seven miles away near Calne. A similarly constructed gallery 
about 15ft. in length, led from the chamber to the eastern edge of 
the mound. Among the rubble with which the chamber was filled 
were the remains of six skeletons, which seem to have been in a sit- 
ting or crouching position ; two of the skulls had been cleft before 
burial, probably before death. Bones of various animals, numerous 
flakes and worked flints, including one piece ground, several large 
mullers of flint and sarsen, part of a bone pin, and a hand-made bead 
of Kimmeridge shale were found. There was also a considerable 
quantity of pottery all in fragments, " in three of the four angles 
of the chamber there was a pile of such evidently deposited in a 
fragmentary state, there being scarcely more than two or three 
portions of the same vessel." This pottery consists of fragments of 
" drinking cup " type, and of other vessels of distinctive decoration, 
possibly round-bottomed, and having a hollow moulding beneath the 
rim. 1 

Thurnam thought the chamber had been previously disturbed, possibly 
during the Roman period. The barrow seems to have had originally 
a containing wall built of upright sarsens with the spaces between 
filled in with a dry walling of oolitic stones. (For a similar walling 
see " Adam's Grave," under Alton Priors.) 

As to its present condition the chamber and gallery appear to be in a 
complete state of ruin, the stones lying about promiscuously. For 
the rest, to quote Thurnam, " Tenants in the present century (the 
19th) have stripped it of its verdant turf, 2 cut a waggon-road through 
its centre, and dug for flints and chalk rubble in its sides, by which 
its form and proportions have been much injured." O.M. 28 SW. ; 
A. W. II. 96 ; Arch, xxxviii. 405 ; xlii. 203, 211 ; Cr. Brit. PI. 50; 
W.A.M. x. 130 ; Smith p. 154, XL G. vi. b. ; Devizes Museum Cat. 
II. 23. 

1 See " The Development of Neolithic Pottery," by Mr. R. A. Smith, 
Arch. lxii. 340. 

3 The result of this is the rank growth of weeds and grass that now cover 
the mound. 



386 List of the Long Barrows of Wiltshire. 

Bishops Cannings. 44. " Kitchen Barrow," on Kitchen Barrow Hill, 
S. of Wansdyke. Length 107ft. ; width at broad end 64ft. ; N.E. and 
S.W. Opened by Thurnam, who found skeletons at the N.E. end ; 
they seem to have been previously disturbed, but no details 
are given. This barrow stands at the extreme end of an outstanding 
spur of the down, overlooking the Vale of Pewsey. The mound is 
very broad at one end, and tapers off very narrow at the other. The 
ditches are quite distinct and untouched, but the mound is in a very 
untidy and disturbed state ; near the wide end there has been a 
considerable excavation never filled in, and in it a large sarsen stone ; 
in addition to this hole much of the material of the mound has been 
taken away. The Rev. A. C. Smith speaks of " much broken ground 
all about, and many pits, as if of hut circles." These, however, 
appear more like old diggings, either for hard chalk or flint, than 
"hut circles," and it seems probable that the material from the 
barrow was carted away when this digging was going on. This 
barrow is almost certainly the one referred to by Thurnam as 
" Horton." O.M. 34 NE. ; Arch. xlii. 180 ; Smith p. 114, VIII. E. 
viii. h. 

Bishops Cannings. 65. On Easton Down, N". of Wansdyke. Length 
132ft. ; E. and W. Opened by Thurnam. It had been previously 
dug into, and Thurnam only found the scattered remains of four 
individuals (two male adults, and two young persons) near the E. end 
and a few chippings and fragments of sarsen stones. This barrow 
stands on uncultivated down, and is a conspicuous object from the 
road by Beckhampton. The mound has been rather disfigured by 
the diggings into it that have never been properly filled in ; the ditches 
are distinct. Some rubble seems to have been taken away from the 
edge of the mound on the S. side. This barrow was referred to by 
Thurnam as " Easton Hill." O.M. 34 NE. ; A. W. II. Map of 
Marlborough Station ; Arch. xlii. 180 ; W.A.M. vi. 323 ; Smith p. 
112, VIII. E. vii. g. 
For Long Barrow in Bishops Cannings parish, now destroyed, see end of 
this list. 

Boyton. 1. " Corton Long Barrow," on Barrow Hill. Length 216ft- 
(Hoare) ; E. and W. Opened by Wm. Cunningto n 1804 ; beneath a 
large heap of flints, marl stones, etc., at the E. end eight skeletons 
were found " lying in several directions, as though they had been 
thrown on a heap without ceremony." Seven were those of adults, 
and one of a child from seven to eight years of age. A secondary 
burnt burial in a cinerary urn had previously (1801) been found at 
the W. end by the same explorer. The mound had been reduced in 
size by the plough even in Hoare's time, and since then it has been 
reduced still more, and is now only 120ft. in length. Then, as now, 
it appeared almost as two round barrows from earth having been 
taken away from about the middle of the mound for agricultural 
purposes. There are beech trees of considerable age growing on the 



By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 387 

barrow, but the ground round it has been until recently under culti- 
vation and there is no trace of the ditches. O.M. 58 NW. ; A.W. 
I. 102; Arch. xv. 338 (Cunnington); xlii. 180. 

Bratton. 1. In Bratton Camp. Length 230ft. (Thurnam) ; E. and W. 
Opened by Wm. Cunnington, who found a secondary burial of three 
skeletons near the top of the larger end, but failed to find the primary 
one. Thurnam, who re-opened it in 1866, seems to have found the 
primary burial on the floor of the barrow, consisting of " a heap of 
imperfectly burnt, or rather charred, human bones, apparently those 
of one or two adults." ' 
This barrow is now a rather unshapely heap and much cut about ; the 
mound is not ploughed but it stands on cultivated ground and all 
trace of the ditches is obliterated. OM. 45, NW. ; A. W. I. 55 ; Arch. 
xlii. 180, 192 ; W.A.M. xiii. 341. 

Brixton Deverill. 2. On Cold Kitchen Hill, W. of one ditch and N- 
of another, and almost due N". of Kingston Deverill Church. Length 
174ft. ; S.S.E. and N.N.W. There seems to be no record of this bar- 
row ; probably unopened. A very fine barrow, in excellent condition! 
with ditches well defined. There are several slight sinkings in the 
mound, that may mark places of interment or openings. The mound 
does not quite fill the space between the ditches at the northern end, 
leaving a slight platform or berm on either side. For similar berms 
see below. Brixton Deverill 7. O.M. 57 NE. ; A.W. I. Map of 
Stourton Station. 

Brixton Deverill. 7. S.E. of Brixton Deverill, and E. of Monkton 
Deverill, on the down to the N.W. of Lower Pertwood Farm. Length 
278ft. ; nearly E. and W. There seem to be no records of this barrow ; 
apparently unopened. A very fine barrow, in excellent condition, 
with unusually well defined deep ditches, standing on unploughed 
down in a rather remote situation. The ditches are not straight, but 
curve inwards towards the mound in the middle, and outwards 
from the mound at both ends. There is also the rather unusual 
feature of a distinct berm, or level platform, between the fringe of 
the mound and the inner edges of the ditches. For similar berms 
see Brixton Deverill 2 and Milston 39. O.M. 57 SE. ; A. W. I. Map 
of Stourton Station. 
For Long Barrow in Brixton Deverill parish now destroyed see end of 
this list. 

Bulford. 1. "Longbarrow Clump," on sloping ground, S. of Bulford 
village, close to and S. of railway line. Length 133ft. ; E. and W. 
There seem to be no records of this barrow, and it is not shown 
by Hoare. It is a high mound planted with trees, otherwise in 
fairly good condition. The ground on which it stands is now down 
to grass, but it was formerly ploughed right up to the edge of the 
mound, and the ditches are obliterated. O.M. 54 SE. 

1 In Gough's Camden I. 146 it is said that "many human bones mixed 
vith stag's horns, fragments of urns, and pieces of iron weapons, and mill- 
itones," have been found "under the mound." 



388 List of the Long Barrows of Wiltshire. 

Calne Without. 1. About \ of a mile W. of Cherhill Monument. 
Length ? E. and W. The remains of a long-shaped mound, much 
cut about at both ends by stone diggers ; perhaps the remnant of a 
Long Barrow ; nothing seems to be known of its history. O.M. 27 SE. 
For the barrow also near Cherhill Monument, referred to by Thurnam 
as " Oldbury," see under Cherhill. 

Cherhill. la. Just outside the ramparts of Oldbury Camp, W. of the 
monument, on the Cherhill — Calne Without parish boundary. Length 
60ft. ( Wm. Cunnington 1 ) ; E. and W. This barrow has been practically 
destroyed by flint diggers, only a confused heap now remaining. During 
this digging in 1864 some human bones were found, and Wm. 
Cunnington visited the spot and further examined the mound- 
Three skeletons were found " lying with their heads towards the E. 
in a large shallow grave surrounded by small blocks of sarsen 
stone." 2 A second grave was found empty, and in the mound 
a worn mealing stone of sarsen (Devizes Museum Cat. II. X. 
96a) and charcoal. O.M. 27 SE. ; Arch. xlii. 203, 218; Mem. 
Anthrop. Soc. I. 473; W.A. M. xiii. 103 (Cunnington); Smith p. 50, 
III. C. v. d. : MS. Cat. No. 198. 
The barrow is not shown on the O.M. The site may be found 
by prolonging the curve of the ditch of the outer rampart of the 
camp to the point where it cuts the parish boundary, just N. of the 
track. This barrow is referred to by Thurnam as " Oldbury." 

Chippenham. 1. " Lanhill Barrow," on Barrow Hill, sometimes called 
"Hubba's Low." Length about 160ft. (Thurnam) ; E. and W. 
chambered. This large stone-built barrow has been long used more 
or less as a quarry. In 1855 Thurnam made some excavations in it, 
and found two chambers with remains of skeletons, but they seem 
to have been previously disturbed. In 1909 a chamber was acci- 
dentally discovered by men digging stone from the mound ; it was 
built of six large slabs of stone, with the spaces between them filled 
in with dry walling, and a corbelled roof of. similar stones. Lying in 
a confused heap within the chamber were the remains of not fewer 
than eleven individuals. Steps have been taken to protect this 
chamber, and it may be seen still intact. 
Thurnam's description, written in 1866, of this once fine barrow, applies 
to it equally well to-day. " At present the mound has the appearance 
of several irregular hillocks, in part grown over with thorns and 
briars, resembling somewhat the site of an old quarry." O.M. 19 SE ; 

1 To avoid confusion it is perhaps as well to explain that there are two 
William Cunningtons referred to in this list. The elder and contemporary 
of Sir R. Colt Hoare died in 1810, the younger, who was his grandson, 
died in 1906. 

■ Thurnam has included this among his list of chambered barrows, but 
this account by Wm. Cunnington, who himself examined the mound, hardly 
seems to justify its description as a " chambered " barrow. 



By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 389 

A. W. II. 99 ; Arch. xlii. 203 ; W.A.M. iii. 67 (Thurnam 1856) ; xxxvi. 
300,(1909). 
This barrow was described by Aubrey about the middle of the 1 7th 
century in his manuscript " Monumenta Britannica." 

Collingbourne Kingston. 21. On Fairmile Down. Length 137ft.; 
E. and W. There is no recorded opening of this barrow, but it 
appears to have been dug into in four separate places. The mound 
is otherwise in good condition and stands on unploughed down land. 
The ditches on either side are unusually deep and well defined. 
O.M. 42, SE. ; W.A.M. viii. 156 (et passim). Not shown by Hoare. 

Donhead St. Mary. 4. S.W. of Wingreen, near the Dorset border. 
N.W. of Abbot's Copse, and S. of the Ridgeway. Length 132ft. ; N.E. 
and S.W. There is no record of the opening of this barrow, but it 
appears to have been dug into. The mound is in fair condition, and 
does not appear to have been ploughed over although the ground 
round it is under cultivation. Ditches indistinct. O.M. 74 N.W. 
Not shown by Hoare. 
For Long Barrow in Donhead St. Mary parish now destroyed see end of 
this list. 

Downton. 2. " Giant's Grave," S.E. of Clearbury Rings. Length about 
150ft. ; S. and N. This barrow does not appear to have been opened ; 
there is a slight sinking at the larger end, possibly over a cist. The 
mound is a 'fine one, in excellent condition, and apparently never 
disturbed, although the ground round it has been cultivated. Ditches 
indistinct as a result of cultivation. O.M. 71 SE. Not shown by 
Hoare. 

Durrington. 24. On Durrington Down, S.S.W. of Knighton Long- 
Barrow, within a few feet, and N. of, the new military cross-road 
from Lark Hill to the Devizes —Salisbury Road. Length 142ft. ; S.E. 
and N.W. There is no record of any opening of this barrow. It is 
planted with trees, and now stands in the middle of a military 
camping ground, and is in a poor state of preservation. The ditch 
on the northerly side is still discernible, but that on the other side 
has been disfigured and obscured by sheds erected by the military. 
O.M. 54 SW. Not shown by Hoare. 

Durrington. 63. E. of the road from Rushall to Amesbury, on Dur- 
rington — Amesbury parish boundary. Length about 200ft. This is 
shown on the O.M. as three distinct mounds, but although of peculiar 
shape and construction it was regarded by Hoare as a true Long 
Barrow, and he describes it thus : — " A very singular tumulus, ap- 
pearing like three barrows rising from one large base, but certainly 
a Long Barrow. It stands from south-west to north-east, 1 and has 
its wide end towards the west ; on the small end, and also on the 
centre, are mounds resembling two circular barrows. We opened 

1 It is shown on the O.M. as due E. and W. 



390 List of the Long Barrows of Wiltshire. 

that on the small end, and found only a few ashes and charred wood ; 
but in the central mound we discovered near the top, a skeleton and 
a drinking cup, both of which had been disturbed. On reaching the 
floor of the Long Barrow, we found a circular cist like a little well, 
but it contained no interment." It seems clear that the primary in- 
terment, if there is one, was not reached. The barrow is, and has 
been for many years, under cultivation, and is much scattered and 
levelled, but the irregular outline as described by Hoare is still clear ; 
no ditches are visible. O.M. 54 SE. ; A. W. I. 170. 
This appears to be the barrow referred to by Stukeley as "along 
barrow, which I suppose, the Archdruids' who lived at Eadfyn." 
Stonehenge, 38 Tab. xxv. This barrow is not included in Thurnam's 
list of those opened by Hoare and Cunnington. Arch. xlii. 180. 

Edington. 7. " Tinhead Barrow," on Tinhead Hill. Length 220ft. ; 
N.E. and S.W. Opened by Thurnam, who states that "it had 
evidently been rifled at some unknown period " ; he only found 
" traces of human remains in the usual situation at the east end, 
with a fragment or two of rude black pottery." It stands on ploughed 
ground, and its E. end is ploughed over, but the greater part of the 
mound is planted with trees. The ditches are obliterated, and 
material has been dug out of the mound in more than one place, 
many years ago, for large trees are now growing in the hollows. 
O.M. 45 NE. ; A. W. I. 88 ; Arch. xlii. 180, 194—5. 

Figheldean. 27. " Knighton Barrow," 1 on Knighton Down. Length 
182ft. ; E. and W. There seems to be no record of this barrow ever 
having been opened, but it looks as if it had been dug into in more 
than one place. Although not of great length this is a very fine 
barrow, and the most conspicuously situated of any in the county, 
being a landmark for many miles across the Plain in every direction. 
The mound is of great height and the ditches unusually deep and 
well defined. It has been much disfigured of late years by the 
military, who have chosen the southern ditch as a convenient spot 
in which to put a series of water tanks. O.M. 54 NE. ; A. W. I. 
175—6. 

Figheldean. 31. S. of Bobin Hood Ball (clump of trees) and E. of 
circular earthwork. Length 148ft. S.E. and N.W. Opened by 
Thurnam Sept. 8th, 1864, who found the primary interment, consisting 
of the bones of a single individual, hot in their natural order, but 
forming a pile, very little to the east of the centre of the mound. 
He also found a secondary burial of a skeleton with a "drinking cup." 2 
The following account is from the M.S. Cat.: — "The primary in- 
terment consisted of a skeleton doubled up in the black earth at the 
base of the barrow, within a space of not more than l£ft. square. 
There was reason for thinking that the bones had been separated 

1 Beferred to by Stukeley as " North Long Barrow." 
2 This vessel is now in the British Museum. 



By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 391 

in part before interment, the head of one tibia being in apposition 
with the malleolus of the other, though lying side by side. The 
primary interment in this barrow (which is in sight of Stonehenge) 
though lying towards the east, was much nearer the centre than 
usual, 1 and was only found (after making four distinct excavations) 
about 55ft. from the east end, the entire length being 150ft. The 
skeleton was in the usual stratum of dry brown earth, the bones and 
especially the skull being remarkable for their peculiarly eroded 
character. Within ljft. to the east of the skeleton was an oblong 
hole or cist in the chalk rock, 2ft. 9in. (long?) and 1ft. deep, with 
nothing in it but dry brown earth." The secondary interment was 
" about a foot below the surface, about 40ft. from the east end of the 
same barrow ; the skeleton was in a moderately contracted posture, 
with head to N.W. Near the hips a fine drinking cup of red ware 
much broken, but since restored." 

The whole of the central part of this barrow has been carted away, 
leaving practically only the fringe of the mound. This most regretable 
destruction seems to have been perpetrated during the last four or 
five years by the military on the Plain, apparently for the purpose of 
making a shelter hut. O.M. 54 N W. ; A. W. I. 176 ; Arch. xlii. 180, 
184, 197, 198; Bull, de la Soc. d'Anthrop. 2 S. ii. 357, GT7,fig. Men. 
Anthrop. Soc. iii. ; MS. Cat. 233—4. 

This is the barrow referred to by Thurnam as " Figheldean." 

Pittleton. 2 5. On Weather Hill, S. of Everley and W of the old 
Marlborough — Salisbury Road. Length about 150ft. N.E. and S.W. 
Opened by Thurnam, who does not seem to have published any 
account of the excavations beyond that in the summary list in Arch. 
xlii. The following entry, however, appears in the MS. Cat. : — " 255. 
Ancient British. Part of a very dolichocephalic calvarium obtained 
from the north broad end of a long barrow on Fittleton Down, near 
Chidbury Camp, Oct. 6, 1866. The barrow had been previously 
disturbed. There were indications of one skull only, and that ap- 
parently a female. Remains of Bos longifrons and horns of Cervus 
elephas ? scattered." 
The barrow stands on an uncultivated down in good condition with 
well defined ditches. It shows where it has been dug into, no doubt 
by Thurnam . This barrow is referred to by Thurnam as " Fittleton." 3 
O.M. 48 N W. ; A. W. I. Map of Everley Station ; Arch. xlii. 180 ; 
MS. Cat. No. 255. 

1 See Warminster 6. 

2 This is not the barrow opened by Wm. Cunnington in 1851, referred to 
in W.A.M. xxviii. 172. For that see below, List of barrows now destroyed, 
under Fittleton. 

3 Hoare shows two Long Barrows lying near each other on Weather Hill 
but there is no trace of the second barrow to be found now, and only one 
is shown on the O.M. As the down does not appear to have been under 
recent cultivation this was possibly an error of Hoare's. 



392 List of the Long Barrows of Wiltshire. 

For Long Barrows in Fittleton parish now destroyed see end of this 
list. 

Grafton. 5. On Wexcombe Down, to the N.E. of Jubilee Plantation. 
Length 83ft. N. and S. In excellent condition, standing on unculti- 
vated down land, and apparently unopened ; the ditches are unusually 
well defined and end abruptly at both ends of the mound in the 
orthodox way. The mound is rather flat and broad, with one or two 
depressions in it that may mark the place of interments— perhaps 
secondary ones. It appears rather as an oval mound on the O.M., 
and does not seem to have been previously noticed as a " Long " 
barrow. O.M. 43 N.W. 

Heddington. 3. On King's Play Down. Length 101ft. ; N.E. and S.W. 
Opened 1907 and found to cover one crouched skeleton of typical 
" Long " barrow character. Turf, in good condition, with well-defined 
ditches. The skull, etc., in Devizes Museum. O.M. 34 N W. ; A. W. 
II. Map of Calne and Swindon Stations ; W.A.M. xxxvi. 311 ; Smith 
p. 62 IV. A vii. c. 

Heytesbury. 1. " Bowl's Barrow," on Salisbury Plain overlooking the 
Wylye Valley. Length 150ft. (Cunnington, 1801); E. and W. Opened 
by Wm. Cunnington 1801 ; he found several secondary interments, 
and " at the base of the barrow was a floor of flints regularly laid, 
and on it the remains of several human bodies deposited in no regular 
order. It appeared therefore that they had been thrown promiscuously 
together, and a great pile of stones raised lengthways along the centre 
of the barrow over them." At this time fourteen skulls were counted. 
Later Wm. Cunnington made a second attempt both at the E. and 
W. ends ; at the former he found the heads and horns of seven or 
more oxen and a large cist (or grave) close to the skeletons. Re- 
opened by Thurnam, 1864, who found the remains of the skeletons 
as left by Wm. Cunnington. He also found a secondary interment 
of a skeleton "near the summit of the tumulus — probably of the 
Anglo-Saxon period." MS. Cat. 214. Again opened J 885 — 6 by 
Wm. and Henry Cunnington, who found some skeletons of the 
primary interment hitherto undisturbed, in all six skulls. 
This barrow has unfortunately suffered much disfigurement of late years. 
A pond has been made close to the edge of the mound, obliterating the 
ditch on the north side, and a large and unsightly iron tank has been 
erected on the eastern end of the mound. It is much to be regretted 
that this fine barrow should have been so defaced. O.M. 52 NE. ; 
A. W. I. 87 ; Arch. xlii. 180 ; W.A.M. xxiii. 1 18 ; xxiv. 104 ; Natural 
Review, 1865 ; MS. Cat. 210—214. 

Heytesbury. 4. On Heytesbury North Field, E. of Scratchbury Camp, 
and N.E. of Cotley Hill. Length 160ft. ; S. and N. Opened in 1800 
by Wm. Cunnington without success, and again later when, as well 
as the usual stratum of black earth, he found near the south and 
broad end " the remains of a great many human skeletons crossing 



By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 393 

each other in every direction, but the decayed state of the bones 
prevented him from ascertaining the number of bodies." 

This mound has been much spread about as a result of cultivation, and 
the ditches have been obliterated ; it is still under cultivation. This 
is the barrow referred to by Thurnam as " Heytesbury." 

O.M. 52 SW. ; A. W. I. 71 ; Arch. xlii. 180. 

Kennet. 1. " East Kennet Long Barrow." Length 344ft. ; S.E. and N.W. 
Included by Thurnam in his list of chambered barrows. Not opened. 1 
Planted with trees, no ditches visible, standing on ploughed ground. 
O.M. 35 NW. ; A.W. II. Map of Marlborough Station ; Arch. xlii. 
203 ; Smith p. 179, XII. H. vii. a ; Proc. Arch. Inst. Salisbury 98 ; 
Stukeley, Abury, 46. 
For Kennet, West, see wider Avebury. 

Knook. 2. "Knook Barrow," on Knook Down, E. of the "British 
Village." Length 90ft. (Hoare) ; a recent measurement 100ft. ; nearly 
N. and S. Opened by Wm. Cunnington 1801 — 2, when he found 
under a heap of flint and marl stones, and on a pavement of flints, a 
number of charred human and other animal bones, and charred wood ; 
the bones seemed to be those of seven or eight individuals. A 
secondary burial of four headless skeletons was also found near the 
centre of the mound, at a depth of about 18in. The barrow was re- 
opened by Thurnam without further result. This barrow stands on 
uncultivated down land and is in fair condition, but with some 
rabbits in it ; the ditches are distinct. O.M. 52 NE. ; A. W. I. 83 ; 
Arch. xlii. 180, 192 ; xv. 345. This is the barrow referred to by 
Thurnam as " Knook a." 

Knook. 5. On Knook Down, NE. of "Knook Barrow," E. of Bowl's 
Barrow, and N. of " Old Ditch." Length 78ft ; E. and W. Opened 
in 1801. Under the usual stratum of black earth three skeletons 
were found near the E. end, and a little to the W. of these another 
skeleton. This barrow stands on uncultivated down and is in fair 
condition. It is a small mound, flat, low, and broad ; the ditches 
are fairly well defined. O.M. 52 NE. ; A. W. I. 86 ; Arch. xlii. 180. 
Referred to by Thurnam as " Knook b." 

Knoyle, East, [la.] N. of road from Willoughby Hedge to Amesbury, 
about | mile E. of the 18th milestone. Length? S.E. and N.W. 
No opening recorded. Now down to grass, but shows every sign of 
having been formerly under the plough for many years. Much spread 
about and levelled, and now very inconspicuous. Not marked on 
the OM., the oblong mound shown on the site being the remnant of 
a round barrow shown by Hoare, which has also suffered much under 
the plough. O.M. 63, NE. ; A. W. I. Map of Stourton Station. 

1 It is stated by Wm. Long ( W.A.M. iv. 343, 1854) that " It was opened, 
a few years ago, by the Rev. M. Connor, of East Kennet." Nothing seems 
to be known of this " opening," and Dr. Thurnam speaks of it as " only 
attempted." Arch. xlii. 203. 



394 List of the Long Barrows of Wiltshire. 

Laverstock. 3. " Hand Barrow," about a mile N.E. of Old Sarum, f 
mile N. of Ford, on the S. side of the Portway. Length 1 48ft. ; N.N". E . 
and S.S. W. Nothing known of any opening. It is shown on Hoare's 
maps as two round barrows, but he speaks of it as " a tumulus called 
Hand Barrows, as if there were two mounds, but I am inclined to 
think they originally formed one long barrow." A. W. II. Roman 
JEra, 46. There are now dwarfish trees growing on the mound, but 
it is otherwise probably much in the same condition as when Hoare 
saw it. The ground round it is ploughed up to the edge of the 
mound, so that the ditches, if any, are entirely obliterated. A 
quantity of material has been taken away from the central part of 
the mound, giving somewhat the appearance of two distinct mounds, 
as at Corton Long Barrow {see under Boyton), but it is nowhere 
levelled down to the natural surface ; material has also been taken 
from the larger end, leaving a hollow. In spite of these dis- 
figurements, however, the mound still has decidedly the appearance 
of a "Long" barrow ; it is considerably wider at one end than the 
other and tapers off regularly almost to a point. O.M. 66 N.E. ; 
A. W. I. Station V., South, map only ; II. Roman 2Era 46. 

Luckington. 1. " Giant's Caves." Length 123ft. 1 ; E. and W. Cham- 
bered. Apparently rifled at some unknown period and the cists or 
chambers left uncovered. This barrow now appears as a mere untidy 
shapeless heap in a grass field, covered with bushes ; there are several 
large stones placed edgeways, half buried in the ground, that appear 
to be the ruins of at least three chambers ; one of these, oblong in 
shape, seems to be fairly complete except for any covering stones it 
may have had. O.M. 12 NW. ; A. W. II. 101—2 (quotes Aubrey and 
Childrey); Arch. xlii. 203. 

Milston. 1. On Brigmerston (or Brigmilston) Field, S. of Silk Hill. 
Length 1 ; N.E. and S.W. No recorded opening. Now down to 
grass, but formerly much ploughed over and thrown about ; ditches 
obliterated. O.M. 55 NW. ; A. W. I. Map of Everley Station. 

Milston. 22. On Brigmerston Down, E. of source of 9 mile river, and 
W. of the big " Ditch." Length about 100ft. ; S.E. and N. W. Does 
not appear to have been opened. Turf, in fair condition, apparently 
never ploughed. Ditch on S.W". side well defined, but on the other 
side obscured by an old trackway. O.M. 55 NW. Not shown by 
Hoare. 

Milston. 31. On Milston Down, to the N.W. of barrows 39, 40. 
Length 106ft. S.S. E. and N.N. W. No record of opening. Perhaps 
a doubtful " Long " barrow. It is a wide rather flat mound, some 
66ft. in width, rather larger at the southern end ; it can hardly be 
said that any ditch is distinguishable, but the fact that rabbits have 
burrowed a good deal on both sides, and not at the ends, suggests 
that there were side ditches only. It stands in a thin plantation, but 
there are no trees growing actually on the barrow. O.M. 55 NW. 



Present measurement, but no doubt longer originally. 



By Mrs, M. E. Cunnington. 395 

Milston. 39. On Milston Down, near the Hants border, close to, and 
N. of new military road from Bulford to Tedworth. Length 173ft ; 
E. and W. No recorded opening. Fine mound with well-defined 
ditches. The ground round it, though now down to grass, was for- 
merly under cultivation, but the barrow itself does not appear to 
have been cultivated. It is now badly infested by rabbits that have 
disfigured it a good deal. There is a distinct berm, or level space, 
between the inner edges of the ditches and the fringe of the mound.' 
O.M. 55 NW. ; A.W. I., Map of Everley Station ; Arch. xlii. 171. 

Milston. 40. On Milston Down, close to the last. Length 87ft ; 
E. and W. No recorded opening. This smaller barrow lies parallel 
with, and only 52 yards, measured from the nearest edges of their 
respective ditches, N. of the preceding one. Its ditches are quite 
evident, but the whole barrow seems to have been under cultivation 
for a short time ; it is now down to grass. It has, like the last, 
suffered much dilapidation from rabbits. It is unusual to find two 
Long Barrows close together; these two are the closest on record. 
O.M. 55 NW. ; Arch. xlii. 171. Not shown by Hoare. 

Milton Lilbourne. 7. 2 "Giant's Grave," on Kyneld Down, S. of the 
village of Milton Lilbourne. Length 315ft. (Thurnam); E.N.E. and 
W.S. W. Opened by Thurnam in 1865. " On the natural level, near the 
east end, a heap of three or four skeletons was found, the only perfect 
skull from which is of a remarkably long and narrow form. One of 
the other skulls had been forcibly cleft before burial. The only 
object found with the skeletons was a finely-worked leaf-shaped 
arrowhead of flint, close to one of the skulls." 

Thurnam also says " A moderately wide trench runs along each side, 
but is not continued round the ends of the barrow." There is now 
really no sign of a ditch on the S. side ; on the N. side it is quite 
evident, and very irregular in shape ; there is also the very unusual 
feature of a slight but distinct counterscarp on the outer edge of this 
ditch. 3 

A very fine barrow and placed in a commanding situation overlooking 
the Vale of Pewsey. In perfect preservation except for a large hole 
at the E. end, no doubt not filled up after Thurnam's excavation. 
O.M. 42, NW. ; A.W. I. 190; Arch. xlii. 180, 182, 194; Proc. Soc. 
Antiq. 2 S., III. 170 ; W.A.M. xi. 47 ; MS. Cat. 225. 

Netheravon. 6. On Netheravon Down, E. of Netheravon Bake, N.E. 
of the clump of trees known as Robin Hood Ball. Length 111ft. ; 
S.S.E. and N.N.W. Opened by Thurnam, who does not seem to 
have published any account of his discoveries beyond that in 
the summary list in Arch. xlii. The following entry, however, 

'This is an unusual feature that occurs in only a few other of the Wiltshire 
Long Barrows. See Brixton Deverill 2 and 7. 

2 This barrow is referred to by Thurnam as " Fyfield." 
3 I have never noticed this feature in any other Long Barrow. 
VOL, XXXVIII. — NO. CXXI. 2 D 



396 List of the Long Barrows of Wiltshire. 

appears in the MS. Gat.: — "No. 236. Ancient British. From a 
long barrow much degraded by the plough in the parish of N etheravon, 
and about \ a mile from the one in the parish of Figheldean. Ex- 
cavated by Dr. Thurnam, Sept. 21, 1865. Near the east end and about 
a foot below the surface on the chalk rock were the broken scattered 
bones of one or perhaps two skeletons from which I picked out the 
fragments from which this calvarium has been restored, also the 
lower jaw almost perfect. With these was the cleft fragment of a 
second skull, and a portion of a small female jaw." 

The mound is now very low, flat, and broad, and the ditches indistinct. 
It is turfed, and looks as if it had been down to grass for many years. 

O.M. 54 N.W. ; A. W. I. Map only, of Amesbury Station; Arch. xlii. 
180 ; MS. Cat. 236. 

Nettleton, 1. "Littleton Drew Barrow," 1 or " Lugbury," on the 
Nettleton — Littleton Drew parish boundary. Length 185ft. (Hoare) ; 
E. and W. A chambered, stone-built barrow, with two large upright 
stones and a third large flat stone leaning up against them, near the 
E. end of the mound. In 1821 Hoare 2 cut a trench 150ft. in length 
down the mound to the west of the standing stones, and found a 
burial of a single crouched skeleton on the floor of the barrow about 
30ft. from them, with a small pointed flint implement. After this 
the field came under cultivation, and in 1854 a stone cist or chamber 
was brought to light by the plough, and subsequently Mr. Poulett 
Scrope, the then owner, made a " complete examination " of the 
mound, when three other chambers, all on the south side, were found. 
In these there were nine, seven, and ten skeletons respectively, the 
fourth chamber being empty. 
The field is now down to grass, but the mound has been much spread 
about by cultivation, and the ditches are scarcely discernible. O.M. 
19 NW. ; A. W. II. 99, Roman JEra, 101—2; Arch. xlii. 200, 203, 
209 ; W.A.M. iii. 164 (Thurnam) ; Cr. Brit. PL 24 ; Gent. Mag. 
1822, xcii. 160 ; Hoare 's MS. (Devizes Museum), Pt. I. p. 160; MS. 
Cat. 56—65. 

Norton Bavant. 13. On Norton Down. Length 180ft. : E. and W". 
Opened by Thurnam, and the following note is from his MS. Cat. : 
" The barrow chiefly of chalk rubble appears to have contained no 

1 As Dr. Thurnam remarks both Aubrey and Sir B. C. Hoare connected 
the barrow with Littleton Drew rather than with Nettleton, because they 
had'an idea that the name "Drew" had some Druidical connection. 

2 Sir B. C. Hoare opened this barrow after his second volume of An. Wilts 
was published, and his account of the work is contained in a letter from him 
to the Gentleman's Magazine for 1822, referred to above; practically the 
whole of this letter is reprinted as an appendix to Poulett Scrope's History 
of Castle Combe (-p. 391). The fullest account of the barrow and of its con- 
tents is to be found in the paper by Thurnam in the Wilts Arch. Mag., also 
referred to above. 



i 



By Mrs. M. E. Gunnington. 397 

secondary interments, which were extensively searched for. There 
was no stratum of black earth, but under the eastern apex, on the 
floor of the barrow, was a confused mass of skeletons spread over a 
space about 8ft. long and 3ft. broad. Above these the flints were 
larger and more numerous, and mixed with an occasional small block 
of sarsen stone and of the ' Warminster burr ' of the upper greensand. 
The portions of skulls indicated at least 18 skeletons, though whether 
they had been buried here entire seemed doubtful from the small 
number of the long bones. Of the 18 I computed 8 of males, 5 of 
females, and 5 children. So far as can be made out, all were decidedly 
dolichocephalic, and 9 of the more perfect calvaria which have been 
preserved (at Cambridge) have a cephalic index varying from '63 to 
'73, and averaging '68. The only other relics found with these human 
remains consisted of a round battered nodule of flint weighing 3f lbs., 
the greater part of a curious rude shallow vase of black pottery with 
two handles. The paste is mixed with particles of small fossil oyster 
shells from the tertiary clay beds, it is thought of Hampshire. 
There was also one large horn of red deer with the human remains. 
The broken vase was in their midst, and had probably been deposited 
entire, though no part of the base was found. The flint nodule lay 
close to one of the skulls, nearly all of which present traces of having 
been broken, some of them perhaps with this very nodule. One 
skeleton lay rather apart from the others to the north, and the skull 
of this is the most perfect of the series, and remarkable as presenting 
no trace of having been cleft. The lower jaw is nearly perfect, the 
upper too much decayed to be restored. Excavated June 8th, 1866." 
This fine barrow stands on uncultivated down land ; the ditches are 
very well defined, and contrary to the usual rule are slightly longer 
at both ends than the mound itself. The mound shows in several 
places where it has been dug into. O.M. 52 NW. ; A. W. I. 67 ; Arch. 
xlii. 180, 182, 184, 194—5 ; Bull, de la Soc. d' Anthrop. 2 S. ii. 357, 677, 
fig. ; Mem. Anthrop. Soc. iii. 71 ; MS. Gat. 245—253. This is the 
barrow referred to by Thurnam as "Norton Bavant. 

Norton Bavant. 14. On Middleton Down, N.E. of Middle Hill, and 
N. of Scratchbury Camp. Length 84ft. ; S.E. and N.W. No recorded 
opening. It is planted with young trees and thickly covered with 
undergrowth; the ground' round it is under cultivation, and the 
ditches have been obliterated. It has probably been shortened by 
ploughing round it in former years. O.M. 52 N W. ; A. W. I. 67. 

Preshute. I. 1 On MantonDown, S.W. of Rockley, and N.W. of Manton 
House. Length 57ft. ; S.E. and N.W. Chambered. The chamber 
seems to have been uncovered, and probably rifled at some unknown 
period. Hoare speaks of the barrow as " a small long barrow, covered 
with heath and furze, having a fallen kistvaen at the east end. The 
mound appears to have been set round with stones." The Rev. A. C. 
Smith also describes it as being so covered with heath and furze as 



1 This barrow was referred to by Thurnam as " Rockley." 

2 D 2 



398 List of the Long Barrows of Wiltshire. 

" to be not easily discovered." This growth has now disappeared, 
the mound is grass-grown, and the partially-ruined chamber, or 
" kistvaen," as Hoare calls it, is quite clear. Most, if not all, the 
stones that once formed the chamber are still in situ, but several 
have fallen down. It was oblong in shape, with one large stone, that 
still stands, forming its back, or westernmost wall ; the side walls 
were formed by two stones, one on each side, and it was no doubt the 
collapse inwards of the one on the northern side that let down the 
large covering stone into the leaning position in which it now lies. 
Immediately in front of the two stones forming the side walls, i.e., to 
the eastward of them, are two fallen stones, so much buried in the 
ground, that it is not possible to see their size or shape ; it seems not 
improbable that these formed portals to the chamber. Of the stones 
that once stood round the mound three, or perhaps four, may still be 
seen lying partially buried. There is now what looks like a wide 
crack in the covering stone, and the stone is actually in two pieces. 
The Rev. A. 0. Smith states that this stone was split by workmen 
preparatory to breaking it up into building stone, but that fortunately 
he arrived on the scene in time to prevent further damage. O.M. 
28 NE. ; A. W. II. 43 ; Arch. xlii. 203 ; Smith p. 198, xiv. K. iv. a ; 
Proc. Soc. Ant. 2nd S. II. 309. 

Fresliute. 3a. The Dolmen known as the "Devil's Den," in Clatford 
Bottom. No recorded opening. This may be the chamber of a long 
barrow, or an erection never intended to be wholly covered, such as 
the standing stones at Littleton Drew (see under Nettleton). 
It was considered to be the remnant of a barrow by the Eev. W. C. 
Lukis, and by Sir R. C. Hoare. The latter says of it : " From the 
elevated ground ' on which this monument is placed, it is evident 
that it was intended as a part annexed to the sepulchral mound, and 
erected probably at the east end of it, according to the usual custom 
of primitive times." It consists of a massive covering stone resting 
on several uprights, which appear to have given somewhat under the 
weight imposed upon them. There are also several other recumbent 
sarsen stones which no doubt formed a part of the monument, what- 
ever its exact character may have been. 0.31. 28 SE. ; A. W. II. 43 ; 
Smith p. 202—3, XV. K. v. a ; Stukeley, Abury 49. 

Shalbourne, 5. In Great Botley Copse, N. of Tidcombe. Length 170ft. ; 
S. and N. No recorded opening. Now in a wood and thickly covered 
with undergrowth ; there is a large circular cavity at the south end 
that may show where it has been dug into. O.M. 43 ; A. W. I. 187. 

Shalbourne. [5a.] On Smay Down, E. of " The Hassock " and W. of 
old chalk pit. Length about 162ft. ; S.E. and N.W. It is said that 
this barrow has been opened and that skeletons were found, but there 
is no record of the opening, and no particulars seem to be known. 

1 This must refer to the artificial rising (the remnant of the mound) for 
it lies in a combe or " Bottom." 



By Mrs. M. E. Gunnington. 399 

Now dowD to grass, but it was formerly under cultivation and has 
been much levelled and flattened. Not on O.M. 43 N W. or in A. W- 

Sherrington. I. 1 Sherrington Barrow, about \ mile E. of Sherrington 
Church, and about 100 yards | south of the River Wylye. Length, 
according to Hoare, 108ft., at present 86ft. ; W.N.W. and E.S.E. 
(Hoare). Opened by Wm. Gunnington in 1804,when iseveral secondary 
interments were found, but no primary interment. Re-opened by 
Thurnam and the Rev. A. Fane in 1856 without further result. This 
mound has suffered much injury in the last 100 years from cultivation 
and other causes. It seems too high to have been ploughed over, but 
ploughing round it has |much reduced its size. There is a large 
crater-like hole at the east end, and the whole surface of the mound 
is irregular, much cut about, and untidy looking ; the field is now 
down to grass; there is no sign of ditches. On the O.M. it appears 
as an almost circular mound, as now in fact it is. O.M. 58 NE. ; 
A. W. I. 100 ; Arch. xv. (Gunnington, 1805) ; xlii. 180. 

Sherrington. 4. On the Boyton — Sherrington parish boundary, S. of 
Boyton Church, E. of Boyton Field Barn, on a conspicuous ridge of 
down. Length 150ft. ; E. and W. No recorded opening. It is shown 
on Hoare's Map of Wylye Station (S. of the village of Boyton) as 
opened, but there seems to be no mention of it in the text. It is 
not included in Thurnam's list of long barrows opened by Hoare and 
Cunnington, and there is only an incidental mention of it in Wm. 
Cunnington's account of " Barrows opened on the Manors of Corton, 
Boyton, and Sherrington " {Arch. xv. 338) although a sketch of the 
barrow is given on PL ~K.V~L.fig. 2. Only the fringe and a few feet 
at the western end of the mound remain, but it must once have been 
a very fine barrow, and very conspicuously situated. The mound 
appears to have been wide and high for its length, the width at the 
east end being now 64ft. It stands on cultivated ground with no 
trace of the ditches above ground. Labourers on the spot stated 
that the material of the mound had been taken away from time to 
time to mend the adjacent trackway. O.M. 58 NE. ; Arch. xv. 340, 
PL VI. fig. 2 ; A.W. I. Map of Wylye Station. 

Stockton. 1. "Stockton Barrow," N. of Stockton Works, S. of Sher- 
rington Clump. Length about 120ft. ; nearly N. and S. Opened 
by Hoare and Cunnington, who presumably found skeletons, as 
Hoare only says " a long barrow, which we opened, and found similar 
to those of the same class." It stands on ploughed ground, but the 
barrow itself does not appear to have been cultivated ; it is planted 
with trees but otherwise in good condition, and the ditches are still 
distinct. O.M. 58 SE. ; A. W. I. 107 ; Arch. xlii. 180. 

Sutton Veny. 2. In grass field to the N.N. W. of the old Church of St. 
Leonard. Hoare shows a " Long " barrow in this position. The 
O.M. shows it as a large circular mound, and in its present condition 



1 This is the barrow referred to by Thurnam and Hoare as " Sherrington.' 



400 List of the Long Barrows of Wiltshire. 

it has no resemblance to a " Long " barrow, but in deference to Hoare, 
who saw it in a more perfect condition, it must be regarded as one. 
It is of great size, and level on top, and now looks more like a " motte " 
mound than anything else. It is shown by Hoare as unopened, and 
as lying S. and N. O.M. 52 SW.; A. W. I. Map of Wylye Station. 

Tidcombe with Fosbury. 1. " Tidcombe Great Barrow," about \ mile 
S. of Tidcombe. Length 195ft. ; according to Lukis 188ft. ; S. and 
N. Chambered. Opened by country people in search for treasure 
about 1750 (Arch. viii. 91, note i.) who found a chamber at the E. end 
built of large sarsen stones, and it is said, containing only one skeleton. 
Opened again by the Rev. W. C. Lukis and Dr. Thurnam 1 without 
apparently further result. 
This once fine barrow has been much injured ; a large cutting has been 
made through the mound from end to end, and never filled up ; 
several large sarsen stones (that once formed the chamber?) are ex- 
posed at the southern end. The ground is under cultivation up to 
the fringe of the mound, and there is no sign of the ditches visible 
on the surface. O.M. 43 N" VV. ; A. W. 187 (this is only an incidental 
reference, and the barrow is not marked on the map of Everley 
" Station," but there are two round barrows shown in its place). 
A. W. ii. Roman JEra, 69, and Map of Roman Road, p. 67 ; Arch. 
viii. 91, note 1 ; xlii. 203, 229; W .A.M. viii. 155 (Lukis). 

Tilshead. 1. " Kill Barrow," on the Tilshead — Ohitterne All Saints 
parish boundary. Length 170ft. (Thurnam) ; S.E. and N.W. Opened 
by Thurnam in 1865.' At one time Thurnam believed this not to be a 
true " Long " barrow, but an oval one of the Bronze Age ; but he 
subsequently changed his opinion and compared its unusual features 
with those of the Long Barrow, Winterbourne Stoke 53 (Hoare's 
No. 3). " Both . . . yielded deposits of burnt bones covered and 
intermixed with a substance resembling mortar, many of the bones 
being tinged of a green colour. At Kill Barrow it was clear that 
several bodies had been burnt very imperfectly, some of the bones 
being merely charred. Others were stained a brilliant • green and 
blue, but chemical tests yielded no traces of copper. Under a pile 
of a white friable substance like half-dried shelly mortar, were curious 
masses of a sort of ossiferous breccia ; the burnt human bones, black, 
white, blue, and green, being closely cemented by calcareous matter. 
I am now convinced that both are Long barrows, and not Oval ones, 
as I had supposed." The MS. Cat. gives some details that may not 
be published elsewhere : — " The primary interment consisted of piles 
of burnt bones on the floor of the barrow at the east end. One of 
these to the east of the other, would have about filled a peck ; the 
other, 6ft. or 7ft. nearer the middle of the barrow, was in much greater 
quantity. These burnt bones were some of them curiously [mixed] 



1 This barrow is not included among the list of those opened by Thurnam 
Arch. xlii. 180. 



By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington. 401 

with burnt flints, sarsen chips, &c, into what I have called an ossi- 
ferous breccia, and many were stained of a beautifully vivid blue and 
green colour. These burnt bones were unequally burnt, and many 
merely charred were quite black. Above the bones the chalk rubble 
of the barrow was curiously changed into a delicate friable cream- 
coloured substance like burnt shells. I fancy this an imperfect lime, 
formed probably from the burnt bones having been deposited whilst 
hot. This substance was very abundant, and would probably have 
filled a bushel. 1 ' Two secondary burials of skeletons were found also. 
One was " one foot deep, — stretched at length, with head to the north 
(or N".N".W.) " The other skeleton was "in the same position, nearer 
the eastern end." It seems that the barrow was opened on two 
separate occasions. The skull from the first-mentioned secondary 
burial only, seems to have been sent to Cambridge. 

The barrow is unploughed and in good condition, but no distinguish- 
able ditch. O.M. 46 SW. ; AAV. I. 89; Arch, xliii. 297, note; 
Proc. Soc. Ant., 2 S., II. 427 ; W.A.M. xi. 42 ; xiv. 259 (name) ; MS. 
Cat. 258. 

Tilshead. 2. "Old Ditch" Barrow. Length 377ft. (Hoare) ; 380ft. 
(Thurnam) ; NE. and S.W. Opened, 1802, by Wm. Cunnington, who 
made a section 85ft. long from the E. end, but failed to find the 
primary burial ; he noticed the usual stratum of black sooty soil, 
and found two secondary burnt burials near the surface of the 
mound. He then cut a section at the VV. end and found three 
skeletons lying on a pavement of flints about 18in. above the floor 
of the barrow. In 1865 it was re-opened by Thurnam who made a 
large excavation near the E. end ; and only a few feet beyond where 
Cunnington had left off in 1802, he found the primary interment. 
The following account of the discovery is from the MS. Cat. " No. 235. 
Ancient British. From the great Long Barrow at Tilshead, near 
Old Ditch, excavated by Thurnam, September 29th, 1865. This 
(the primary interment) was found by us after great labour, and at a 
depth of ten feet under the highest point of the tumulus close to its 
eastern end. Here, at or below the base, was a pile of large flints 
mixed with a stratum of black earth, and below these was a small 
skeleton well preserved, in the contracted position and with head to 
the north. The skull was smashed, as I thought at first by the 
weight of the flints, but from the peculiar character of a contused 
cleft near the coronal border of the left parietal, it would appear to 
have been purposely cleaved before interment. Within a foot or 
two of the skeleton to the east, under the pile of flints, and on a sort 
of pavement of the same, were a heap of imperfectly burnt bones, in 
larger pieces than is usual in round barrows. This very exceptional 
deposit after cremation must have been made contemporaneously 
with that of the body to which th